전분의 분자량 분포도에 관한 연구

A Study on the Molecular Weight Distribution of Starch

  • Kim Kyeong-Yee (Department of Food Science and Technology Seoil College)
  • 발행 : 2004.12.01

초록

도토리 가루를 알칼리로 침전시키면서 정제하여 도토리 전분을 얻었다. 다시 이 starch를 부탄올 개량법으로 분획하여 도토리 amylose와 amylopectin을 얻었고 Corn starch와 corn amylose, corn amylopectin은 시판되는 시약을 사용하였다. 이 시료들의 분자량 분포도를 관찰하기 위하여 GCP측정을 하였다. GCP측정은 DMSO와 DMF의 용매사용과 표준물질로 pullulan을 사용하여 검정하고 각 시료들의 지연시간으로부터 행하여졌다. 분자량분포도로부터 수평균분자량 (Mn)과 중량평균분자량(Mw) 및 다 분산도를 얻었다. 그 결과 acorn amylose와 corn amylose의 중량평균 분자량이 amylopectin에 비해서 뚜렷이 작게 나타나 ${\alpha}-1,4$ 선형결합을 갖는 amylose와 ${\alpha}-1,4$ 선형결합에 ${\alpha}-1,6$ 결합가지가 있는 amylopectin의 구조상의 차이를 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 분획한 acorn과 시판되는 corn과의 분자량분포도 측정을 비교한 결과 같은 경향을 나타내어 도토리 전분의 분획이 잘 이루어졌음을 확인하였다. 다분산도는 acorn starch와 corn starch 모두 amylose와 amylopectin에 비해 크게 나타났으며 이는 전분이 분획되기전 두 성분의 불균일성에 의한 성질로 분자량분포 범위가 넓게 나타났음을 알 수 있었다. 또한, 전단속도와 온도에 따르는 점도를 관찰하였더니 전단속도가 증가하면 점도는 감소하는 현상을 나타내는 pseudo plastic power law fluid 거동(13)을 보였으며 온도가 증가하면 점도는 지수 함수적으로 감소하였다.

Purified acorn starch was obtained from alkali precipitation method. Acorn amylose and acorn amylopectin were fractionated from purified acorn starch by butanol improvement method. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to measure molecular weight distribution of acorn starch, acorn amylose, acorn amylopectin and corn starch, corn amylose, corn amylopectin. GPC measurement diagrams were obtained by each retention time. And then, we used DMSO and DMF as solvent, pullulan as standard material. We calculated the Number-average molar mass (Mn), Weight-average molar mass (Mw) and polydispersity from molecular weight distribution of each sample. As a result of estimating molecular weight using GPC, Mw of amylose has small value than Mw of amylopectin. From this fact, the molecular structural aspects of amylose and amylopectin were predicted and it was in good agrement with the tendency of polydispersity by GPC. The polydispersity of starch had big value than amylose and amylopectin, from this result, it might be known that the range of molecular weight appeared broad by heterogeneous properties of two components. The viscosity of purified acorn starch, amylose, amylopectin seperated from acorn starch, was decreased by increasing the shear rate and raising the temperature exponentially. Acorn starch solutions exhibited pseudoplastic power law fluid behavior.

키워드

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