Studies on the Production of Alcohol from Woods

목재(木材)를 이용(利用)한 Alcohol 생산(生産)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)

  • Received : 1983.02.25
  • Published : 1983.03.31

Abstract

In order to examine the alcohol production from softwoods (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc., Pinus rigida Miller, Larix leptolepis Gordon) and hardwoods (Alnus japonica Steud., Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. Populus euramericana CV 214), chemical compositions were analyzed and conditions of acid hydrolysis with wood meals were established. Also strains which could remarkably decompose the cellulose were identified, and conditions of cellulase production of strains, characteristics of cellulase, and alcohol fermentation were examined. The results were summarized as follows. 1) In acid hydrolysis of wood, the high yield of reducing sugars was shown from 1.0% to 2.0% of hydrochloric acid and 2.0% of sulfuric acid. The highest yield was produced 23.4% at wood meals of Alnus japonica treated with 1.0% of hydrochloric acid. 2) The effect of raising the hydrolysis was good at $1.5kg/cm^2$, 30 times (acid/wood meal), and 45 min in treating hydrochloric acid and 30 min in treating sulfuric acid. 3) The pretreatments with concentrated sulfuric acid were more effective concentration ranged from 50% to 60% than that with hydrochloric acid and its concentration ranged from 50% to 60%. 4) The quantative analysis of sugar composition of acid hydrolysates revealed that glucose and arabinose were assayed 137.78mg and 68.24mg with Pinus densiflora, and 102.22mg and 65.89mg with Alnus janonica, respectively. Also xylose and galactose were derived. 5) The two strains of yeast which showed remarkably high alcohol productivity were Saccharomyces cerevisiae JAFM 101 and Sacch. cerevisiae var. ellipsoldeus JAFM 125. 6) The production of alcohol and the growth of yeasts were effective with the neutralization of acid hydrolysates by $CaCO_3$ and NaOH. Production of alcohol was excellent in being fermented between pH 4.5-5.5 at $30^{\circ}C$ and growth of yeasts between pH 5.0-6.0 at $24^{\circ}C$. 7) The production of alcohol was effective with the addition of 0.02% $(NH_2)_2CO$ and $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, 0.1% $KH_2PO_4$, 0.05% $MgSO_4$, 0.025% $CaCl_2$, 0.02% $MnCl_2$. Growth of yeasts was effective with 0.04-0.06% $(NH_2)_2CO$ and $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, 0.2% $K_2HPO_4$ and $K_3PO_4$, 0.05% $MgSO_4$, 0.025% $CaCl_2$, and 0.002% NaCl. 8) Among various vitamins, the production of alcohol was effective with the addition to pyridoxine and riboflavin, and the growth of yeasts with the addition to thiamin, Ca-pantothenate, and biotin. The production of aocohol was increased in 0.1% concentration of tannin and furfural, but mas decreased in above concentration. 9) In 100ml of fermented solution, alcohol and yeast were produced 2.201-2.275ml and 84-114mg for wood meals of Pinus densiflora, and 2.075-2.125ml and 104-128mg for that of Alnus japonica. Residual sugars were 0.55-0.60g and 0.60-0.65g for wood meals of Pinus densiflora and Alnus japonica, respectively, and pH varied from 3.3 to 3.6. 10) A strain of Trichoderma viride JJK. 107 was selected and identified as its having the highest activity of decomposing cellulose. 11) The highest cellulase production was good when CMCase incubated for 5 days at pH 6.0, $30^{\circ}C$ and xylanase at pH 5.0, $35^{\circ}C$. The optimum conditions of cellulase activity were proper in case of CMCase at pH 4.5, $50^{\circ}C$ and xylanase at pH 4.5, $40^{\circ}C$. 12) In fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysates, the peracetic acid treatment for delignification showed the best yields of alcohol and its ratio was effective with the addition of about 10 times. 13) The production of alcohol was excellent when wood meals and Koji of wheat bran was mixed with 10 to 8 and the 10g of wood meals of Pinus densiflora produced 2.01-2.14ml of alcohol and Alnus japonica 2.11-2.20ml.

침엽수(針葉樹)인 소나무, 리기다소나무, 일본잎갈나무 3수종(樹種)과 활엽수(闊葉樹)인 오리나무, 밤나무, 이태리포푸라 3수종(樹種)의 목재(木材)로부터 alcohol을 생산(生産)하기 위하여 목재(木材)의 화학성분(化學成分) 분석(分析)과 산(酸) 가수분해(加水分解) 조건(條件)을 확립(確立)하고 또한 섬유소(纖維素) 분해력(分解力)이 강(强)한 균주(菌株)를 분리(分離) 동정(同定)하여 균주(菌株)의 효소(酵素) 생산조건(生産條件), 효소(酵素)의 특성(特性) 및 alcohol 발효조건(醱酵條件) 등(等)을 연구조사(硏究調査)한 바 다음과 같은 결과(結果)를 얻었다. 1) 수종별(樹種別) 산(酸) 가수분해(加水分解)에서 HCl은 1.0%와 2.0%, $H_2SO_4$는 2.0%에서 높은 당화율(糖化率)을 보였고 수종(樹種)은 오리나무가 23.4%로 제일 좋았다. 2) HCl과 $H_2SO_4$으로 산(酸) 가수분해(加水分解)할 때 압력(壓力)은 $1.5kg/cm^2$, 산(酸)의 첨가량(添加量)은 30배량(倍量), 분해시간(分解時間)은 HCl 45분과 $H_2SO_4$ 30분에서 당화율(糖化率)이 양호(良好)하였다. 3) 전처리(前處理)에 있어서 농(濃) HCl 보다는 농(濃) $H_2SO_4$이 더 효과적(効果的)이었고 그 농도(濃度)는 50~60%이었으며 열처리(熱處理)는 $190^{\circ}C$에서 30분간(分間) 처리(處理)함으로써 무처리(無處理)보다 당화율(糖化率)이 약(約) 1.5% 증가(增加)하였다. 4) 목분(木粉) 1g에 있어서 산(酸) 가수분해액(加水分解液)의 당조성(糖組成)은 소나무는 glucose 137.78mg, arabinose 68.24mg이었고 오리나무는 glucose 162.22mg, arabinose 65.89mg을 함유(含有)하고 있었으며, xylose와 galactose도 검출(檢出)되었다. 5) 10개(個)의 균주(菌株) 중에 alcohol 효효력(醗酵力)이 왕성한 균주(菌株)는 Sacch. cerevisiae JAFM 101과 Sacch. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus JAFM 125이었다. 6) 산(酸) 가수분해액(加水分解液)은 $CaCO_3$와 NaOH로 중화(中和)하는 것이 alcohol 생산(生産)과 효모생육(酵母生育)이 양호(良好)하였고 alcohol 생산(生産)은 pH 4.5~5.5, $30^{\circ}C$, 균주생육(菌株生育)에는 pH 5.0~6.0, $24^{\circ}C$에서 발효(醱酵)시키는 것이 좋았다. 7) Alcohol 생산(生産)에는 0.02%의 $(NH_2)_2CO$$(NH_4)_2SO_4$, 0.1%의 $KH_2PO_4$, 0.05%의 $MgSO_4$ 그 밖에 0.025%의 $CaCl_2$, 0.002%의 $MnCl_2$ 첨가(添加)가 효과적(効果的)이었고 효모증식(酵母增殖)에는 0.04~0.06%의 $(NH_2)_2CO$$(NH_4)_2SO_4$, 0.2%의 $K_2HPO_4$$K_3PO_4$, 0.05%의 $MgSO_4$ 그 밖에 0.025%의 $CaCl_2$, 0.002%의 NaCl 첨가(添加)가 효과적(効果的)이다. 8) 여러 가지 vitamin 중에서 alcohol 생산(生産)은 pyridoxine과 riboflavin, 효모증식(酵母增殖)에는 thiamin과 Ca-pantothenate, biotin과 inositol의 첨가(添加)가 좋았고 tannin과 furfural은 0.01% 농도(濃度)에서 alcohol 생산(生産)이 오히려 증가(增加)하였으며 그 이상(以上)의 농도(濃度)에서는 저해(沮害)를 받았다. 9) 발효액(醱酵液) 100ml에서 소나무는 2.201~2.275ml의 alcohol과 168~228mg의 효모(酵母)가 생산(生産)되었고 잔류당(殘溜糖)은 0.55~0.60g이었다. 오리나무는 2.075~2.125ml의 alcohol과 208~256mg의 효모(酵母)를 생산(生産)했으며 잔류당(殘溜糖)은 0.60~0.65g이었고 pH는 3.3~3.6으로 변화(變化)했다. 10) Trichoderma viride JJK107을 섬유소(纖維素) 분해력(分解力)이 강한 균주(菌株)로서 선정(選定)하여 동정(同定)하였다. 11) 효소(酵素) 생산조건(生産條件)으로 CMCase는 pH 6.0, $30^{\circ}C$, xylanase는 pH 5.0, $35^{\circ}C$에서 5일간 배양(培養)할 때 최고(最高)의 효소생산(酵素生産)을 나타냈고 효소작용(酵素作用)의 최적조건(最適條件)은 CMCase는 pH 4.5, $50^{\circ}C$, xylanase는 pH 4.5, $40^{\circ}C$에서 최고(最高)의 활성도(活性度)를 보였다. 12) 목분(木粉)을 peracetic acid로 탈(脫) lignin하고 효소(酵素) 가수분해(加水分解)하여 발효(醱酵)시킬 때가 alcohol 생산(生産)이 좋았으며 peracetic acid 첨가비(添加比)는 10배량(倍量) 이도(移度) 첨가(添加)하는 것이 좋았다. 13) 발효(醱酵)에 있어서 본분(本粉)과 밀기울 Koji의 혼합비율(混合比率)은 10:8일 때에 alcohol 생산(生産)이 좋았고 본분(本粉) 10g에서 소나무 2.01~2.14ml, 오리나무는 2.11~2.20ml의 alcohol을 생산(生産)하였다.