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The Impact of Cooking on the Antioxidative and Antigenotoxic Effects of Rice

호화과정이 백미, 현미, 발아현미의 항산화 및 항유전 독성 활성에 미치는 영향

  • Kim, So-Yun (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University) ;
  • Seo, Bo-Young (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University) ;
  • Park, Eunju (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University)
  • 김소윤 (경남대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 서보영 (경남대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 박은주 (경남대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Received : 2013.04.01
  • Accepted : 2013.07.30
  • Published : 2013.09.30

Abstract

Rice is widely grown in Asia and is one of the major dietary staples in the world. Also, rice contains antioxidants which can prevent from oxidative stress related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Because the rice is consumed cooked, the effect of the cooking process on the antioxidative and antigenotoxic properties of rice is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cooking on the antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of white rice (WR), brown rice (BR), and germinated brown rice (GBR). The antioxidant activities were measured for total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH RSA), total antioxidant capacity (TRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The highest TPC was found in uncooked BR (18.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). After cooking, the TPC of WR significantly increased, while the TPC of BR and GBR were reduced by 47.7% and 36.7%, respectively. The $IC_{50}$ for DPPH RSA was not significantly different in uncooked rice, while the DPPH RSA of WR and GBR decreased after cooking and the DPPH RSA of BR significantly increased. TRAP values in BR and GBR increased after cooking, while the value of WR decreased. The ORAC values of uncooked WR, BR, and GBR were 5.3, 4.3, and $3.9{\mu}M$ trolox equivalent at the concentration of $50{\mu}g/mL$. After cooking, the ORAC value of BR remained unchanged, while the value of GBR increased and the value of WR decreased. The antigenotoxic activities of WR, BR, and GBR were determined by measuring the inhibitory effects of $H_2O_2$-induced DNA damage on human leukocytes using the comet assay. The results showed that all rice tested showed a significant antigenotoxic effect against oxidative stress, except for the cooked white rice. Overall, our results indicate the addition of brown rice and/or germinated brown rice to cooked white rice is a good option for improving the benefits of rice.

쌀은 우리의 중요한 주식으로 대부분 취반과정을 통하여 호화시킨 형태로 섭취하는 것이 일반적이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 백미, 현미, 발아현미 세 종류 쌀을 이용하여 총 폴리페놀 함량(TPC)과 항산화 활성(DPPH 라디칼 소거능, TRAP, ORAC assay) 및 항유전 독성을 분석하고 호화과정에 따른 생리활성의 변화를 살펴보고자 하였다. 총 페놀함량에서 현미와 발아현미는 호화 후 함량이 유의적으로 감소하였으나 백미는 유의적으로 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다. DPPH 라디칼 소거능의 $IC_{50}$값을 비교한 결과, 백미는 호화과정을 거친 후에는 최고 농도를 제외한 농도에서 활성이 나타나지 않아 $IC_{50}$값을 산출할 수 없었으며 발아현미의 경우 호화전 3.3 mg/mL에서 호화 후 4.2 mg/mL로 증가한 반면, 현미는 호화 전 3.5 mg/mL에서 호화 후 3.1 mg/mL로 증가하였다. 총 항산화능을 측정한 TRAP 분석에서는 호화 전 백미와 발아현미의 경우 $16.7{\mu}g/mL$에서부터 농도 의존적으로 수치가 증가하였으나, 현미의 경우 백미와 발아현미에 비해 낮은 TRAP 수치를 나타내었다. 호화 후 백미는 TRAP 수준이 낮아진 반면 현미와 발아현미의 TRAP 수준은 높아지는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. ORAC assay 결과 또한 세 가지 종류의 쌀을 비교하였을 때, 호화 전의 경우 백미가 $5.1{\pm}0.2{\mu}M$ TE로 가장 높았으나 호화 후 백미의 활성은 감소한 반면 현미와 발아현미는 증가하여 TRAP과 유사한 경향을 나타내었다. 산화적 스트레스에 의한 DNA 손상 억제 효과는 백미의 경우 호화 전과 후 모두 양성대조군과 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 반면 현미와 발아현미의 경우 호화 전후에 상관없이 양성대조군에 비해 DNA 손상을 보호하는 효과를 나타내었으며 각 시료의 농도 간 유의적 차이는 없는 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 결과를 종합해보면, 호화과정을 거친 후 쌀을 섭취 시 백미보다 현미 또는 발아현미를 섭취하는 것이 건강에 더 유익할 것이라고 판단된다.

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