Predicting Migration of a Heavy Metal in a Sandy Soil Using Time Domain Reflectometry

TDR을 이용한 사질토양에서의 중금속 이동 추정

  • Dong-Ju Kim (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Korea University) ;
  • Doo-Sung Baek (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Korea University) ;
  • Min-Soo Park (Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Korea University)
  • Published : 1999.05.01


Recently, transport parameters of conservative solutes such as KCl in a porous medium have been successfully determined using time domain reflectometry (TDR) . This study was initiated to Investigate the applicability of TDR technique to monitoring the fate of a heavy metal ion in a sandy soil and the distribution of its concentration along travel distance with time. A column test was conducted in a laboratory that consists of monitoring both resident and flux concentrations of $ZnCl_2$in a sandy soil under a breakthrough condition. A tracer of $ZnCl_2$(10 g/L) was injected onto the top surface of the sample as pulse type as soon as a steady-state condition was achieved. Time-series measurements of resistance and electrical conductivity were performed at 10 cm and 20 cm of distances from the inlet boundary by horizontal-positioning of parallel TDR metallic rods and using an EC-meter for the effluent exiting the bottom boundary respectively. In addition. Zn ions of the effluent were analyzed by ICP-AES. Since the mode and position of concentration detected by TDR and effluent were different, comparison between ICP analysis and TDR-detected concentration was made by predicting flux concentration using CDE model accommodating a decay constant with the transport parameters obtained from the resident concentrations. The experimental results showed that the resident concentration resulted in earlier and higher peak than the flux concentration obtained by EC-meter, implying the homogeneity of the packed sandy soil. A close agreement was found between the predicted from the transport parameters obtained by TDR and the measured $ZnCl_2$concentration. This indicates that TDR technique can also be applied to monitoring heavy metal concentrations in the soil once that a decay constant is obtained for a given soil.

최근 들어, 다공질 매질에서의 KCl 같은 보존성 용질의 운송계수를 결정하는데 TDR이 성공적으로 사용되고 있다. 본 연구는 TDR 기법이 사질 토양에서 중금속 이온의 운명과 시간에 따른 농도 분포를 측정하는데 적용가능한지를 알아보기 위하여 수행되었다 실험실에서 파과곡선 조건의 주상실험을 수행하여 사질토양에서 침출수와 잔존수의 $ZnCl_2$농도를 측정하였다. 정상류 상태에서 추적자인 $ZnCl_2$(10g/L)를 토양시료 상부에 순간 주입한 후, 시간별로 토양시료 상부로부터 각각 l0 cm와 20 cm 깊이에서 수평으로 설치된 TDR 탐침을 이용하여 저항을 EC-meter를 이용하여 침출수의 전기전도도를 측정하였고, 침출수의 Zn 이온의 농도는 ICP-AES를 이용하여 분석하였다. TDR과 침출수로부터 구한 농도측정 방법이 다르기 때문에, ICP-AES로부터 구한 농도와 토양시료 상부로부터 10 cm에서 TDR 로 측정된 잔존수 농도로부터 구한 운송파라미터를 감쇄상수를 고려한 CDE모델에 적용하여 구한 침출수 농도와 비교하였다. 실험결과에 의하면, 잔존수의 첨두농도근 EC-meter로 측정된 침출수의 것보다 더 빨리 그리고 더 높게 나타나 사질 토양이 균질한 것으로 나타났다. TDR로 구한 운송 파라미터로부터 추정된 $ZnCl_2$의 농도와 ICP-AES로 측정된 농도는 상당히 일치했다. 이것은 주어진 토양에서 감쇄상수를 얻기만 하면 TDR기법이 특정깊이에서의 중금속의 침출수 농도를 측정하는데에도 적용가능하다는 것을 의미한다.