A Comparative Study on Protected Area Management in South Korea, Japan and China

한·일·중 3국의 보호지역 관리 비교연구

  • Lee, Min-Ju (Department of Landscape Architecture, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Lee, Gwan-Gyu (Department of Landscape Architecture, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Sung, Hyun-Chan (Department of Green & Landscape Architecture, Dankook University) ;
  • Lee, Dong-Kun (Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Hyun-Woo (Korea Environment Institute) ;
  • Kim, Joon-Soon (Department of Forest Management, Kangwon National University)
  • 이민주 (강원대학교 산림환경과학대학 조경학과) ;
  • 이관규 (강원대학교 산림환경과학대학 조경학과) ;
  • 성현찬 (단국대학교 생명자원과학대학 녹지조경학과) ;
  • 이동근 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학 조경.지역시스템공학부) ;
  • 이현우 (한국환경정책.평가연구원) ;
  • 김준순 (강원대학교 산림환경과학대학 산림경영학과)
  • Received : 2012.09.05
  • Accepted : 2012.12.17
  • Published : 2013.02.28


This study has been carried out with the purpose of coming up with suggestions for designation of domestic protection areas and improvement of their management through a comparative analysis of the systems of management of the protection areas in South Korea, Japan and China. Starting with the designation of natural reserves in 1962, South Korea has prepared legal systems for preserving ecosystems and biodiversity, while continuing to designate protected areas. As the state has so far monopolized the designation and management of all South Korean protection areas that take up 10.8% of its entire land area (as of Dec. 2011), with such persisting issues as multiple designations of one and the same area for protection, overlapping management authorities, and management of privately owned land in the protection areas. In Japan, which has protected area sizes and relevant legal systems similar to those in South Korea, the state provides the basic framework for management, while delegating most of the duties related to direct operation and management to specific municipalities. China, with an integrated administrative management of protected areas, has related government offices and municipalities responsible for the designation and management of individual protected areas. South Korea needs to provide a legally based support system that would further enhance the value of areal protection and contribute to the promotion of local economy and community.


  1. Cho, Y. H. and Y. K. Lee. 2010. A study on surveying and improving management of protected areas in Korea. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture 38(1) : 64-73. (in Korean with English summary)
  2. Choe, J. C..Shin, H. C..Park, S. K..Cho, D. S. and O. S. Kwon. 2010. Biodiversity is our life. Seoul : Kung-Ree. (in Korean)
  3. Environmental Information Center. 2011. China environment news (2011. 1. 25). Press release. (in Chinese)
  4. Environmental Information Center. 2011. China environment news (2011. 5. 19). Press release. (in Chinese)
  5. Gordon, J. and J. Coppock. 1997. Ecosystem management and economic development, in Marian F. Chertow and Daniel C. Esty eds., Thinking ecologically : The next generation of environmental policy. pp. 39-40.
  6. Grumbine, R. E. 1994. What is ecosystem management?, Conservation biology. 8 : 31.
  7. Heo, H. Y.․Kim, B. H. and J. K. Choi. 2011. Consideration of discussion trends of the convention on biological diversity - with focus on the 10th conference of the parties on biological diversity convention-. Proceedings of the Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture 2011 : 18-21. (in Korean with English summary)
  8. Ishii, I. and A. Yuzawa. 2005. Environmental planning introduction. Kajima publishing co. ltd. (in Japanese)
  9. Jin, Y. H. 2009. Nature protection and nature reserve policy in China. Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environment and Ecology 19(1) : 7-20. (in Korean with English summary)
  10. Jo, T. D. 2004. Study on comparison of korean and japanese national park systems from the conservation perspective. Journal of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society 13(10) : 871-882. (in Korean with English summary)
  11. Jung, H. Y.․Kim, J. S. and G. G. Lee. 2011. Considerations of countermeasure tasks in the fields of forest and forestry in Korea through case study on "The Nagoya Protocol (Access to genetic resources and benefit sharing)". Journal of Korean Forest Society 100(3) : 522-534. (in Korean with English summary)
  12. Kim, B. H. 2012. Enhancing management system of the protected areas in Korea. Ph. D. Dissertation. University of Seoul. (in Korean with English summary)
  13. Kim, M. S.․Choi, Y. K.․Jeon, D. Y.․Park, J. E. and Y. M. Seo. 2007. Category classification and systematic management of protected areas for effective territorial resources management. Research report of Korea Research Institute For Human Settlements. (in Korean)
  14. Kwon, Y. H.․Ro, T. H.․Lee, H. W. and H. L. Choung. 2006. Introduction plan of biological diversity items in environment assessment. Research report of Korea Environment Institute. (in Korean)
  15. Lee, G. C. 2001. A study on the Implementation system of the biodiversity management agreement. Research report of Ministry of Environment. (in Korean)
  16. Lee, G. G. and D. G. Jo (Trans). 2011. Biodiversity conservation and environmental policy. Hatakeyama, T. and K. Hiroaki., Biodiversity conservation and environmental policy. Seoul : Rainbow Books. (Original work published 2006). (in Korean)
  17. Lee, G. G.․Rho, P. H.․Lee, H. W.․Lee, J. H.․ Jeon, Y. W.․Kim, M. S.․Kim, J. M.․Lee, M. J. and S. H. Jo. 2007. Guidance for planning and management of wildlife sanctuary, Korea. Research report of Ministry of Environment. (in Korean)
  18. Ministry of Environment. 2010. 2010 Business enforcement policy of contract of biological diversity management. (in Korean)
  19. Ministry of Environment. 2011a. 2011 Business enforcement policy of contract of biological diversity management. (in Korean)
  20. Ministry of Environment. 2011b. Materials for conservation area designation status. (in Korean)
  21. Ministry of Environment. 2011c. Operational plans of natural environment conservation and major pending issues. (in Korean)
  22. Ministry of the Environment. 2011d. For coexistence of people and nature. (in Japanese)
  23. Ministry of the Environment. 2011e. Designation status of nature conservation area in Japan. Japan Integrated Biodiversity Information System. (in Japanese)
  24. Nikko Nature Conservation Office. 2011. National forest field enforcement plan maps of Nikko National Park. (in Japanese)
  25. Park, S. J. and S. J. Choi. 2008. National strategy for accessing marine genetic resources and benefit sharing - Focusing on the convention on biological diversity. Research report of Korea Maritime Institute. (in Korean)
  26. Park, Y. G. 1994. Strategy for biodiversity and genetic conservation of forest resources in Korea. Journal of Korean Forest Society 83(2) : 191-204. (in Korean with English summary)
  27. Park, Y. H. 2006. A study on advanced foreign countries' managing technology of conservation areas. Research report of Ministry of Environment. (in Korean)
  28. Park, Y. H.․Lee, H. W.․Kim, K. G.․Lee, G. G.․Choi, J. Y.․Heo, S. J. and G. W. Seo. 2008. Development of designation criteria for ecological protected areas and its application methodology. Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment 17(3) : 177-188. (in Korean with English summary)
  29. Park, Y. H.․Lee, H. W.․Kim, K. G.․Lee, G. G.․Seo, G. W.․Kyung, J. H.․Park, J. H. and S. J. Heo. 2007. A study on objectification of eco-system conservation area designation criteria. Research report of Ministry of Environment. (in Korean)
  30. Shin, W. W.․Kim, J. W.․Choi, J. K.․Heo, H. Y. and B. H. Kim. 2009. A management system for protected areas and DMZ, peninsula of Korea. Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environment and Ecology 19(1) : 109-113. (in Korean with English summary)
  31. State Environmental Protection Administration and State Technical Supervision Bureau. 1994. Principle for categories and grades of nature reserves. National standard of the people's republic of China GB/T 14529-93. (in Chinese)
  32. State Environmental Protection Administration. 2004. China nature reserves (2003). China Environmental Science Press. (in Chinese)
  33. State Environmental Protection Administration. 2006. Measures for the supervision and inspection of national nature reserves. Order of the state environmental protection administration. No. 36. (in Chinese)
  34. State Forestry Administration. 2001. Introduction to modern management of nature reserve. China Forestry Publishing House. (in Chinese)
  35. State Forestry Administration. 2002. Guideline for cooperative management. China Forestry Publishing House. (in Chinese)
  36. Tokyo Metropolitan Government. 2011. Statistic of protected areas. (in Japanese)
  37. UNEP CBD. 1992. Convention on biological diversity.
  38. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2010. The arctic biodiversity assessment (ABA). International expert workshop on the 2010 biodiversity indicators and post - 2010 indicator development.
  39. United Nations․CBD and UNEP. 2011. Strategic plan for biodiversity 2011 - 2020 and the aichi targets "Living in harmony with nature."
  40. Environmental Health Department homepage

Cited by

  1. Application of IUCN Category Regarding the Designation of Overlapping Protected Areas vol.23, pp.2, 2014,