Review of Issues and Problems in Using Landscape Ecology Indices

경관생태지수 사용에 대한 고려사항과 문제점에 관한 고찰

  • Lee Sang-Woo (Program in Landscape Architecture, The University of Texas at Arlington, USA) ;
  • Yoon Eun-Joo (Landscape Architecture, The University of Seoul) ;
  • Lee In-Sung (Planning and Landscape Architecture, The University of Seoul)
  • 이상우 (미국 텍사스대학교(알링턴) 조경학과) ;
  • 윤은주 (서울시립대학교 대학원 조경학과) ;
  • 이인성 (서울시립대학교 건축도시조경학부)
  • Published : 2004.10.01


경관생태지수는 녹지의 이질성(Heterogeneity)을 계량화하기 위하여 제안되고 발전되어 왔다. 지난 수십년간 많은 연구에서 경관생태지수가 광범위하게 사용되어 그 효용성이 인정되었지만, 경관생태지수의 사용에 따른 많은 문제점들이 제기되고 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 경관생태지수 사용에 따른 고려사항과 문제점들을 기존 연구들을 통해 고찰하고, 이를 기초로 적절한 응용방법을 제안하고자 하는 것으로, 지수의 문제점을 내재적인 문제들과 응용상의 문제들로 구분하여 논의하였다. 지수 자체의 내재적인 문제로는 녹지구조와 기능과의 관계, 녹지구조의 측정 및 대표, 그리고 지수들의 불안정성 등을 들 수 있으며, 응용상의 문제점들로는 지수 선택, 스케일 변화와 피복 분류과정에 개입된 문제, 해석상의 오류 등을 들 수 있다. 이러한 문제들을 최소화하는 방안으로는 첫째, 가설에 입각한 연구가 필요하며, 둘째, 측정하고자 하는 녹지의 공간적 특성을 명확히 규정하여야 하고, 셋째, 변위가 예측 가능한 지수를 사용해야 하고, 넷째, GIS나 인공위성 자료의 축척을 변화시키지 말아야 하며, 마지막으로 다섯째, 피복분류 알고리즘을 사용하여 분류상 오류를 최소화해야 한다는 점이다.


  1. Bogaert, J., R. B. Myneni, and Y. Knyazikhin(2002) A Mathematical Comment on the Formulae for the Aggregation Index and the Shape Index. Landscape Ecology 17(1): 87-90
  2. Collinge. S. K.(1996) Ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation: implication for landscape architecture and planning. Landscape Urban Planning 36: 59-77
  3. Colunga-Garcia. M.. S. H. Gage, and D. A. Landis(1997) Response pf an Assemblage of Coccinellidae(Coleoptera) to a Diverse Agricultural Landscape. Environmental Entomology 26: 797-804
  4. Corry, E. C.(2002) A Landscape Index Approach to Evaluating the Small Mammal Habitat Quality of Designed Scenarios for Agricultural Watersheds. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Michigan
  5. Dale, M. R. T.(1999) Spatial Pattern Analysis in Plant Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
  6. Elvidge, C. D., and Z. Chen(1995) Comparison of Broad-Band and Narrow-Ban Red and Near-Infrared Vegetation Index. Remote Sens. Environ. 54: 35-48
  7. Fahrig, L., and G. Merriam(1985) Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology 66: 1762-1768
  8. Fahrig, L., and G. Merriam(1994) Conservation of Fragmented Population. Conservation Biology 8: 50-59
  9. Fauth, P. T., E. J. Gustafson. and K. N. Reynolds(2000) Using Landscape Metrics to Model Source Habitat for Neotropical Migrants in the Midwestern U.S. Landscape Ecology 15: 621-631
  10. Forman, R. T. T.(1995) Land mosaics: The ecology of landscape and regions. Cambridge University Press. NY
  11. Forman, R. T. T., and M. Godron(1986) Landscape Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY
  12. Fortin, M. -J. F.(1994) Edge Detection Algorithms for Two-Dimensional Ecological Data. Ecology 75: 956-965
  13. Franklin, J. F., and R. T. T. Forman(1987) Creating Landscape Pattern by Porest Cutting: Ecological Consequences and Phnciples. Landscape Ecology 1: 5-18
  14. Frohn, R C.(1998) Remote Sensing for Landscape Ecology: New Methc Indicators for Monitoring. Modeling, and Assessment of Ecosystem, Lewis Publishers, New York, NY
  15. Gustafson, E. J.(1998) Quantifying Landscape SpatialPattern: What is the Is the State of the Art?. Ecosystems1: 143-156
  16. Hanski. I.(1998) Metapopulation Dynamics. Nature 396: 41-49
  17. Hargis, C. D., J. A. Bissonette, and D. L. Turner(1999) The Influence of Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Pattern on American Martens. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 157-172
  18. Harrison, S., and E. Bruna(1999) Habitat Fragmentation and Large-Scale Conservation: What Do We Know for Sure? Ecography 22: 225-232
  19. He, H. S., B. E. DeZonia, and D. J. Mladenoff(2000) An Aggregation Index(AI) to quantify Spatial Patterns of Landscapes. Landscape Ecology 15: 591-601
  20. Huggins, D. R., G. W. Randall. and M. P. Russelle(2001) Subsurface Drain Losses of Water and Nitrate Following Conversion of Perennials to Row Crop. Agronomy Journal 93: 477-486
  21. Hulshoff, R. M.(1995) Landscape Indices Describing a Dutch Landscape. Landscape Ecology 10(2): 101-111
  22. Johnston, C. A.(2001) Methods in Ecology: Geographic Information Systems in Ecology. Blackwell Science, Malden. MA
  23. Kepner, W. G., K. B. Jones, and D. J. Chaloud(1995) Mid-Atlantic Landscape Indicators Project Plan. EPA/620/R-95/003, Office of Research and Development, Washington DC
  24. Kolasa, J., and C. D. Rollo(1991) The Heterogeneity of Heterogeneity: A Glossary. In: Kolasa, J. and Pickett. S.T.A.(Eds), Ecological Heterogeneity, Sphnger-Verlag, New York, NY. pp. 1-23
  25. Landis, D. A., and M. J. Hass(1992) Influence of Landscape Structure on Abundance and Within-Field Distribution of European Corn Borer Lepidoptera Pyralidae Laval Parasitoids in Michigan. Environmental Entomology 21: 409-416
  26. Landis, D. A., S. D. Wratten, and G. M. Gurr(2000) Habitat Management to Conserve Natural Enemies of Arthropod Pests in Agriculture. Annual Review of Entomology 45: 175-201
  27. Lee, S. -W.(2002) The Relationship between Ecological Landscape Structure and Neighborhood Satisfaction. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University
  28. Leit$\~{a}o, A. B., and J. Ahern(2002) Applying Landscape Ecological Concepts and Metrics in Sustainable Landscape Planning. 2002. Landscape and Urban Planning 59: 65-93
  29. Li, H., and J. F. Reynolds(1994) A Simulation Experiment to Quantify Spatial Heterogeneity in Categorical Maps. Ecology 75: 2446-2455
  30. Li, H., and J. F. Reynolds(1995) On Definition and Quantification of Heterogeneity. Oikos 73: 280-294
  31. Li, H., and J. Wu(2004) Use and Misuse of Landscape Indices. Landscape Ecology 19: 389-399
  32. Marino, P. C., and D. A. Landis(1996) Effects of Landscape Structure on Parasitoid Diversity and Parasitism in Agroecosystems. Ecological Applications 6: 276-284
  33. Mcgarigal, K., and B. Marks(1995) FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Quantifying Landscape Structure. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-351, USDA, Pacific Northwest Research Station
  34. Mcgarigal, K., and W. C. McComb(1995) Relationship between Landscape Structure and Breeding Birds in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecological Monograph 65: 235-260
  35. Menalled, F. D., P. C. Marino, S. H. Gage, and D. A. Landis(1999) Does Agricultural Landscape Structure Affect Parasitism and Parasitoid Diversity? Ecological Applications 9: 634-641[0634:DALSAP]2.0.CO;2
  36. Nagendra, H.(2002) Opposite Trends in Response for the Shannon and Simpson Indices of Landscape Diversity. Applied Geography 22: 175-186
  37. Noss, R. F.(1983) A Regional Landscape Approach to Maintain Diversity. BioScience 33: 700-706
  38. Noss, R. F. and L. D. Hams(1986) Nodes, Networks, and MUMs: Preserving Diversity at All Scales. Environmental Management 10: 299-309
  39. O'Neill. R V., J. R. Krummel, R. H. Gardner, G. Sugihara, and B. Jackson(1988) I dices of Landscape Pattern. Landscape Ecology 1: 153-162
  40. O'Neill, R. V., C. T. Hunsaker, S. P. Timmins, B. L. Timmins, K. B. Kackson. and K.B. Jones(1996) Scale Problems in Reporting Landscape Pattern at the Regional Scale. Landscape Ecology 11: 169-180
  41. Opdam, P.(1991) Metapopulation Theory and Habitat Fragmentation: A Review of Holarctic Breeding Bird Studies. Landscape Ecology 5: 93-106
  42. Palmer, J.(2004) Using Spatial Metrics to Predict Scenic Perception in a Changing Landscape: Dennis, Massachusetts. Landscape and Urban Planning 69: 201-218
  43. Parresol, B. R.(1998) Sampled-Based Forest Landscape Diversity hdices. Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State University
  44. Relou, E. C.(1975) Ecological Diversity. Wiley Interscience, New York, NY
  45. Plotnick, R. E., R. H. Gardner, and R. V. O'Neill(1993) Lacunarity Indices as Measure of Landscape Texture. Landscape Ecology 8(3): 201-211
  46. Plotnick, R. E., R. H. Gardner, W. W. Hargrove, and M. Perlmutter(1996) Lacunarity Analysis: A general Technique for the Analysis of Spatial Pattern. Physical Review E 53(5): 5461-5468
  47. Quattrochi, D. A., and R. E. Pe11etier(1990) Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscapes: An Introduction. In: Turner, M.G. and Gardner. R. H.(Eds.), Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Sphnger, New York, NY. pp. 51-76
  48. Risser, P. G., J. R. Karr, and R. T. T. Forman(1984) Landscape Ecology: Directions and Approaches. Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL
  49. Ritters, K. H., R. V. O'Neill. C. T. Hunsaker, J. D. Wickham. D. H. Yankee. S. P. Timmin, K. B. Jones, and B. L. Jackson(1995) A Factor Analysis of Landscape Pattern and Structure Metrics. Landscape Ecology 10(1): 22-39
  50. Shannon, C. E., and W. Weaver(1949) The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press. Champaign. IL
  51. Simpeon, E. H.(1949) Measurement of Diversity. Nature 163: 688
  52. Tischendorf, L.(2001) Can Landscape Indices Predict Ecological Processes Consistently?. Landscape Ecology 16: 235-254
  53. Turner, M. G.(1989) Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20:171-197
  54. Turner, M. G., R. V. O'Neill, R. H. Gardner, and B. T. Milne(1989) Effects of Chansing Spatial Scale on the Analysis of Landscape Pattern. Landscape Ecology 3: 153-162
  55. Turner, M. G., and R. H. Gardner(1990) Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology: AN Introduction. In: Turner, M. G. and Gardner, R. H.(Eds.), Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 3-14
  56. Turner, M. G., R. H. Gardner, and R. V. O'Neill(2001) Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and Process. Springer, New York, NY
  57. Turner, S. J., R. V. O'Neill, W. Conley, M. R. Conley, and H. C. Humphries(1990) Pattern and Scale: Statistics for Landscape Ecology. In: Turner, M. G. and Gardner, R. H.(Eds.), Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology Springer, New York, NY. pp. 17-49
  58. Wickham, J. D., R. V. O'Neill, K. H. Ritters, T. G. Wade, and K. B. Jones(1997) Sensitivity of Landscape Pattern Metrics to Land cover Misclassification and Differences in Land-Cover ComPosition. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 63: 397-402
  59. Wiens, J. A., R. L. Schooley, and R. D. Jr. Weeks(1997) Patchy Landscapes and Animal Movements: Do Beetles Percolate? Oikos 78: 257-264
  60. Wu, J.(2004) Effects of Changing Scale on Landscape Pattern Analysis: Scaling Relations. Landscape Ecology 19: 125-138
  61. Wu, J., W. Shen, W. Sun, and P. T. Tueller(2002) Empirical Pattern of the Effects of Changing Scale on Landscape Metrics. Landscape Ecology 17: 761-782