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Ginsenoside Rg2 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Adhesion Molecule Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell

  • Cho, Young-Suk (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Chan Hyung (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Ha, Tae-Sun (Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Lee, Sang Jin (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Ahn, Hee Yul (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University)
  • Received : 2013.01.02
  • Accepted : 2013.03.12
  • Published : 2013.04.30

Abstract

Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), P- and E-selectin play a pivotal role for initiation of atherosclerosis. Ginsenoside, a class of steroid glycosides, is abundant in Panax ginseng root, which has been used for prevention of illness in Korea. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) by which ginsenoside Rg2 may inhibit VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expressions stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). LPS increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. Ginsenoside Rg2 prevented LPS-mediated increase of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. On the other hand, JSH, a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) inhibitor, reduced both VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression stimulated with LPS. SB202190, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and wortmannin, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor, reduced LPS-mediated VCAM-1 but not ICAM-1 expression. PD98059, inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) did not affect VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression stimulated with LPS. SP600125, inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), reduced LPS-mediated ICAM-1 but not VCAM-1 expression. LPS reduced IkappaB${\alpha}$ ($I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$) expression, in a time-dependent manner within 1 hr. Ginsenoside Rg2 prevented the decrease of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ expression stimulated with LPS. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg2 reduced LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC, in a concentration-dependent manner. These data provide a novel mechanism where the ginsenoside Rg2 may provide direct vascular benefits with inhibition of leukocyte adhesion into vascular wall thereby providing protection against vascular inflammatory disease.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Chungbuk National University

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