The Distribution Characteristics and Long-term Trend of Carbonaceous Species in Airborne Particulate in Seoul between 1986 and 1996

  • Hwang, Kyung-Chul (Department of Environmental Science, DonNam Health College) ;
  • Ma, Chang-Jin (Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University)
  • Published : 2003.03.01


To characterize airborne particulate carbon and its temporal variation in the heavily industrialized metropolitan city, Seoul in South Korea, aerosol sampling was performed from 1986 to 1996. Correlation coefficients of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with mass concentration of fine particles ($\underline{\leq}$2.1 ${\mu}m$) are 0.73 and 0.51, respectively. EC concentrations of the fine particle mode are 10.1, 5.9, 4.5, and 7.4 ${\mu}g\;m^{-3}$ in winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. On the other hand, OC concentration shows maximum value in winter and followed by autumn, summer, and spring. A seasonal peak in the ratio of OC to EC in fine particles was observed during the summer photochemical season from June to August. Concentrations of EC and OC in Asian dust storm events are generally higher than in non- Asian dust storm events except in 1990. The difference of EC concentrations between Asian dust storm periods and non-Asian dust storm periods are much larger than those of OC concentrations. There are slight increases of EC concentration between 1987 and 1990 and a gradual decrease between 1990 and 1996.



  1. Cachier, H., M.P. Bremond and P. Buat-Menard(1989) Determination of atmospheric soot carbon with a simple thermal method, Tellus, 41B, 379-390
  2. Castro, L.M., c.x. Pio, R.M. Harrison and D.J.T. Smith (1999) Carbonaceous aerosol in urban and rural European atmospheres: estimation of secondary organic carbon concentrations, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 2771-2781
  3. Chow, J.C., J.G. Watson, E.M. Fujita, Z. Lu and D.R. Lawson (1994) Temporal spatial variations of $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ aerosol in the Southern California air quality study, Atmospheric Environment, 28, 3773-3785.
  4. Chow, J.C., J.G. Watson, D.H. Lowenthal, P.A. Solomon, K.L. Magliano, S.D. Ziman and L.W. Richards (1993a) $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ composition in California's San Joaquin Valley, Aerosol Science and Technology, 18, 105-128
  5. Chow, J.C., J.G. Watson, L.C. Pritchett, W.R. Prierson, C.A. Frazier and R.G. Purcell (1993b) The DRI Thermal /Optical Reflectance Carbon Analysis System: Description, Evaluation an Application in U.S. Air Quality Studies, Atmospheric Environment, 27A, 1185-1201
  6. Chughtai, A.R., M.E. Brooks, and D.M. Smith (1996) Hydration of black carbon, Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 19505-19514
  7. Clarke, A.D., K.J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S.G. Warren, and D.S. Covert (1987) Aerosol light absorption measurement technical: analysis and Intercomparison, Atmospheric Environment, 21, 1455-1465
  8. Dod, R.L., R.D. Giauque, and T. Novakov (1986) Sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing, China, Atmospheric Environment, 20, 2271-2275
  9. Eatough, D.J., N. Aaghdaie, M. Cottam, T. Gammon, L.D. Hansen, E.A Lewis, and R.J. Farber (1990) Loss of semi-volatile organic compounds from particles during sampling on filters. In: Mathai, C.V.(Ed.), Transaction of Visibility and Fine Particles, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 146-156
  10. Fung, K. (1990) Particulate carbon speciation by $MnO_{2}$ oxidation, Aerosol Science Technology, 12, 122-127
  11. Gelencser, A., T. Meszaros, M. Blazso, Gy. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A. Molnar, and E. Meszaros (2000) Structural characterization of organic matter in fine tropospheric aerosol by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. of Atmospheric Chemistry, 37, 173-183
  12. Ghan, S.J. and J.E. Penner (1992) Smoke, effects on climate, In Encyclopedia of Earth System Science 4 (edited by Nierenberg W.A.), 191-198. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA
  13. Gray, H.A., G.R. Cass, J.J. Huntzicker, E.K. Heyerdahl, and J.A. Rau (1986) Characteristics of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon particle concentration in Los Angeles, Environmental Science and Technology, 20, 580-589
  14. Grosjean, D. (1992) In situ organic aerosol formation during a smog episode: estimated production and chemical functionality, Atmospheric Environment, 26A, 953-963
  15. Hansen, A.D.A. and T. Novakov (1990) Real-time measurement of aerosol black carbon during the carbonaceous species methods comparison study, Aerosol Science Technology, 12, 194-199
  16. Harrison, R.M., A.R. Deason, M.R. Jones, and R.S. Appleby (1997) Sources and processes affection concentration of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ particulate matter in Birmingham (U.K.), Atmospheric Environment, 31, 4103-4117
  17. Heintzenberg, J. (1989) Fine particles in the global troposphere: a review, Tellus, 41B, 149-160
  18. Hildemann, L.M., W.F. Rogge, G.R. Cass, M.A. Mazurek, and B.R.T. Simoneit (1996) Contribution of primary aerosol emissions from vegetation-derived sources to fine particle concentrations in Los Angeles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 19541-19549
  19. Hitzenberger, R., U. Dusek, and A. Berner (1996) Black carbon measurements using an Integrating Sphere Method, J. Geophysical Research, 101, 19601-19606
  20. Hitzenberger, R., A. Berner, H. Giebl, K. Drobesch, A. Kasper-Giebl, M. Loeflund, H. Urban, and H. Puxbaum (2001) Black carbon (BC) in alpine aerosols and cloud water-concentrations and scavenging efficiencies, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 5135-5141
  21. Kadowaki, S. (1990) characterization of carbonaceous aerosols in the Nagoya urban area.-Elemental and organic carbon concentrations and the origin of organic aerosols, Environmental Science and Technology, 24, 741-744
  22. Kim, Y.P., K.C. Moon, and J.H. Lee (2000) Organic and elemental carbon in fine particles at Kosan, Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 34, 3309-3317
  23. Kim, Y.P., K.C. Moon, J.H. Lee, and N.J. Baik (1999) Concentration of carbonaceous species in particles at Seoul and Cheju in Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 2751-2758
  24. Lee, H.S. and B.K. Kang (2001) Chemical characteristics of principal $PM_{2.5}$ species in Chongju, South Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 739-746
  25. Likens, G.E., E.S. Edgerton, and J.N. Galloway (1983) The composition and deposition of organic carbon in precipitation, Tellus, 35B, 16-24
  26. Lin, J.J. and H.S. Tai (2001) Concentrations and distributions of carbonaceous species in ambient particles in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2627-2636
  27. Liousse, C., H. Cachier, and S.G. Jennings (1993) Optical and thermal measurements of black carbon aerosol content in different environments: variation of the specific attenuation cross-section, sigma (${\sigma}$), Atmospheric Environment, 27A, 1203-1211
  28. Ma, C.J., M. Kasahara, R. Holler, and T. Kamiya (2001a) Characteristics of single particles sampled in Japan during the Asian dust-storm period, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2707-2714
  29. Ma, C.J., M. Kasahara, S. Tohno, and K.C. Hwang (2001b) Characterization of winter atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto and Seoul using PIXE, EAS and IC, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 747-752
  30. Malissa, H., H. Puxbaum, and T. Novakov (1984) Carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, Science Total Environment, 36, 301-311
  31. Miura, K., H. Miyashita, K. Suzuki, and S. Nakae (2000) Measurements of carbonaceous particles in urban and marine atmosphere, The 17th Symposium on Aerosol Science and Technology, Hiroshima, Japan, pp. 128-130
  32. Ogren, J.A., P.J. Groblicki, and R.J. Charlson (1984) Measurement of the removal rate of elemental carbon from the atmosphere, Science Total Environment, 36, 329-338
  33. Park, S.S., Y.J. Kim, and K. Fung (2001) Characteristics of $PM_{2.5}$ carbonaceous aerosol in the Sihwa industrial area, South Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 657-665
  34. Parungo, F., C. Nagamoto, M.Y. Zhou, D.A. Anthony, H. Hansen, and Joyce (1994) Aeolian Transport of Aerosol Black Carbon from to the Ocean, Atmospheric Environment, 28, 3251-3260
  35. Ro, C.U., K.Y. Oh, H.K. Kim, Y.S. Chun, J. Osan, J.D. Hoog, and R.V. Grieken (2001) Chemical speciation of individual atmospheric particles using low-Z electron probe X-ray microanalysis: characterizing 'Asian dust' deposited with rainwater in Soul Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 4995-5005
  36. Schumann, T., B. Zinder, and A. Waldvogel (1988) Aerosol and hydro meteor concentrations and their chemical composition during winter precipitation along a mountain slope-I. Temporal evolution of the aerosol, microphysical, and meteorological conditions, Atmospheric Environment, 22, 2741-2750
  37. Shah, J.J., R.L. Johnson, E.K. Heyerdahl, and J.J. Huntzicker (1986) Carbonaceous aerosol at urban and rural sites in the United States, Journal of Air Pollution Control Association, 36, 254-257
  38. Turco, R.P., O.B. Toon, R.C. Whitten, J.B. Pollack, and P. Hamill (1983) The global cycle of particulate elemental carbon: a theoretical assessment. In Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension (edited by Pruppacher, H.R, R.C. Semonin and W.G.N. Slinn), Elsevier Science, New York, USA, pp. 1337-1351
  39. Turpin, B.J. and J.J. Huntziker (1995) Identification of secondary organic aerosol episodes and quantitation of primary and second organic aerosol concentration during SCAQS, Atmospheric Environment, 29, 3527-3544
  40. Turpin, B.J., P. Sazena, and E. Andrews (2000) Measuring and simulating particulate organics in the atmosphere: problems and prospects, Atmospheric Environment, 34, 2983-3013
  41. Weingartner, E., H. Burtscher, and U. Baltensperger (1997) Hygroscopic properties of carbon and diesel soot particles, Atmospheric Environment, 31, 2311-2327
  42. Wolff, G.T., M.S. Ruthkosky, D.P. Stroup, and P.E. Korsog (1991) A characterization of the principal PM-10 species in the Claremont (summer) and Long beach (fall) during SCAQS, Atmospheric Environment, 25A, 2173-2186
  43. Wolff, G.T., P.J. Groblicki, S.H. Cadle, and R.J. Countess (1982) Particulate carbon at various location in the United States. In: Wolff, G.T., Klimisch, R.L. (Eds), Particulate carbon Atmospheric Life Cycle, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 297-315