Relationships Between Cause of Cancer and Breast Cancer-Related Factors in Breast Cancer Survivors

  • Wang, Hsiu-Ho (School of Nursing, Yuanpei University & National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences) ;
  • Chung, Ue-Lin (The Graduate Institute of Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Western Nursing, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences)
  • Published : 2012.08.31


Aims: The purposes of this study were to (1) to identify the causes of cancer in breast cancer survivors in Taiwan; and (2) to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics and breast cancer-related factors on the cause of cancer. Materials and method: This study details the related investigative results on survivors with breast cancer using a descriptive and correlational design. A convenience sampling approach was employed. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the participants. Results: A total of 230 breast cancer survivors completed the questionnaire. Low-scoring cause of cancer participants were older adults (OR = 2.49, p<0.05) who were already of menopausal status (OR = 2.28, p < 0.05). Around 72% of particpants agreed high responsibility. Our breast cancer survivors felt stress had caused their breast cancer. Conclusion: These findings are helpful in understanding the relationship between cause of cancer and related factors in breast cancer survivors.


  1. Anderson KO, Getto CJ, Mendoza TR, et al (2003). Fatigue and sleep disturbance in patients with cancer, patients with clinical depression, and community-dwelling adults. J Pain Symptom Manage, 25, 307-18. DOI: 10.1016/S0885-3924(02)00682-6.
  2. Barnett GC, Shah M, Redman K, et al (2008). Risk factors for the incidence of breast cancer: do they affect survival from the disease? J Clin Oncol, 26, 3310-6.
  3. Carpenter JS, Elam JL, Ridner SH, et al (2004). Sleep, fatigue, and depressive symptoms in breast cancer survivors and matched healthy women experiencing hot flashes. Oncol Nurs Forum, 31, 591-8.
  4. Epstein DR, Dirksen SR (2007). Randomized trial of a cognitivebehavioral intervention for insomnia in breast cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum, 34, E51-9. DOI:10.1188/07.ONF.
  5. Ferrucci LM, Cartmel B, Turkman YE, et al (2011). Causal attribution among cancer survivors of the ten most common cancers. J Psychosoc Oncol, 29, 121-40.
  6. Gorsuch R (1983). Factor Analysis (2nd. Ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  7. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA: A Cancer J Clinical, 61, 69-90.
  8. Kacem M, Awatef M, Amel L, et al (2010). Withdrawn: effect of obesity at the pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among premenopausal Tunisian women with breast cancer. Obesity (Silver Spring). doi: 10.1038/oby.2010.101.
  9. Litton JK, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Warneke CL, et al (2008). Relationship between obesity and pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol, 26, 4072-7.
  10. Lu MH, Lin HR, Lee MD (2010). The experiences among older Taiwanese women facing a new diagnosis of breast cancer. Cancer Nurs, 33, 398-405.
  11. Lynn M (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nurs Res, 35, 382-5.
  12. MacMahon B (2006). Epidemiology and the causes of breast cancer. Int J Cancer, 118, 2373-8.
  13. Panjari M, Davis S, Fradkin P, et al (2011). Breast cancer survivors' beliefs about the causes of breast cancer. Psychooncology, 21, 724-9.
  14. Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC (2011). The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Summary and conclusions. Br J Cancer, 105, S77-81; doi: 10.1038/bjc.2011.489.
  15. Stewart DE, Cheung AM, Duff S, et al (2001). Attributions of cause and recurrence in long-term breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology 10, 179-83.
  16. Turner LB (2011). A meta-analysis of fat intake, reproduction, and breast cancer risk: an evolutionary perspective. Am J Hum Biol, 23, 601-8. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.21176.
  17. Wang C, Miller SM, Egleston L, et al (2010). Beliefs about the causes of breast and colorectal cancer among women in the general population. Cancer Causes Control, 21, 99-107.
  18. Yaw YH, Shariff ZM, Kandiah M, et al (2011). Weight changes and lifestyle behaviors in women after breast cancer diagnosis: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 13, 309.