Calcium Ionization Characteristics and In vitro Bioavailability Derived from Natural Calcium Sources

천연칼슘소재의 이온화 특성 및 In vitro 칼슘 이용률

  • Jang, Se-Young (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Keimyung University, KMF Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Jeong, Yong-Jin (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Keimyung University, KMF Co., Ltd.)
  • 장세영 (계명대학교 식품가공학과, (주)KMF) ;
  • 정용진 (계명대학교 식품가공학과, (주)KMF)
  • Received : 2012.11.26
  • Accepted : 2013.03.08
  • Published : 2013.04.30


This study examined the characteristics of ionized calcium and in vitro calcium bioavailability rate of calcium from four natural sources: shellfish shell, oyster shell, starfish, egg shell. The levels of dissolved calcium and calcium ions increased at different concentrations of natural calcium (up to 8.0% (w/v)). However, there were insignificant differences in the levels of dissolved calcium and calcium ions between samples at calcium concentrations above 8.0% (w/v). In addition, no significant differences were observed (depending on the calcium source and concentration) with an ionization yield of about 90%. The temperature of the solutions also had little influence on the ionization of calcium. The highest calcium ion content was observed when solutions were left to dissolve calcium for 18 hours. The highest in vitro calcium bioavailability rate achieved among the different calcium solutions was BS (67.3%), with overall bioavailability rates about two times higher than the rates observed in commercially sold calcium supplements and natural calcium. In addition, the in vitro calcium bioavailability rate for ionized calcium in market milk, soy milk, and orange juice was more than twice as high as calcium carbonate. Overall, we expect a high and diverse bioavailability of ionized calcium from natural resources.

본 연구에서는 4종의 천연칼슘소재를 이용하여 칼슘 이온화 특성 및 in vitro 칼슘 이용률을 조사하였다. 천연칼슘소재는 8.0%(w/v) 첨가농도까지 칼슘용해량과 칼슘이온 함량은 증가하였으나 이상의 농도에서는 큰 변화는 없었다. 또한 이온화율은 약 90%로, 칼슘소재와 첨가농도에 따른 큰 차이는 나타나지 않았다. 칼슘의 이온화에 용해온도는 큰 영향이 없었으며, 용해 18시간째 가장 높은 칼슘이온 함량을 나타났다. 칼슘액 중 BS의 in vitro 칼슘 이용률은 67.3%로 가장 높게 나타났으며, AS는 62.4%, DS는 57.9%, CS는 57.5%로 시판 칼슘제 및 천연칼슘소재에 비해서 약 2배 정도 높게 나타났다. 시판 우유, 두유 및 오렌지 주스의 in vitro 칼슘 이용률을 조사한 결과 탄산칼슘보다 이온화 칼슘액을 첨가한 구간에서 2배 이상 높게 나타났다. 따라서 천연칼슘소재의 이온화 칼슘은 생체 이용율이 높은 다양한 식품소재로 활용이 기대된다.



  1. Lee BJ, Kim SK. 2005. Research trend of calcium materials and development of water-soluble natural calcium agents with phosphorylated peptide from fish bone. Food Industry and Nutrition 10(2): 40-45.
  2. Lee HS. 2004. A study on calcination characteristics of Corbicula japonica and Ostrea viginica. Kor J Env Hlth 30: 427-431.
  3. Shin HS, Kim KH, Yoon JR. 1998. Rheological properties of cooked noodle fortified with organic acids-eggshell calcium salts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 30: 1197-1202.
  4. Park HY. 2003. Development of industrialization technology with starfish. Food Industry and Nutrition 8(3): 18-22.
  5. Kang JH, Kim JH, Lee HC. 1996. A study on the development of manufacturing process of high grade precipitated calcium carbonate from oyster shell. J Korean Solid Wastes Engineering Society 13: 320-327.
  6. Go CH, Song HS, Yun J, Kwak JP. 2002. Fabrication of calcium phosphates from starfish. J Advanced Materials 14:71-76.<71::AID-ADMA71>3.0.CO;2-W
  7. Cho ML, Heu MS, Kim JS. 2001. Calcination condition for recovery of calcium from cuttle bone and characteristics of calcined cuttle bone powder. J Korean Fish Soc 34: 600-604.
  8. Kim JS, Cho ML, Heu MS, Cho TJ, An HJ, Cha YJ. 2003. Solubility improvement of cuttle bone powder using organic acids. J Korean Fish Soc 36: 11-17.
  9. Ko MK, No HK. 2002. Preparation of calcium lactate from ostrich egg shell. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 31: 241-245.
  10. Ko MK, No HK. 2002. Studies on characteristics of ostrich egg shell and optimal ashing conditions for preparation of calcium lactate. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 31: 236-240.
  11. Lee MY, Lee YK, Kim SD. 2004. Quality characteristics of calcium acetate prepared with vinegars and ash of black snail. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 33: 593-597.
  12. Kang MS, Soh GS, Shin DH. 2005. Purity improvement of calcium lactate and calcium citrate prepared with shell of Anadarac tegillarca granosa. J Fd Hyg Safety 20: 128-133.
  13. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Optimal Calcium Intake. 1994. Optimal calcium intake: NIH Consensus conference. JAMA 272: 1942-1948.
  14. Ministry of Health and Welfare. 1999. Report on 1998 national health and nutrition survey. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Seoul, Korea.
  15. Greger JL. 1988. Calcium bioavailability. Cereal Foods World 33: 796-799.
  16. Calvo MS. 1994. The effects of high phosphorous intake on calcium homeostasis. Adv Nurt Res 9: 183-207.
  17. Sheikh MS, Santa Ana CA, Nicar MJ, Schiller LR, Fordtran JS. 1987. Gastrointestinal absorption of calcium from milk and calcium salts. N Engl J Med 317: 532-536.
  18. Heaney RP, Recker RR, Weaver CM. 1990. Absorbability of calcium sources: the limited role of solubility. Calcif Tissue Int 46: 300-304.
  19. Smith KT, Heaney RP, Flora L, Henders SM. 1987. Calcium absorption from a new calcium delivery system (CCM). Calcif Tissue Int 41: 351-352.
  20. Chung HR. 2003. Dietary supplements and food labeling. Food Industry and Nutrition 8(2): 60-65.
  21. Miller DD, Schricker BR, Rasmussen RR, Van Campen D. 1981. An in vitro method for estimation of iron availability from meals. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 2248-2256.
  22. Jang SY, Baek CH, Jeong KH, Park NY, Jeong YJ. 2005. Effect of vinegar on the solubility of calcium. Korean J Food Preserv 12: 112-116.
  23. Lee SK, Park JH. 2002. Studies of egg-shell calcium (I)-The effects of elution condition of egg-shell calcium on elution quantity and ionization rate-. J Fd Hyg Safety 17: 183-187.
  24. Shin HS, Kim KH. 1997. Preparation of calcium powder from eggshell and use of organic acids for enhancement of calcium ionization. Agric Chem Biotechnol 40: 531-535.
  25. Roig MJ, Alegria A, Barbera R, Farre R, Lagarda MJ. 1999. Calcium bioavailability in human milk, cow milk and infant formulas-comparison between dialysis and solubility methods. Food Chem 65: 353-357.
  26. Shen LH, Luten J, Robberecht H, Bindels J, Deelstra H. 1994. Modification of an in-vitro method for estimating the bioavailability of zinc and calcium from foods. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 199: 442-445.
  27. Weingartner KE, Nelson AI, Erdman Jr JW. 1983. Effects of calcium addition on stability and sensory properties of soy beverage. J Food Sci 48: 256-257.
  28. Hirotsuka M, Taniguchi H, Narita H, Kito M. 1984. Calcium fortification of soy milk with calcium-lecithin liposome system. J Food Sci 49: 1111-1112.
  29. Jeong KH, Seo JH, Kim JH, Kim KS, Jeong YJ. 2006. Monitoring on characteristics of soybean flour hydrolyzed by various proteolytic conditions. Korean J Food Preserv 13:71-76.
  30. Mehansho H, Kanerva RL, Hudepohl GR, Smith KT. 1989. Calcium bioavailability and iron-calcium interaction in orange juice. J Am Coll Nutr 8: 61-68.
  31. Jo JH, Jang HJ, Cho SM, Lee YB. 2005. Effects of ethanol and organic acids on color, fishy odor and in vitro absorption rate of calcium of dried large anchovy. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 1472-1477.
  32. Lucarini M, Canali R, Cappelloni M, Di Lullo G, Lombardi- Boccia G. 1999. In vitro calcium availability from brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L.) and as consumed in composite dishes. Food Chem 64: 519-523.