Transport of Urea in Waterlogged Soil Column: Experimental Evidence and Modeling Approach Using WAVE Model

  • Yoo, Sun-Ho (Graduate School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Park, Jung-Geun (Graduate School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Mo (Graduate School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Han, Gwang-Hyun (Graduate School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Han, Kyung-Hwa (Graduate School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University)
  • 투고 : 2000.02.29
  • 발행 : 2000.03.31

초록

The main form of nitrogen fertilizer applied to lowland rice is urea, but little is known about its transport in waterlogged soil. This study was conducted to investigate the transport of urea in waterlogged soil column using WAVE (simulation of the substances Water and Agrochemicals in the soil, crop and Vadose Environment) model which includes the parameters for urea adsorption and hydrolysis, The adsorption distribution coefficient and hydrolysis rate of urea were measured by batch experiments. A transport experiment was carried out with the soil column which was pre-incubated for 45 days under flooded condition. The urea hydrolysis rate (k) was $0.073h^{-1}$. Only 5% of the applied urea remained in soil column at 4 days after urea application. The distribution coefficient ($K_d$) of urea calculated from adsorption isotherm was $0.21Lkg^{-1}$, so it was assumed that urea that urea was a weak-adsorbing material. The maximum concentration of urea was appeared at the convective water front because transport of mobile and weak-adsorbing chemicals, such as urea, is dependent on water convective flow. The urea moved down to 11 cm depth only for 2 days after application, so there is a possibility that unhydrolyzed urea could move out of the root zone and not be available for crops. A simulated urea concentration distribution in waterlogged soil column using WAVE model was slightly different from the measured concentration distribution. This difference resulted from the same hydrolysis rate applied to all soil depths and overestimated hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient. In spite of these limitations, the transport of urea in waterlogged soil column could be predict with WAVE model using urea hydrolysis rate (k) and distribution coefficient ($K_d$) which could be measured easily from a batch experiment.