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Relation between Dietary Habit and Nutrition Knowledge, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the Middle School Students in Seoul

서울시내 일부 중학생의 식습관, 영양지식과 주의력결핍 과잉행동장애와의 관계

  • Choi, Jin-Young (Department of Nutrition Education, The Graduate School of Education, Hanyang University) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Sun (Department of Food and Nutrition, Hanyang University)
  • 최진영 (한양대학교 교육대학원 영양교육) ;
  • 이상선 (한양대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2009.12.31

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to analyse the relation between dietary habit and nutrition knowledge, and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) in the middle school students in Seoul, Korea. Total study subjects were 631 students, 51.8% was male and 48.2% was female. In the assessment of predisposition of ADHD, 93% was normal group and 7% was ADHD group. As for the gender in ADHD group, 56.8% was male and 43.2% was female. Normal group showed the higher breakfast consumption rate than ADHD group (p < 0.05). Dietary habits were better in normal group than ADHD group. Nutrition knowledge scores of normal group was 7.38 out of 15 and scores of ADHD group was 5.77 out of 15 (p < 0.01). The nutrition knowledge score and the dietary habits score showed a positive correlation (p < 0.01). The nutrition knowledge score and snack meal purchasing frequency showed a negative correlation (p < 0.05). There are significant negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity score and nutrition knowledge score (p < 0.01). In conclusion, ADHD group showed lower level of nutrition knowledge and worse dietary habits than the normal group.

본 연구는 서울 지역 남녀 중학생 1, 2, 3학년 631명을 대상으로 식습관, 간식 및 매식의 섭취빈도, 영양지식, 일반사항을 조사하고 주의력결핍 과잉행동장애 (ADHD)는 코너스 평정 척도 청소년용 단축형 [CASS(S)]으로 조사하였다. 진단분할점 기준 이상인 학생을 ADHD로 진단하였고, '정상군'과 'ADHD군'으로 구분하여 식습관과 영양지식과 ADHD와의 관계를 분석하였다. 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 조사대상 학생들의 ADHD 진단결과 '정상군'은 587명 (93%), 'ADHD군'은 44명(7%)로 나타났다. ADHD 군으로 진단된 학생은 성별에 따라 남학생이 56.8%, 여학생이 43.2%이었고, 학년에 따라 1학년은 29.5%, 2학년은 43.2%, 3학년은 27.3%이었다. 2) 조사대상 학생들의 아침 및 간식의 섭취를 분석한 결과 아침식사의 횟수를 묻는 문항에서 '주 5회 이상' 아침을 먹는 학생들은 정상군은 64.7%, ADHD군은 45.4%로 정상군에서 아침식사의 횟수가 더 많았다. 간식의 선택기준을 묻는 문항에서 정상군은 '맛', '가격', '영양', ADHD군은 '맛', '가격', '친구들의 영향'순으로 나타났다. 3) 조사대상자의 간식과 매식의 섭취빈도를 분석한 결과 ADHD군에서 '라면류'와 '식당에서 매식'의 섭취빈도가 유의하게 높았다. 4) 조사대상 학생들의 식습관점수를 분석한 결과 정상군에서 단백질과 해조류의 섭취가 많고, 아침식사를 먹고 편식하지 않는 규칙적인 식습관을 가지고 있는 학생이 ADHD군보다 유의하게 많은 것으로 나타났다. 정상군과 ADHD 군의 식습관 점수는 정상군은 22.02점, ADHD군은 19.57 점으로 정상군에서 유의하게 높았다. 5) 영양지식 문항에 대한 조사대상 학생들의 인식률과 정답률을 분석한 결과 비타민과 무기질, 체중관리와 관련된 문항의 인식률과 비타민과 무기질에 관한 사항과 영양소의 급원식품에 대한 정답률이 정상군에서 ADHD군보다 유의하게 높았다. 영양지식 점수는 정상군은 7.38점, ADHD군은 5.77점으로 정상군에서 유의하게 높았다. 6) 영양지식, 식습관, 간식과 매식의 섭취빈도, 주의력결핍 과잉행동 점수의 상관관계를 분석한 결과 영양지식점수는 식습관 점수와는 양의 상관관계를 보이고, 간식과 매식의 섭취빈도, 주의력결핍 과잉행동 점수와는 음의 상관관계를 보였다. 주의력결핍 과잉행동점수는 식습관점수와 음의 상관관계로 나타났고, 간식과 매식의 섭취빈도와는 양의 상관 관계로 나타났다. 이상의 연구결과 주의력결핍 과잉행동장애군 (ADHD군)에서 정상군보다 아침식사의 섭취횟수가 적고, 간식과 매식의 섭취빈도는 높았다. 또한 식습관과 영양지식 점수는 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 학교에서는 ADHD의 성향을 보이는 학생들을 대상으로 ADHD의 위험성, 식습관과 ADHD와의 관계를 연구한 논문을 제시하여 스스로 식습관 변화에 대한 의지를 갖도록 하고, 가공식품의 문제점, 아침식사의 중요성, 영양소와 급원식품 등에 대한 영양지식을 증가시키고 정확한 영양지식을 갖출 수 있는 적극적인 영양교육이 필요할 것으로 보인다. 또한 중학생들을 대상으로 간식과 매식의 올바른 식품선택 방법, 바람직한 식품을 섭취할 수 있도록 구체적인 방안을 제시하는 지속적인 영양교육이 시행되어야 할 것이다. 가정통신문을 통하여 가족구성원의 지지를 높이고 학교매점에서 가공식품의 판매를 줄이는 등의 환경의 변화로 영양교육의 효과를 높여야 할 것이다.

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