Artificial Insemination in Poultry

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  • Published : 1983.11.01


1. Diluted chicken semen can be preserved at 2 to 5$^{\circ}C$ for 24 to 48 hr with resultant fertility of greater than 90% of that of fresh semen. Turkey semen can be preserved at 10 to 15$^{\circ}C$ for 6 to 24 hr and provide economical fertility. 2. Frozen chicken semen has given variable results; a 21 to 93% fertility ranges as compared to 92 to 94% expected with fresh semen. Highest fertility levels obtained with frozen turkey semen intravaginally inseminated have been 61 and 63% using DMSO and glycerol, respectively, as cryoprotectants. 3. The use of glycerol as a cryoprotectant reauires that its concentration in semen be reduced to less than 2% either by dialysis or centrifugation after thawing and before intravaginal insemination if optimal fertility is to be obtained. 4. The temperature at which cryoprotectants are added to semen and the time allowed for equilibration are important for subsequent fertility pre- and post-freezing. 5. The type of container used for packaging the semen, freeze or cooling rates, thaw rates and level of cryoprotectant all interact in affecting cell survival. 6. Plastic freeze straws as a packaging device for semen offers the following advantages: easy to handle, require minimal storage space, offer a wide range of freeze and thaw rates, and insemination can be made directly from them upon thawing. 7. Controlled slow cooling rates of 1 to 8$^{\circ}C$/min have thus far provided the best results for cooling chicken semen throught the transition phase change (liquid to solid) or critical temperature range of +5 to -20 or -35$^{\circ}C$. 8. Highest fertilities have been achieved with frozen chicken semen where a slow thaw rate (2。 to 5$^{\circ}C$) has been used regardless of the freeze rate. 9. To maintain a constant high level of fertility throughout a breeding season with frozen semen, a higher absolute number of spermatozoa must be inseminated (2 to 3 times as many) as compared to fresh semen since a, pp.oximately 50% are destroyed during processing and freezing. 10. The quality of semen may vary with season and age of the male. Such changes in sperm quality could be accentuated by storage effects. Thus, the correct number of spermatozoa may very well vary during the course of a breeding period. 11. As to time of insemination, it is best to avoid inseminating chicken hens within 1-2 hr after or 3-5 hr before oviposition; and turkey hens during or 7-10 hr before oviposition. 12. The physiological receptiveness of the oviduct at the time of insemination is a very important biological factor influencing fertility levels throughout the breeding season.