Studies on the Varietal Difference in the Physiology of Ripening in Rice with Special Reference to Raising the Percentage of Ripened Grains

수도 등숙의 품종간차이와 그 향상에 관한 연구

  • Published : 1973.11.01


There is a general tendency to increase nitrogen level in rice production to insure an increased yield. On the other hand, percentage of ripened grains is getting decreased with such an increased fertilizer level. Decreasing of the percentage is one of the important yield limiting factors. Especially the newly developed rice variety, 'Tongil' is characterized by a relatively low percentage of ripened grains as compared with the other leading varieties. Therefore, these studies were aimed to finding out of some measures for the improvement of ripening in rice. The studies had been carried out in the field and in the phytotron during the period of three years from 1970 to 1972 at the Crop Experiment Station in Suwon. The results obtained from the experiments could be summarized as follows: 1. The spikelet of Tongil was longer in length, more narrow in width, thinner in thickness, smaller in the volume of grains and lighter in grain weight than those of Jinheung. The specific gravity of grain was closely correlated with grain weight and the relationship with thickness, width and length was getting smaller in Jinheung. On the other hand, Tongil showed a different pattern from Jinheung. The relationship of the specific gravity with grain weight was the greatest and followed by that with the width, thickness and length, in order. 2. The distribution of grain weight selected by specific gravity was different from one variety to another. Most of grains of Jinheung were distributed over the specific gravity of 1.12 with its peak at 1.18, but many of grains of Tongil were distributed below 1.12 with its peak at 1.16. The brown/rough rice ratio was sharply declined below the specific gravity of 1.06 in Jinheung, but that of Tongil was not declined from the 1.20 to the 0.96. Accordingly, it seemed to be unfair to make the specific gravity criterion for ripened grains at 1.06 in the Tongil variety. 3. The increasing tendency of grain weight after flowering was different depending on varieties. Generally speaking, rice varieties originated from cold area showed a slow grain weight increase while Tongil was rapid except at lower temperature in late ripening stage. 4. In the late-tillered culms or weak culms, the number of spikelets was small and the percentage of ripened grains was low. Tongil produced more late-tillered culms and had a longer flowering duration especially at lower temperature, resulting in a lower percentage of ripened grains. 5. The leaf blade of Tongil was short, broad and errect, having light receiving status for photosynthesis was better. The photosynthetic activity of Tongil per unit leaf area was higher than that of Jinheung at higher temperature, but lower at lower temperature. 6. Tongil was highly resistant to lodging because of short culm length, and thick lower-internodes. Before flowering, Tongil had a relatively higher amount of sugars, phosphate, silicate, calcium, manganese and magnesium. 7. The number of spikelets of Tongil was much more than that of Jinheung. The negative correlation was observed between the number of spikelets and percentage of ripened grains in Jinheung, but no correlation was found in Tongil grown at higher temperature. Therefore, grain yield was increased with increased number of spikelets in Tongil. Anthesis was not occurred below 21$^{\circ}C$ in Tongil, so sterile spikelets were increased at lower temperature during flowering stage. 8. The root distribution of Jinheung was deeper than that of Tongil. The root activity of Tongil evaluated by $\alpha$-naphthylamine oxidation method, was higher than that of Jinheung at higher temperature, but lower at lower temperature. It is seemed to be related with discoloration of leaf blades. 9. Tongil had a better light receiving status for photosynthesis and a better productive structure with balance between photosynthesis and respiration, so it is seemed that tongil has more ideal plant type for getting of a higher grain yield as compared with Jinheung. 10. Solar radiation during the 10 days before to 30 days after flowering seemed enough for ripening in suwon, but the air temperature dropped down below 22$^{\circ}C$ beyond August 25. Therefore, it was believed that air temperature is one of ripening limiting factors in this case. 11. The optimum temperature for ripening in Jinheung was relatively lower than that of Tongil requriing more than $25^{\circ}C$. Air temperature below 21$^{\circ}C$ was one of limiting factors for ripening in Tongil. 12. It seemed that Jinheung has relatively high photosensitivity and moderate thermosensitivity, while Tongil has a low photosensitivity, high thermosensitivity and longer basic vegetative phase. 13. Under a condition of higher nitrogen application at late growing stage, the grain yield of Jinheung was increased with improvement of percentage of ripened grains, while grain yield of Tongil decreased due to decreasing the number of spikelets although photosynthetic activity after flowering was. increased. 14. The grain yield of Jinheung was decreased slightly in the late transplanting culture since its photosynthetic activity was relatively high at lower temperature, but that of Tonil was decreased due to its inactive photosynthetic activity at lower temperature. The highest yield of Tongil was obtained in the early transplanting culture. 15. Tongil was adapted to a higher fertilizer and dense transplanting, and the percentage of ripened grains was improved by shortening of the flowering duration with increased number of seedlings per hill. 16. The percentage of vigorous tillers was increased with a denser transplanting and increasing in number of seedlings per hill. 17. The possibility to improve percentage of ripened grains was shown with phosphate application at lower temperature. The above mentioned results are again summarized below. The Japonica type leading varieties should be flowered before August 20 to insure a satisfactory ripening of grains. Nitrogen applied should not be more than 7.5kg/10a as the basal-dressing and the remained nitrogen should be applied at the later growing stage to increase their photosynthetic activity. The morphological and physiological characteristics of Tongil, a semi-dwarf, Indica $\times$ Japonica hybrid variety, are very different from those of other leading rice varieties, requring changes in seed selection by specific gravity method, in milling and in the cultural practices. Considering the peculiar distribution of grains selected by the method and the brown/rough rice ratio, the specific gravity criterion for seed selection should be changed from the currently employed 1.06 to about 0.96 for Tongil. In milling process, it would be advisable to bear in mind the specific traits of Tongil grain appearance. Tongil is a variety with many weak tillers and under lower temperature condition flowering is delayed. Such characteristics result in inactivation of roots and leaf blades which affects substantially lowering of the percentage of ripened grains due to increased unfertilized spikelets. In addition, Tongil is adapted well to higher nitrogen application. Therefore, it would be recommended to transplant Tongil variety earlier in season under the condition of higer nitrogen, phosphate and silicate. A dense planting-space with three vigorous seedlings per hill should be practiced in this case. In order to manifest fully the capability of Tongil, several aspects such as the varietal improvement, culural practices and milling process should be more intensively considered in the future.he future.

수도의 다수확을 위하여 근래 다비재배의 경향이 높아가고 있는 반면에 등숙률의 저하가 증수저해요인으로 크게 문제되고 있다. 특히 최근 육성된 통일품종은 이점이 더 심각한 바 있어 등숙의 향상책을 모색하고저 1970년부터 1972년까지 3개년간에 걸쳐 수원 작물시험장포장과 인공기상실에서 주로 진흥과 통일을 공시하여 증숙에 관한 일련의 실험을 시행한 바 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 통일의 곡립은 발아등 종래품종에 비하여 세장하고 곡립의 폭 및 두께가 작으며 비중과의 상관관계는 진흥에 있어서는 곡립의 무게, 두께, 폭 및 길이의 순으로 낮으나 통일은 무게, 폭, 두께 및 길이의 순으로 낮았다. 2. 비중별 립수분포에 있어서 종래의 Japonica도는 비중 1.18을 정점으로 대부분 1.12이상에 분포하고 있으나 통일계통에서는 1.12이하의 곡립도 상당수 분포하였고 진흥이 비중 1.06이하에서 정현비율이 급감하고 있으나 통일에 있어서는 비중 1.20에서 0.96까지의 곡립의 정현비율이 별로 차이가 없으므로 1.06을 등숙립의 선별기준으로 삼는 것은 불합리한 것으로 인정된다. 3. 출수후의 등숙속도는 품종간차이가 현저하며 대체로 한랭지 재배품종일수록 느렸으며 통일은 원래 등숙이 빠른 편이나 등숙후기에는 기온의 저하로 인하여 그 속도가 떨어졌다. 4. 지발분얼 또는 약세분얼은 수당영화수도 적을 뿐 아니라 등숙률도 낮은데 통일은 지발분얼이 많고 이들은 저온하에서 출수하여 수전일수가 연장되고 등숙률이 떨어졌다. 5. 통일의 엽신은 짧고 넓으며 엽신전개력은 다비조건에서는 진흥만큼 크고 또 엽의 경사각도는 적어 수광태세가 양호하였다. 통일 엽신의 단위동화능력은 고온하에서는 비교적 크나 저온하에서는 떨어졌다. 6. 통일은 단간이며 하위절간이 짧고 굵어서 도복저항성이 크고 출수전 저장탄수화물이 많았으며 인산, 규산, 석회, 망간 및 마그네슘 등의 체내함유율이 높았다. 7. 통일은 비교적 많은 영화수를 가지고 있고 진흥이 영화수와 등숙률간에 유의적인 역상관이 있음에 비하여 통일은 고온다조하에서는 영화수가 많아도 등숙률은 떨어지지 않고 영화수증가에 비례하여 수량이 많아졌다. 8. 진흥에 비하여 통일의 뿌리는 천근성이며 고온하에서는 그 활력이 컸으나 저온시에는 엽신이 황갈색으로 변하고 그 변색정도에 비례해서 뿌리의 활력도 떨어졌다. 9. 통일은 수광태세가 좋고 동화일호흡균형상 유리한 생산구조를 갖어 진흥보다 이상적인 모형이었다. 10. 수원지방의 수도보통기재배에 있어서 수량생산기간의 일사량은 비교적 풍부한 편이나 8월25일이후에 출수할 때에는 평균기온이 22$^{\circ}C$이하로 빠르게 하강하므로서 기온이 보다 등숙의 제한요인으로 인정된다. 11. 진흥이 저온하에서도 등숙율이 비교적 높은데 통일의 등숙적온은 $25^{\circ}C$이상이며 21$^{\circ}C$이하에서는 완전등숙이 거의 불가능하였다. 12. 진흥은 감광성이 비교적 크고 감온성은 중정도인데 비하여 통일은 감광성은 작으나 기본영양생장성과 저온하의 출수지연도가 컸었다. 13. 진흥은 질소의 후기중점시비에 의하여 등숙율이 향상되고 증수되었으나 통일에 있어서는 기비중점으로 질소를 시용하여 영화를 많이 확보하여도 등숙율저하가 적고 오히려 증수되였다. 14. 진흥은 만식적응성이 비교적 크나 통일은 조식효과가 크고 만식하면 출수가 지연되고 등숙온도가 낮아져서 등숙율과 수량이 떨어졌다. 15. 통일은 내비성과 밀식적응성이 커서 다비밀식조건에서 그 다수성을 발휘하는 특성을 가졌으며 주수 및 묘수증가에 의하여 수전일수가 단축되고 등숙률이 향상되었다. 16. 재식거리를 좁히고 어느 정도 주당묘수를 늘리면 강세분얼비율이 높아졌다. 17. 인산은 저온시에는 등숙율을 상당히 향상시켰다. 이상을 요약해보면 종래품종들의 등숙향상을 꾀하자면 8월20일이전에 출수시켜야 하며 10a당 질소 7.5kg 이상의 과다한 기비를 억제하고 후기중점으로 시비하여 동화효율을 높여야할 것이다. 한편 통일은 곡립이 세장하고 식물체가 작고 뭉툭한 등 종래품종과 판이한 외부형태와 더불어 그 생리생태적 특성도 상이한 점이 많으므로 등숙립선별, 도정 및 재배법상에도 종전품종과 다른 고려가 있어야 할 것이다. 즉 등숙립 선별기준에 대하여는 통일의 비중별 입수분포 및 정현비율로 보아 종래의 등숙립 선별기준인 비중 1.06 보다는 0.96을 적용하는 것이 합리적이고 도정상으로는 통일의 곡립이 세장하고 폭 및 두께가 작다는 것을 고려하여야 한다. 재배법에 있어서 통일의 등숙률이 낮은 원인이 주로 약세분얼이 많고 저온하에서는 출수가 지연되고 뿌리와 엽신의 기능이 저하되며 불임이 증가되는 것으로 판명되었고 그 외에 통일은 다비밀식적응성이 크므로 등숙향상과 수량 증대를 위해서는 적극적인 방법으로서 우선 견실하고 큰 묘를 가능한 한 조식하고 다비밀식상태로 재배하되 충분한 기비를 시용하고 묘수를 3본 내외로 심고 인산 및 규산등을 충분히 시용하여야 할 것이다.