Investigation of Dietary Lysophospholipid (LipidolTM) to Improve Nutrients Availability of Diet with In Vitro Rumen Microbial Fermentation Test

  • Received : 2013.08.30
  • Accepted : 2013.09.13
  • Published : 2013.09.30


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of biological membrane transfer modifier, lysophospholipd (LPLs) on the parameters from in vitro rumen simulated fermentation. Commercially available LPLs product (Lipidol$^{TM}$) was supplemented into experimental diets which consisted of orchard grass and concentrate diet (60:40) in different levels (0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%). Then in vitro rumen simulated fermentation was performed. Although, a declining trend of pH was found in treatments, all pH values were detected in a range relevant to normal rumen fermentation. Gas production, ammonia nitrogen and total VFA production were greatly influenced by the supplementation of LPLs. All parameters were increased along with increased levels of LPLs in diet. As a result, 0.1% of Lipidol$^{TM}$ is recommended based on the determined in vitro rumen fermentative parameters in this study.


Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development

Supported by : Rural Development Administration


  1. Calabro, S., Infascelli, F., Bovera, F., Moniello, G. and Piccolo, V. 2001. In vitro degradability of three forages: fermentation kinetics and gas production of NDF and neutral detergent soluble fraction of forages. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 82:222-229.
  2. Chanjula, P., Wanapat, M., Wachirapakorn, C. and Rowlinson, P. 2004. Effect of synchronizing starch sources and protein (NPN) in the rumen on feed intake, rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient utilization and performance of lactating dairy cows. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 17:1400-1410.
  3. Dewhurst, R.J., Wadhwa, D., Borgida, L. P. and Fisher, W. J. 2001. Rumen acid production from dairy feeds. 1. Effects on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows offered grass or corn silages. Journal of Dairy Science. 84:2721-2729.
  4. Erwin, E.S., Marco, J. and Emery, E. M. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. Journal of Dairy Science. 44:1768-1771.
  5. Felix, T.L. and Loerch, S.C. 2011. Effects of haylage and monensin supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing 60% dried distillers grains. Journal of Animal Science. 89:2614-2623.
  6. Gizzi, G., Zanchi, R. and Sciaraffia, F. 1998. Comparison of microbiological and fermentation parameters obtained with an improved rumen in vitro technique with those obtained in vivo. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 73:291-305.
  7. Hishikawa, D., Shindou, H., Kobayashi, S., Nakanishi, H., Taguchi, R. and Shimizu, T. 2008. Discovery of a lysophospholipid acyltransferase family essential for membrane asymmetry and diversity. Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105:2830-2835.
  8. Krishnamoorthy, U., Steingass, H. and Menke, K.H. 1991. Preliminary observation on the relationship between gas production and microbial protein synthesis in vitro. Archives of Animal Nutrition. 41:521-526.
  9. Kung, L.J. 1999. Direct-fed microbial and enzyme feed additives. In: Direct-Fed Microbial, Enzyme and Forage Additive Compendium (Ed. S. Muirhead). The Miller Publishing Co., Minnetoka, MN. 4:37.
  10. Lee, H.J., Lee, S.C., Kim, J.D., Oh, Y.G., Kim, B.K., Kim, C.W. and Kim, K.J. 2003. Methane production potential of feed ingredients as measured by in vitro gas test. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 16:1143-1150.
  11. Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K. and Rodwell, V.W. 2006. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry, 27TH Edition. (The McGraw-Hill Companies, USA.).
  12. Oliveira, L.A., Jean-Blain, C., Komisarczuk-Bony, S., Durix, A. and Durier, C. 1997. Microbial thiamin metabolism in the rumen simulating fermenter (RUSITEC): the effect of acidogenic conditions, a high sulfur level and added thiamin. British Journal of Nutrition. 78:599-613.
  13. Russell, J.B. and Dombrowski, D.M. 1980. Effect of pH on the efficiency of growth by pure culture of rumen bacteria in continuous culture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 39: 604-610.
  14. Shier, W.T., Baldwin, J.H., Nilsen-Hamilton, M., Hamilton, R.T. and Thanassi, N.M. 1976. Regulation of guamylate and adenylate cyclase activities by lysolecithin. Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 73: 1586-1590.
  15. Shinozaki, K. 1959. Studies on experimental bloat in ruminants. 5. Effects of various volatile fatty acids introduced into the rumen on the rumen motility. Tohoku journal of agricultural research. 9: 237-238.
  16. Smith, W.R., Yu, I. and Hungate, R.E. 1973. Factors affecting celluloysis by Ruminococcus albus. Journal of Bacteriology. 114: 729-737.
  17. Stewart, C.S. 1977. Factors affecting the cellulolytic activity of rumen contents. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 33: 497-502.
  18. Tagesson, C., Franzen, L., Dahl, G. and Westrom, B. 1985. Lysophosphatidylcholine increase rat ileal permeability to macromolecules. Gut. 26:369-377.
  19. Templeton, J.A. and Dyer, I.A. 1967. Diet and supplemental enzyme effects on Volatile fatty acids of bovine rumen fluid. Journal of Animal Science. 26:1374-1378.
  20. Terry, R.A., Tilley, J.M. A. and Outer, G.E. 1969. Effect of pH on cellulose digestion under in vitro conditions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 20:317-322.
  21. Tilley, J.M.A. and Terry, R.A. 1963. A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society. 18:104-111.
  22. Troelsen, J.E. and Donna, H.J. 1966. Ruminant digestion in vitro as affected by inoculum donor collection day, and fermentation time. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 46:149-156.
  23. Wanapat, M., Pilajun, R. and Kongmun, P. 2009. Ruminal ecology of swamp buffalo as influenced by dietary sources. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 151:205-214.
  24. Xing, J.J., Van Heugten, E., Lit, D.F., Touchetter, K.J., Coalson, J.A., Odgaard, R.L. and Odel, J. 2004. Effects of emulsification, fat encapsulation and pelleting on weanling pig performance and nutrient digestibility. Journal of Animal Science. 82:2601-2609.
  25. Yoon, I.K. and Stern, M.D. 1995. Influence of direct-fed microbials on ruminal fermentation and performance of ruminants: a review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 8:533-555.
  26. Yost, W.M., Young, J.W., Schmidt, S.P. and Mcgilliard, A.D. 1977. Gluconeogenesis in ruminants: propionic acid production from a high-grain diet fed to cattle. Journal of Nutrition. 107:2036-2043.

Cited by

  1. Effect of Dietary Lysophospholipid (LIPIDOL™) Supplementation on the Improvement of Forage Usage and Growth Performance in Hanwoo Heifer vol.35, pp.3, 2015,