• Title, Summary, Keyword: zeaxanthin

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Cloning and Characterization of the Zeaxanthin Glucosyltransferase Gene (crtX) from the Astaxanthin-Producing Marine Bacterium, Paracoccus haeundaensis

  • Seo, Yong-Bae;Choi, Seong-Seok;Nam, Soo-Wan;Lee, Jae-Hyung;Kim, Young-Tae
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1542-1546
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    • 2009
  • Zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase (CrtX) mediates the formation of zeaxanthin to zeaxanthin diglucoside. Here, we report cloning of the crtX gene responsible for zeaxanthin diglucoside biosynthesis from Paracoccus haeundaensis and the production of the corresponding carotenoids in transformed cells carrying this gene. An expression plasmid containing the crtX gene (pSTCRT-X) was constructed, and Escherichia coli cells containing this plasmid produced the recombinant protein of approximately 46 kDa. Biosynthesis of zeaxanthin diglucoside was obtained when the plasmid pSTCRT-X was co-transformed into E. coli containing the pET-44a(+)-CrtEBIYZ carrying crtE, crtB, crtI, crtY, and crtZ genes required for zeaxanthin $\beta$-D-diglucoside biosynthesis.

Carotenoid Pigments in Echiurid, Urechis unicinctus (개불의 carotenoid 색소성분)

  • KIM Soo Young;HA Bong Seuk
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.223-231
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    • 1999
  • Carotenoid pigments of echiurid, Urechis unicinctus were investigated during March, April and May as a part of comparative biochemical studies of carotenoid pigments for the marine organisms other than pisces. Total carotenoid contents were found to be 1.19 mg/100 g in March, 0.98 mg/100 g in April and 0.84 mg/100 g in May, indicating that total carotenoid content was negatively affected by the temperature of sea water that echiurid resided. The carotenoid isolated in March composed of $16.3\%$ diatoxanthin monoester, $14.8\%$ $\beta$-carotene and $12.6\%$ cynthiaxanthin monoester, $8.4\%$ cynthiaxanthin diester, $8.2\%$ zeaxanthin monoester, $7.3\%$ diatoxanthin diester $4.2\%$ astaxanthin $2.9\%$ diatoxanthin, $2.4\%$ triol, $2.3\%$ cynthiaxanthin, $1.7\%$ isocrytoxanthin, $1.5\%$ zeaxanthin diester, $0.8\%$ zeaxanthin and $0.5\%$ lutein. The carotenoid isolated in April composed of $21.9\%$ diatoxanthin monoester, $17.2\%$ cynthiaxanthin monoester and $16.6\%$ $\beta$-carotene $10.9\%$ zeaxanthin monoester, $5.6\%$ cynthiaxanthin diester, $4.9\%$ diatoxanthin diester, $3.1\%$ astaxanthin, $2.4\%$ triol, $2.3\%$ diatoxanthin, $1.7\%$ isocrytoxanthin, $1.5\%$ lutein, $1.1\%$ zeaxanthin, $1.0\%$ cynthiaxanthin and $1.0\%$ zeaxanthin diester. Similarly, the carotenoid isolated in May composed of $25.3\%$ diatoxanthin monoester, $19.7\%$ cynthiaxanthin monoester, $13.0\%$ $\beta$-carotene, and $12.6\%$ zeaxanthin monoester, $5.8\%$ cynthiaxanthin diester, $5.1\%$ diatoxanthin, $3.0\%$ astaxanthin, $2.4\%$ triol, $2.2\%$ diatoxanthin, $1.3\%$ isocrytoxanthin, $1.2\%$ zeaxanthin, $1.1\%$ zeaxanthin diester, $1.0\%$ lutein and $0.9\%$ cynthiaxanthin. Based on these data, monoester-type carotenoids ($37.1\~57.6\%$) and diester-type carotenoids ($11.5\~17.2\%$) of total carotenoids in echiurid were the major carotenoids. Meanwhile, when the sea water temperature was elevated and the contents of total carotenoid in echiurids were decreased, the contents of zeaxanthin monoester, diatoxanthin monoester and cynthiaxanthin monoester were increased, but the contents of zeaxanthin diester, diatoxanthin diester and cynthiaxanthin diseter were decreased, indicating that changes in ester-type caroteoids were differently affected by the sea water temperature.

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Comparison of Dietary Carotenoids Metabolism and Effects to Improve the Body Color of Cultured Fresh-water Fishes and Marine Fishes (양식 담수어 및 해산어의 사료 Carotenoids 대사의 비교와 체색개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Bong-Seuk;Kweon, Moon-Jeong;Park, Mi-Yeon;Baek, Sung-Han;Kim, Soo-Young;Baek, In-Ok;Kang, Seok-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.270-284
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    • 1997
  • Effects of dietary carotenoids were investigated on the metaboβsm and body pigmentation of rainbow trout(Salmo gairdneri), masu salmon(Oncorhynchus macrostomos), eel(Anguilla japonica), rock fish(Sebastes inermis) and black rock fish(Sebastes schlegeli). Three weeks later after depletion, these fishes were fed diet supplemented with ${\beta}-carotene$, lutein, canthaxanthin', astaxanthin or ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ for 4 to 5 weeks, respectively. Carotenoids distributed to and changed in integument were analyzed. In the integument of rainbow trout. zeaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$ and canthaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids, while lutein, isocryptoxanthin and salmoxanthin were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of masu salmon, zeaxanthin was found to be the major carotenoids, while triol, lutein, tunaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$, ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and canthaxanthin were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of eel, ${\beta}-carotene$ was found to be the major carotenoids, while lutein, zeaxanthin and ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of rock fish, zeaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$, tunaxanthin$(A{\sim}C)$ and lutein were found to be the major carotenoids, while ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$, ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ and astaxanthin were the minor carotenoids. Likely in the integument of black rock fish, ${\beta}-carotene$, astaxanthin and zeaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids, whereas ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$, ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$, lutein and canthaxanthin were the minor contributor. The efficacy of body pigmentation by the accumulation of carotenoids in the integument of rainbow trout and masu salmon were the most effectively shown in the canthaxanthin group and of eel, rock fish and black rock fish were the most effectively shown in the lutein group. Based on these results in the integument of each fish, dietary carotenoids were presumably biotransformed via oxidative and reductive pathways. In the rainbow trout, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to astaxanthin via successively isocryptoxanthin, echinenone and canthaxanthin. Lutein was oxidized to canthaxanthin. Canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$ via isozeaxanthin, and astaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via triol. In the masu salmon, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to zeaxanthin. Lutein was reduced to zeaxanthin via tunaxanthin. Canthaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via ${\beta}-carotene$. and astaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via triol. In the eel, ${\beta}-carotene$ and lutein were directly deposited but canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$, and cholesterol lowering effect by Meju supplementation might be resulted from the modulation of fecal axanthin, astaxanthin and ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ were oxidized and reduced to tunaxanthin via zeaxanthin. In the black roch fish, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$. Lutein was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$ via ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$. Canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ via successively ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and zeaxanthin. Astaxanthin converted to tunaxanthin via isocryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, and ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ was reduced to ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ via ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and zeaxanthin.

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Antihepatotoxic zeaxanthins from the Fruits of Lycium chinense

  • Kim, Sun-Yeou;Kim, Hong-Pyo;Huh, Hoon;Kim, Young-Choong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.529-532
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    • 1997
  • A $CHCl_3$:MeOH extract of the fruit of Lycium chinense Mill. (Solanaceae) was found to afford significant protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Subsequent activity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of zeaxanthin and zeaxanthin dipalmitate as antihepatotoxic components. Incubation of injured hepatocytes with zeaxanthin dipalmitate reduced the levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) released from damaged cells to 60.5% and 76.3% of those released from untreated controls, respectively. Zeaxanthin also reduced the levels of GPT and SDH to 68.5% and 61.3% of the levels of those released from the untreated contro. The results confirm the hepatoprotective activities of zeaxanthins. Antihepatotoxic activities of zeaxanthins are comparable to that of silybin.

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Metabolism of Dietary Carotenoids and Effects to Improve the Body Color of Oily Bittering, Acheilognathus koreensis (칼납자루이 사료 Carotenoids 대사와 체색개선에 미치는 영향)

  • 백승한;김현영;김수영;정계임;권문정;김종현;하봉석
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.1099-1106
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    • 1999
  • Effects of dietary carotenoids were investigated on metabolism of the carotenoids, and body pigmen tation in oily bittering, Acheilognathus koreensis. Two weeks later after depletion,oily bitterings were fed the diets supplemented with either lutein, cynthiaxanthin and astaxathin for 4 weeks. Carotenoids distributed to and metabolized in integument were analyed. The carotenoid isolated from the integument of wild oily bittering, composed of 47.2% zeaxanthin, 11.4% lutein epoxide, 11.0% diatoxanthin, 9.7% lutein and 8.3% zeaxanthin epoxide. Meanwhile, two weeks later after depletion, the carotenoid composed of 29.9% crytoxanthin, 19.3% zeaxanthin, 13.2% lutein epoxide, 12.0% diatoxanthin and 8.8% zeaxanthin epoxide. These indicated that zeaxanthin, diatoxanthin, lutein epoxide and zeaxanthin epoxide were actively metabolized in oily bittering, compared to that of other fresh water fish. Total carotenoid content in the integument of wild oily bittering and oily bittering depleted for two weeks was found to be 1.72mg% and 2.08mg%, respectively. Two weeks later after treatment of experimental diet, total carotenoids content was increased to 2.23mg% in lutein, 2.36mg% in cynthiaxanthin and 2.49mg% in astaxanthin supplemented group, which were relatively higher than 2.10mg% in control group. Meanwhile, 4 weeks later, total ca rotenoids content was decreased to 1.76mg% in control, 1.95mg% in lutein, 1.74mg% in cynthiaxanthin and 1.72mg% in astaxanthin supplemented groups. These result indicate that dietary carotenoids were rapidly accumulated and then metabolized to certain metabolites shortly after feeding. Body pigmentation effects of the carotenoids due to accumulation of carotenoids in the integument of oily bittering was the most effectively shown in the astaxanthin supplemented group, followed by cynthiaxanthin and lutein supplemented groups. In the integument of oily bittering, dietary carotenoids were presumably biotrans formed via either oxidative or reductive pathways as presumed the variation of total carotenoid content and carotenoid composition in all experimental groups. The lutein was oxidized either to astaxanthin via doradexanthin and doradexanthin, or to zeaxanthin epoxide via zeaxanthin by oxidative pathway. Cynthiaxanthin was converted either to diatoxanthin and zeaxanthin by reductive pathway and then to zeaxanthin epoxide by oxidative pathway, or it was converted to astaxanthin via diatoxanthin, zeaxan thin and doradexanthin by oxidative pathway. Astaxanthin was converted to doradexanthin and zeaxanthin by reductive pathway and then to zeaxanthin epoxide by oxidative pathway. These results suggest that, oxidative pathway of carotenoids was major metabolic pathway along with reductive path way in fresh water fish.

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Method Validation and Quantification of Lutein and Zeaxanthin from Green Leafy Vegetables using the UPLC System (UPLC를 이용한 lutein과 zeaxanthin의 분석법 검증 및 엽채류에서의 정량적 평가)

  • Kim, Suna;Kim, Ji-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.686-691
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this research is to present method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of lutein and zeaxanthin using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Also, rapid quantification was performed on six green leafy vegetables (Allium tuberosum, Aster scaber, Hemerocallis fulva, Pimpinella brachycarpa, Sedum sarmentosum and Spinacia oleracea) that are commonly consumed in Korea. Separation and quantification were successfully achieved with a Waters Acquity BEH C18 ($50{\times}2.1mm$, $1.7{\mu}m$) column by 85% methanol within 5 min. Two compounds showed good linearity ($r^2$ > 0.9968) in $1-150{\mu}g/mL$. Limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for lutein and zeaxanthin were 1.7 and 5.1 g/mL and 2.1 and 6.3 g/mL, respectively. The RSD for intra- and inter-day precision of each compound was less than 10.69%. The recovery of each compound was in the range of 91.75-105.13%. Aster scaber and Spinacia oleracea contained significantly higher amounts of lutein ($4.06{\pm}0.24$ and $3.97{\pm}0.10mg$/100 g of fresh weight), respectively.

Levels and Factors Affecting Serum Carotenoids Concentrations of Adults Living in Rural Area of Korea (한국농촌 성인의 혈청 Carotenoids 농도와 이에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • 안윤진
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.489-498
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    • 1997
  • Recent researches suggest that carotenoids are important not only as provitamin A but also for prevention of chronic diseases. This study was conduction to determine levels and factors affecting serum levels of lutein + zeaxanthin, $\beta$-cryptoxanthin, and $\beta$-carotene in 93 adults living in rural area of Korea. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum carotenoid levels were measured by HPLC. Dietary intake was estimated by 24 hour recall method and frequency questionnare of major food groups. Mean serum concentration of lutein + zeaxanthin was 616.32 nmol/L, $\beta$-cryptoxanthin was 856.95nmol/L, and $\beta$-carotene was 242.90nmol/L. Serum $\beta$-carotene levels in study subjects were very low. Both $\beta$-cryptxanthin and $\beta$-carotene were negatively correlated with serum triglyceride and positively correlated with total-choesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Serum levels of female subjects were significantly higher than males in all carotenoids. For age groups, subjects in their 30's were shown to have the highest concentration of all carotenoids. Lutein + zeaxanthin were lowest in subjects in theri 40's while $\beta$-crytoxanthin and $\beta$-carotene levels were lowest in subjects in their 60's. The $\beta$-carotene levels in non-smokers were significantly higher than in drinkers. Lutein+zeaxanthin levels were significantly higher among subjects consuming more green and yellow vegetables by frequency questionnarie. In conclusion, serum carotenoids were affected by sex, age, serum lipids, smoking, and alcohol intake. Intake of vegetables and fruits could affect by sex, serum lipids, smoking, and alchol intake. Intake of vegetables and fruits could affect serum lutein+zeaxanthin level. This data indicated that compared to other studies, Korean adults in rural areas have high lutein+zeaxanthin concentratins and low $\beta$-carotene concentrations in serum. High lutein+zeaxanthin levels may be related to high consumption of vegetables in these subjects.

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Gene Expression Analysis of Zeaxanthin Epoxidase from the Marine Microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta in Response to Light/Dark Cycle and Salinity

  • Kim, Minjae;Kang, Yongsoo;Jin, EonSeon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1453-1459
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    • 2019
  • Zeaxanthin is an important pigment in the photo-protection mechanism of microalgae. However, zeaxanthin epoxidase, an enzyme involved in the accumulation and conversion of zeaxanthin, has not been extensively studied in microalgae. In this work, we report the expression pattern of zeaxanthin epoxidase in Dunaliella tertiolecta (DtZEP) at different light and diverse salinity conditions. To confirm the responsiveness to light conditions, the ZEP expression pattern was investigated in photoperiodic (16 h of light and 8 h of dark) and continuous (24 h of light and 0 h of dark) light conditions. mRNA expression levels in photoperiodic conditions fluctuated along with the light/dark cycle, whereas those in continuous light remained unchanged. In varying salinity conditions, the highest mRNA and protein levels were detected in cells cultured in 1.5 M NaCl, and ZEP expression levels in cells shifted from 0.6 M NaCl to 1.5 M NaCl increased gradually. These results show that mRNA expression of DtZEP responds rapidly to the light/dark cycle or increased salinity, whereas changes in protein synthesis do not occur within a short period. Taken together, we show that DtZEP gene expression responds rapidly to light irradiation and hyperosmotic stress. In addition, ZEP expression patterns in light or salinity conditions are similar to those of higher plants, even though the habitat of D. tertiolecta is different.

Complete genome sequence of Pantoea intestinalis SRCM103226, a microbial C40 carotenoid zeaxanthin producer (식용곤충 갈색거저리에서 분리한 카로테노이드 생성균주인 Pantoea intestinalis SRCM103226 균주의 유전체 해독)

  • Kim, Jin Won;Ha, Gwangsu;Jeong, Seong-Yeop;Jeong, Do-Youn
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.167-170
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    • 2019
  • Pantoea intestinalis SRCM103226, isolated from edible insect mealworm overproduces zeaxanthin as a main carotenoid. The complete genome of P. intestinalis SRCM103226 was sequenced using the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RS II platform. The genome of P. intestinalis SRCM103226 comprises a 4,784,919 bp circular chromosome (53.41% G+C content), and is devoid of any extrachromosomal plasmids. Annotation using the RAST server reveals 4,332 coding sequences and 107 RNAs (22 rRNA genes, 85 tRNA genes). Genome annotation analysis revealed that it has five genes involved in the carotenoid pathway. The genome information provides fundamental knowledge for comparative genomics studies of the zeaxanthin pathway.