Integrative Modeling of Wireless RF Links for Train-to-Wayside Communication in Railway Tunnel

  • Pu, Shi (Institute of Modern Electronic Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering) ;
  • Hao, Jian-Hong (Institute of Modern Electronic Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
  • Published : 2012.04.30


In railway tunnel environment, the reliability of a high-data-rate and real-time train-to-wayside communication should be maintained especially when high-speed train moves along the track. In China and Europe, the communication frequency around 900 MHz is widely used for railway applications. At this carrier frequency band, both of the solutions based on continuously laid leaky coaxial cable (LCX) and discretely installed base-station antennas (BSAs), are applied in tunnel radio coverage. Many available works have concentrated on the radio-wave propagation in tunnels by different kinds of prediction models. Most of them solve this problem as natural propagation in a relatively large hollow waveguide, by neglecting the transmitting/receiving (Tx/Rx) components. However, within such confined areas like railway tunnels especially loaded with train, the complex communication environment becomes an important factor that would affect the quality of the signal transmission. This paper will apply a full-wave numerical method to this case, for considering the BSA or LCX, train antennas and their interacted environments, such as the locomotive body, overhead line for power supply, locomotive pantograph, steel rails, ballastless track, tunnel walls, etc.. Involving finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and uni-axial anisotropic perfectly matched layer (UPML) technique, the entire wireless RF downlinks of BSA and LCX to tunnel space to train antenna are precisely modeled (so-called integrative modeling technique, IMT). When exciting the BSA and LCX separately, the field distributions of some cross-sections in a rectangular tunnel are presented. It can be found that the influence of the locomotive body and other tunnel environments is very significant. The field coverage on the locomotive roof plane where the train antennas mounted, seems more homogenous when the side-laying position of the BSA or LCX is much higher. Also, much smoother field coverage solution is achieved by choosing LCX for its characteristic of more homogenous electromagnetic wave radiation.


  1. S. Pu, and J.-H. Wang, "Research on the receiving and radiating characteristics of antennas on high-speed train using integrative modeling technique", The 11th Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference 2009, Singapore, pp. 1072-1075, December 2009.
  2. S. Pu, J.-H. Wang, and Z. Zhang, "Estimation for small-scale fading characteristics of RF wireless link under railway communication environment using integrative modeling technique", Progress In Electromagnetics Research-PIER, Vol. 106, pp. 395-417, 2010.
  3. Y. P. Zhang, and Y. Hwang, "Theory of the radio-wave propagation in railway tunnels", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 1027-1036, 1998.
  4. A. M. Ghuniem, "Modes of electromagnetic wave propagation in circular concrete tunnels", Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 95-106, 2005.
  5. C. Briso-Rodríguez, J. M. Cruz, and J. I. Alonso, "Measurements and modeling of distributed antenna systems in railway tunnels", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 2870-2879, 2007.
  6. R. Hoppe, P. Wertz, F. M. Landstorfer, and G. Wolfle, "Advanced ray-optical wave propagation modelling for urban and indoor scenarios including wideband properties", European Transactions on Telecommunications, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 61-69, 2003.
  7. F. M. Landstorfer, "Wave propagation models for the planning of mobile communication networks", The 29th European Microwave Conference 1999, Munich, pp. 1-6, 1999.
  8. F. Sayadi, M. Ismail, N. Misran, and K. Jumari, "Radio coverage inside tunnel utilizing leaky coaxial cable base station", Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 16, pp. 2887-2896, 2009.
  9. S. P. Morgan, "Prediction of indoor wireless coverage by leaky coaxial cable using ray tracing", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 2005-2014, 1999.
  10. H. Cao, and Y. P. Zhang, "Radio propagation along a radiated mode leaky coaxial cable in tunnels", The 4th Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference 1999, Singapore, pp. 270-272, 1999.
  11. S. Pu, J.-H. Wang, and Y.-J. Li, "Calculation of the field distribution in a railway tunnel in presence of train using integrative modelling technique", The 15th International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation 2010, Macau, pp. 535-538, November 2010.

Cited by

  1. Scattering of Electric Field from Leaky Coaxial Cable in Confined Area vol.2017, 2017,