DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Molecular Characteristics and Functional Properties of Barley Starches with Varying Amylose Content

  • You, Sang-Guan (Department of Food Science, University of Manitoba) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Moo (Faculty of Marine Bioscience & Technology, Kangnung National University)
  • Published : 2005.09.01

Abstract

Molecular structures and functional properties of starches isolated from normal, waxy, and zero amylose barleys were examined. Amylopectins from zero amylose starch had the largest molecular weight $(M_w)$, whereas those from high amylose starch, the smallest. A good correlation between the $(M_w)$ and the radius of gyration $(R_g)$ was observed among amylopectins from various starches, indicating similar polymeric conformation in solution even with the differences in the $(M_w)$. The debranched amylopectin molecules from different types of barley starches exhibited similar profiles, implying that the packing geometry of double helices in the different types of barley starches may be similar. Zero amylose starch showed the highest peak viscosity (326 RVU) in RV A viscograms at lower pasting temperature $(67.6^{\circ}C)$, compared to normal and high amylose starches. Relationship between RVA peak viscosity and amylose content suggested that the presence of amylose inhibited the development of granular swelling of barley starches during cooking. A rapid retrogradation, traced by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and strain-controlled rheometry, occurred in the high amylose starch sample during storage, while zero amylose starch showed a very good resistance to retrogradation, indicating excellent storage stability.

References

  1. Slavin J, Marquart L, Jacobs DR Jr. 2000. Comsumption of whole-grain foods and decreased risk of cancer: proposed mechanisms. Cereal Foods World 45: 54-58
  2. Jadhav SL, Lutz SE, Ghorpade VM, Salunkhe DK. 1998. Barley: chemistry and value-added processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 38: 123-171 https://doi.org/10.1080/10408699891274183
  3. MacGregor AW, Fincher GB. 1993. Carbohydrates of the barley grain. In Barley Chemistry and Technology. MacGregor AW, Bhatty RS, eds. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St Paul, Minnesota. p 73-130
  4. Salomonsson A, Sundberg B. 1994. Amylose content and chain profile of amylopectin from normal, high amylose and waxy barleys. Starch/Starke 46: 325-328 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19940460902
  5. Tester RF, South JB, Morrison WR, Ellis RP. 1991. The effects of ambient temperature during the grain-filling period on the composition and properties of starch from four barley genotypes. J Cereal Sci 13: 113-127 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0733-5210(09)80029-5
  6. Vasanthan T, Bhatty RS. 1996. Physicochemical properties of small- and large-granule starches of waxy, regular, and high-amylose barleys. Cereal Chem 73: 199-207
  7. Song Y, Jane J. 2000. Characterization of barley starches of waxy, normal, and high amylose varieties. Carbohydr Polym 41: 365-377 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(99)00098-3
  8. Shi YC, Seib PA. 1992. The structure of four waxy starches related to gelatinization and retrogradation. Carbohydr Res 227: 131-145 https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6215(92)85066-9
  9. You S, Izydorczyk MS. 2002. Molecular characteristics of barley starches with variable amylose content. Carbohydr Polym 49: 33-42 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(01)00300-9
  10. Schoch TJ. 1967. Iodometric determination of amylose. In Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry. Whistler RL, ed. Academic Press, New York, NY. p 157-160
  11. You S, Fiedorowicz M, Lim ST. 1999. Molecular characterization of wheat amylopectins by multiangle laser light scattering analysis. Cereal Chem 76: 116-121 https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.1.116
  12. Jane J, Chen JF. 1992. Effect of amylose molecular size and amylopectin branch chain length on paste properties of starch. Cereal Chem 69: 60-65
  13. MacGregor AW, Bazin SL, Macri LJ, Babb JC 1999. Modelling the contribution of alpha-amylase, beta-amylase and limit dextrinase to starch degradation during mashing. J Cereal Sci 29: 161-169 https://doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.1998.0233
  14. Sasaki T, Matsuki J. 1998. Effect of wheat starch structure on swelling power. Cereal Chem 75: 525-529 https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.525
  15. Buleon A, Colonna P, Planchot V, Ball S. 1998. Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis. Int J Biol Macromol 23: 85-112 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-8130(98)00040-3
  16. Smith AM, Denyer K, Martin C. 1997. The synthesis of the starch granule. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48: 67-87 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.67
  17. Yoo SH, Jane J. 2002. Molecular weights and gyration radii of amylopectins determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography equipped with multi-angle laser-light scattering and refractive index detectors. Carbohydr Polym 49: 307-314 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(01)00339-3
  18. Fishman ML, Rodriguez L, Chau HK. 1996. Molar masses and sizes of starches by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with on-line multi-angle laser light scattering detection. J Agric Food Chem 44: 3182-3186 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9600162
  19. Klavons JA, Dintizis FR, Millard MM. 1997. Hydrodynamic chromatography of waxy maize starch. Cereal Chem 74: 832-836 https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1997.74.6.832
  20. Hanselmann R, Ehrat M, Widmer HM. 1995. Sedimentation field flow fractionation combined with multi angle laser light scattering applied for characterization of starch polymers. Starch/Starke 46: 345-349
  21. Jane J, Chen YY, Lee LF, McPherson AE, Wong KS, Radosavljevic M. 1999. Effects of amylopectin branch chain-length distributions and amylose contents on the gelatinization and pasting properties of starches. Cereal Chem 76: 629-637 https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.5.629
  22. Jane J, Craig SAS, Seib PA, Hoseny RC. 1986. Characterization of granular cold water-soluble starch. Starch/Starke 8: 258-263
  23. Tester RF, Morrison WR. 1990. Swelling and gelatinization of cereal starches. I. Effects of amylopectin, amylose, and lipid. Cereal Chem 67: 551-557
  24. Zheng GH, Han HL, Bhatty RS. 1998. Physicochemical properties of zero amylose hull-less barley starch. Cereal Chem 75: 520-524 https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.520
  25. Eliasson AC, Gudmundsson M. 1996. Starch: physicochemical and functional aspects. In Carbohydrates in foods. Eliasson AC, ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY. p 431-503
  26. Ring SG. 1985. Some studies on starch gelation. Starch/Starke 37: 80-83 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19850370303