The purpose of this study is to examine current situations about and factors related to expenditures of private education among pre-school children and to provide policy implications useful for future pre-school children education. The subjects of the study were parents of pre-school children under seven years of age, who lived in Seoul and Incheon area. The survey was conducted using parent questionnaire. The major findings of the study are: First, 86.8% of parents of pre-school children use private education and the average expenditure on it was 154, 446 won. Second, major factors determining their private education expenditure are educational level of parents, parents' job characteristics, household income, and region. Third, the most important reason for using private education among parents is to improve and excel in academic performance of their children. Forth, the higher the parents' expected returns from private education are, the higher the expenditure level of private education is. Fitth, the results of the logistic regressions showed that parents' attitudes toward private education was the most important factor in determining household economic burden associated with private education. The odds were 5 times greater for the parent group with strong desire for private education than for the parent group without it and 1.2 times greater for the parent group with high-expected returns from private education than the parent group without it. In conclusion, systematic, universal educational policies need to be developed to provide and support all the parents with pre-school children, given that their current economic burden is substantial. By providing such support, we can help parents focus on public education. This study examining current situations about and determining factors related to private education expenditures among pre-school children collected data limiting only Seoul and Inchoen area, therefore, future studies need to include data collected nationwide for generalizability of the findings. As well, development of more elaborated survey instruments and analytical methods would advance our understanding in the field.