A literature review on expansion of dental hygienists' radiography operations

치과위생사의 방사선 촬영업무의 확대에 대한 문헌적 고찰

  • Choi, Young-Suk (Dept. of Oral Microbiology, School of Dentistry & Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Kim, Jin-Kyoung (Dept. of Oral Microbiology, School of Dentistry & Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Jang, Jong-Hwa (Dept. of Dental Hygiene, Hanseo University) ;
  • Park, Yong-Duk (Dept. of Preventive and Social Dentistry & Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University)
  • 최영숙 (경희대학교 치과대학 구강미생물학교실) ;
  • 김진경 (경희대학교 치과대학 구강미생물학교실) ;
  • 장종화 (한서대학교 치위생학과) ;
  • 박용덕 (경희대학교 치과대학 예방사회치과학교실 및 구강생물연구소)
  • Received : 2009.02.25
  • Accepted : 2009.04.15
  • Published : 2009.06.30

Abstract

This study analyzes through the review of literature and laws the exposure time, clinical frequency, and radiation exposure of intraoral and extraoral radiography as well as of panoramic radiography performed by dental hygienists in dental clinics, compares the dental radiology curriculums of radiological science and dental hygiene departments, and proposes the expansion of dental hygienists' radiography operations. The radiology curriculums were compared between the radiological science and dental hygiene departments of colleges. For new analysis by radiography for dental diagnosis, the exposure time, radiation absorbed dose, effective dose, and number of days of natural radiation were compared by the type of oral radiation films and radiographical techniques proposed by domestic and international studies. The exposure time of panoramic radiography is 15 seconds and it takes about two minutes for completion, whereas the exposure time of the standard radiography is 0.2~0.8 seconds and it takes 10 times longer for completion of the radiography of full mouth than the panoramic radiography. The standard radiography can cause distortions of radiation at severely curved parts of dental arch and palatopharyngeal reflex. However, panoramic radiography can be performed even for lock jaw patients, causes less inconvenience to patients and is much simpler than the standard radiography. The percentage of dental clinics where radiography is performed by dental hygienists was 92.0%, and the percentage of standard film radiography by dental hygienists was 98% whereas the percentage of panoramic radiography by dental hygienists was 92%. For the absorbed dose which is an indicator of radiation exposure, the When the effective dose which is an indicator of the danger of radiation exposure was converted to the number of days of natural radiation, it was 3.3 days for panoramic radiography, but 13.9 days for the full mouth standard radiography by bisecting angle technique which was 4.2 times longer than the panoramic radiography. There were two colleges that had a dental radiology course with two credits in the departments of radiological science. The credits for dental radiology courses in the department of dental hygiene ranged varied by college, ranging from 3 to 8; on average, the theory course was 2.2 credits and the practice course was 2.02 credits. To summarize the above results, the percentage of dental clinics where panoramic radiography is performed by dental hygienists under the guidance of dentists is high. Panoramic radiography has become an essential facility for dental clinics. It is faster than standard film radiography and less dangerous due to low radiation exposure. Panoramic radiography is a simple mechanical job that does not require training of oral radiography by radiotechnologist. Because panoramic radiography is one of major operations which must be performed at all times in dental clinics, it must be designated as intraoral technique rather than extraoral technique, or legalized for inclusion in the scope of operations of dental hygienists.

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