• Title, Summary, Keyword: zerovalent iron

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As (v) immobilization in an aqueous solution by zerovalent iron under various environmental conditions (영가철(Zerovalent Iron)을 이용한 수용액 중 비소(V)의 불용화)

  • Yoo, Kyung-Yoal;Ok, Yong-Sik;Yang, Jae-E.
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.197-203
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    • 2007
  • Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has been widely used in the removal of environmental contaminants from water. The objective of this research was to assess the efficiency of ZVI for immobilization of As (V) in the contaminated water under various chemical conditions. Batch-type experiments showed that the immobilization process followed a first-order kinetic model. Rate constant (k) of the reaction increased consistently and proportionally as increasing ZVI concentrations from 1% (0.158 $hr^{-1}$) to 3% (0.342 $hr^{-1}$), and temperatures from $15^{\circ}C$ (0.117 $hr^{-1}$) to $35^{\circ}C$ (0.246 $hr^{-1}$), respectively. Whereas the rate constant decreased as increasing As (V) concentrations from 1 mg $\Gamma^{-1}$ (0.284 $hr^{-1}$) to 3 mg $\Gamma^{-1}$ (0.153 $hr^{-1}$), and the initial pH from 3 (0.393 $hr^{-1}$) to 9 (0.067 $hr^{-1}$), respectively. Results demonstrated that As (V) in an aqueous solution was rapidly immobilized by ZVI treatments. Zerovalent iron was fast method for remediation of As (V) contaminated water.

Oxidative Degradation of the Herbicide Dicamba Induced by Zerovalent Iron (Zerovalent Iron에 의해 유도되는 제초제 Dicamba의 산화적 분해)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hwan;Kim, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.86-91
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    • 2008
  • Dicamba(3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is used to control for pre and post-emergence of annual and perennial broad-leaf weeds. It is very soluble in water and highly mobile, acidic herbicide. So it is easily moved and detected in groundwater. Zerovalent iron(ZVI) has been used for the reductive degradation of certain compounds through amination of nitro-substituted compounds and dechlorination of chloro-substituted compounds. In this study, we investigated the potential of ZVI for the oxidative degradation of dicamba in water. The degradation rate of dicamba by ZVI was more rapidly increased in pH 3.0 than pH 5.0 solution. The degradation percentage of dicamba was increased with increasing amount of ZVI from 0.05% to 1.0%(w/v) and reached above 90% within 3 hours of reaction. As a result of identification by GC-MS after derivatization with diazomethane, we obtained three degradation products of dicamba by ZVI. They were identified 4-hydroxy dicamba or 5-hydroxy dicamba, 4,5-dihydroxy dicamba and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxyphenol. 4-Hydroxy dicamba or 5-hydroxy dicamba and 4,5-dihydroxy dicamba are hydroxylation products of dicamba. 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxyphenol is hydroxyl group substituted compound instead of carboxyl group in dicamba. We also confirmed the same degradation products of dicamba in the Fenton reaction which is one of oxidation processes using ferric sulfate and hydrogen peroxide. But we could not find out the dechlorinated degradation products of dicamba by ZVI.

Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewaters by Hydrogen Peroxide and Zerovalent Iron

  • Jeon, Byeong-Cheol;Nam, Se-Yong;Kim, Young-Kwon
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2014
  • Fenton reaction with zerovalent iron (ZVI) and $Fe^{2+}$ ions was studied to treat pharmaceutical wastewaters (PhWW) including antibiotics and non-biodegradable organics. Incremental biodegradability was assessed by monitoring biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) changes during Fenton reaction. Original undiluted wastewater samples were used as collected from the pharmaceutical factory. Experiments were carried out to obtain optimal conditions for Fenton reaction under different $H_2O_2$ and ion salts (ZVI and $Fe^{2+}$) concentrations. The optimal ratio and dosage of $H_2O_2$/ZVI were 5 and 25/5 g/L (mass basis), respectively. Also, the optimal ratio and dosage of $H_2O_2/Fe^{2+}$ ions were 5 and 35/7 g/L (mass basis), respectively. Under optimized conditions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency by ZVI was 23% better than the treatment with $Fe^{2+}$ ion. The reaction time was 45 min for ZVI and shorter than 60 min for $Fe^{2+}$ ion. The COD and total organic carbon (TOC) were decreased, but BOD was increased under the optimal conditions of $H_2O_2$/ZVI = 25/5 g/L, because organic compounds were converted into biodegradable intermediates in the early steps of the reaction. The BOD/TOC ratio was increased, but reverse-wise, the COD/TOC was decreased because of generated intermediates. The biodegradability was increased about 9.8 times (BOD/TOC basis), after treatment with ZVI. The combination of chemical and biological processes seems an interesting combination for treating PhWW.

Kinetics of Metolachlor Degradation by Zerovalent Iron (Zerovalent Iron에 의한 Metolachlor의 분해 Kinetics)

  • Kim, Su-Jung;Oh, Sang-Eun;Yang, Jae-E.
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2007
  • Metolachlor may pose a threat to surface and ground water qualities due to its high solubility in water, Zerovalent iron (ZVI) releases $e^-$ which can degrade the organochlorinated compounds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the kinetics of metolachlor degradation as affected by ZVI sources [Peerless unannealed (PU) and Peerless annealed (PA)] and ZVI levels (1 and 5%) under batch conditions at different metolachlor concentrations (200 and 1000 mg/l) and temperatures (15, 25, and $35^{\circ}C$). The effectiveness of ZVI on metolachlor degradation was assessed by characterizing the dechlorinated metolachlor byproduct molecules. Metolachlor degradation by ZVI followed the first-ordered kinetics with a higher rate constant at higher level of ZVI treatment. At 5% (w/v) of PU and PA treatment, the half-lives of metolachlor degradation were 9.93 and 6.51 h and all of the initial metolachlor were degraded in 72 and 48 h, respectively. Rate constants (k) of metolachlor degradation were higher at the lower initial metolachlor concentration. The metolachlor degradation by ZVI was temperature dependent showing that the rate constant (k) at 15, 25, and $35^{\circ}C$ were 0.0805, 0.1017, and 0.3116 /h, respectively. The ZVI-mediated metolachlor degradation yielded two byproduct molecules identified as dechlorinated metolachlor $(C_{13}H_{18}NO)$ and dechlorinated-dealkylated metolachlor $(C_{12}H_{17}NO)$. The PA ZVI was more effective than PU ZVI in metolachlor degradation.

Abiotic Degradation Degradation of the Herbicide Oxadiazon in Water

  • Rahman Md. Mokhlesur;Park, Jong-Woo;Park, Man;Rhee In-Koo;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2006
  • The performance of abiotic degradation of oxadiazon was investigated by applying zerovalent iron(ZVI), potassium permanganate($KMnO_4$) and titanium dioxide($TiO_2$) in the contaminated water. Experimental conditions allowed the disappearance of oxadiazon in the abiotic system. The degradation of this herbicide was monitored in buffer solutions having pH 3, 5 and 7 in the presence of iron powder in which the maximum degradation rate was achieved at acidic condition(pH 3) by 2% of ZVI treatment. The oxidative degradation of oxadiazon was observed in aqueous solution by $KMnO_4$ at pH 3, 7 and 10 in which the highest disappearance rate was found at neutral pH when treated with 2% of $KMnO_4$. The catalytic degradation of oxadiazon in $TiO_2$ suspension was obtained under dark and UV irradiation conditions. UV irradiation enhanced the degradation of oxadiazon in aquatic system in the presence of $TiO_2$. Conclusively, the remediation strategy using these abiotic reagents could be applied to remove oxadiazon from the contaminated water.

Degradation Patterns of Orgaonophosphorus Insecticide, Chlorpyrifos by Functionalized Zerovalent Iron (기능화된 Zerovalent Iron에 의한 유기인계 살충제 Chlorpyrifos의 분해 특성)

  • Kim, Dai-Hyeon;Choi, Choong-Lyeal;Kim, Tae-Hwa;Park, Man;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.321-326
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    • 2007
  • An organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos, has been of a great concern due to persistence, toxicity and accumulation in soils and groundwaters. This study deals with degradation efficiency and dechlorination kinetics of chlorpyrifos by various types of zerovalent irons (ZVIs) for effective remediation of the soils contaminated with chlorinated pesticides. Chlorpyrifos degradation rate was increased with increasing ZVI treatment amount and reaction time. The degradation rate and dechlorination kinetics of chlorpyrifos increased in the order of mZVI > nZVI > cZVI in solutions and soils. Dechlorination number value of chlorpyrifos by cZVI, nZVI and mZVI treatment exhibited 1.08, 3.09 and 3.18, respectively. In soils, degradation efficiency and kinetics of chlorpyrifos significantly were affected by moisture content because of the limited contact between ZVIs and chlorpyrifos. These results suggest that nanosized and functionalized mZVI could be effectively applied to degradation of chlorinated pesticides in the soil and aqueous environments.

The Effect of Some Amendments to Reduce Ammonia during Pig Manure Composting (몇 가지 처리제의 첨가에 의한 돈분의 퇴비화 과정 중 암모니아 발생 저감 효과)

  • Joo, Jin-Ho;Kim, Dae-Hoon;Yoo, Jae-Hong;Ok, Yong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.269-273
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    • 2007
  • Occurrence of malodor could cause adverse impacts on human health and increase public interest. Therefore, scientific methods to decrease odor is required. Endeavor to decrease odor from compost however has not fully been successful. The purpose of this research is assessment of some amendments to reduce $NH_3$ from immature composts. Calcium hydroxide was applied to composts due to it's characteristics to increase pH. Activated carbon and zerovalent iron (ZVI) were selected because of their adsorption properties. The research results were as follows: Calcium hydroxide, activated carbon, zerovalent iron increased the composting temperature above $60^{\circ}C$. The addition of calcium hydroxide, activated carbon, and ZVI to compastry process increased pH 8.6 - 8.8 from $1^{st}$ day to $14^{th}$ day. During the 14 days of composting, addition of calcium hydroxide, activated carbon and ZVI changed EC from $2.15-0.66dS\;m^{-1}$, $1.48-1.11dS\;m^{-1}$, respectively and $1.77-0.68dS\;m^{-1}$. The difference in EC of the compost was due to irregularities of samples. Organic matter in the compost decreased through out theexcept control. The $NH_4-N/NO_3-N$ ratio of all experimental compost increased through the process. The addition of activated carbon, calcium hydroxide and ZVI decreased $NH_3$ from 0.1ppm, 0.7ppm and 1.7ppm more than the control (pig manure and sawdust), 9.3ppm, in 30 days of composting. In conclusion, odor from prematured compost decreased by addition of chemicals like calcium hydroxide, activated carbon, zerovalent iron. Moreover, use of these $NH_3$ reducers alone or together combined at different periods of composting etc. could decrease $NH_3$.

Stabilization of As (arsenic(V) or roxarsone) Contaminated Soils using Zerovalent Iron and Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag (영가철(Zerovalent Iron)과 제강슬래그를 이용한 비소(V) 및 록살슨(Roxarsone) 오염토양의 비소 안정화 효율 평가)

  • Lim, Jung-Eun;Kim, Kwon-Rae;Lee, Sang-Soo;Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Yang, Jae-E;Ok, Yong-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.631-638
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of zerovalent iron and basic oxygen furnace slag on arsenic stabilization in soils. For this, arsenic (V) contaminated soil and roxarsone contaminated soil were incubated after incorporation with zerovalent iron (ZVI) or basic oxygen furnace slage (BOFS) at four different levels (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) for 30 days and then the residual concentrations of arsenic were analysed following extraction with aqua reqia, 1N HCl and 0.01 M $CaCl_2$. The total concentration of arsenic was 2,285 mg/kg in the As(V) contaminated soil and 6.5 mg/kg in the roxarsone contaminated soil. 1 N HCl extractable arsenic concentration in the As(V) contaminated soil was initially 1,351 mg/kg and this was significantly declined by 713~1,034 mg/kg following incubation with ZVI while BOFS treatment showed no effect on the stabilization of inorganic arsenate except 5% treatment which showed around 100 mg/kg reduction in 1N HCl extractable arsenic. Similarly, in the roxarsone contaminated soil 1N HCl extractable concentration of arsenic was reduced from 3.13 mg/kg to 0.69 mg/kg with ZVI treatment increased from 1% to 5% while BOFS treatment did not lead to any statistically significant reduction. Available (0.01M $CaCl_2$ extractable) arsenic was initially 0.85 mg/kg in the As(V) contaminated soil and this declined by 0.79 mg/kg following incorporation with 5% ZVI, which accounted for more than 90% of the available As in the control. When As(V)-contaminated soil was treated with BOFS, the available arsenic was increased due to competing effect of the phosphate originated from BOFS with arsenate for the adsorption sites. For the roxarsone contaminated soil, the greater the treatment of ZVI or BOFS, the lower the available arsenic concentration although it was still higher than that of the control.