• Title, Summary, Keyword: xylitol

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The Production of Xylitol by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Agricultural Wastes

  • Tran, Lien-Ha;Masanori Yogo;Hiroshi Ojima;Osamu Idota;Keiichi Kawai;Tohru Suzuki;Kazuhiro Takamizawa
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2004
  • Agricultural waste products, beech wood and walnut shells, were hydrolyzed at 40$^{\circ}C$ using mixed crude enzymes produced by Penicillium sp. AHT-1 and Rhizomucor pusillus HHT-1. D-xylose, 4.1 g and 15.1 g was produced from the hydrolysis of 100 g of beech wood and walnut shells, respectively. For xylitol production, Candida tropicalis IFO0618 and the waste product hydrolyzed solutions were used. The effects on xylitol production, of adding glucose as a NADPH source, D-xylose and yeast extract, were examined. Finally, a 50% yield of xylitol was obtained by using the beech wood hydrolyzed solution with the addition of 1% yeast extract and 1% glucose at an initial concentration.

Microbiological Purification of L-Arabitol from Xylitol Mother Liquor

  • Jiang, Mingguo;Wang, Ben;Yang, Lifang;Lin, Shuangjun;Cheng, Hairong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2011
  • As a rare sugar alcohol, L-arabitol can be used in food and can prevent extra fat deposits in the intestinal tract. Commercially, L-arabitol is prepared from pure L-arabinose by hydrogenation, which needs a high temperature and high pressure, leading to a high production cost for Larabitol. Therefore, this study describes a novel L-arabitol production method based on biological purification from the xylitol mother liquor, a cheap and readily available raw material that contains a high concentration of Larabitol. First, a novel Bacillus megaterium strain was screened that can utilize xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol, yet not L-arabitol. The isolated strain was inoculated into a medium containing the xylitol mother liquor under formulated culture conditions, where a high L-arabitol yield (95%) and high purity (80%) were obtained when the medium was supplemented with 50 g/l of xylitol mother liquor. Upon further purification of the fermentation broth by ion exchange and decolorization, L-arabitol was crystallized with a purity of 98.5%.

AN EFFECT OF XYLITOL ON THE ADHESIVENESS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS TO SYNTHETIC HYDROXYAPATITE; AN IN VITRO STUDY (자일리톨 함유 식품이 합성 수산화인회석에 대한 Streptococcus mutans의 부착에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Chun;Lee, Kwang-Hee;Kim, Dae-Eop
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.92-99
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    • 2002
  • There have been efforts that inhibit development of dental caries by sugar substitution. But, it is controversial if xylitol has anticariogenic effect in the presence of sucrose. And there are few papers dealing with the combined action of xylitol and sucrose. For the purpose of resolving this controversy, the author investigated the effect of xylitol on enamel demineralization and on adhesiveness of S. mutans to hydroxyapatite in the presence of sucrose. Five experimental solutions were prepared as follows: (S: sucrose, X: xylitol) Group 1: BHI broth Group 2: BHI+1% S Group 3: BHI+0.75% S+0.25% X Group 4: BHI+0.5% S+0.5% X Group 5: BHI+0.25% S+0.75% X Group 6: BHI+1% X Each solution was inoculated with $100{\mu}l$ of S. mutans JC-2. And saliva coated hydroxyapatite beads were put into each experimental solution. And then each solution was incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ under anaerobic condition. After incubation, the adhesiveness of S. mutans on hydroxyapatite was evaluated. The Vickers hardness numbers were measured on extracted human primary teeth, and these teeth were dipped into the same experimental solution and incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ under anaerobic condition for 48hours. Surface microhardness were measured again after incubation. The obtained results were as follows; 1. In the presence of sucrose, xylitol can reduce the adhesiveness of S. mutans on hydroxyapatite surface from the ratio of 25% sucrose to 75% xylitol(P<0.05). 2. In the presence of sucrose, xylitol can reduced demineralization of primary teeth enamel surface from the ratio of 50% sucrose to 50% xylitol(P<0.01).

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Quality Characteristics of Strawberry Jam Containing Sugar Alcohols (당알코올을 첨가한 딸기잼의 품질특성)

  • Park, Min-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.44-49
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    • 2007
  • The quality characteristics of strawberry jam containing different levels of sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, sorbitol and maltitol were compared with jam containing 35% of sugar only. Addition of 10-30% of xylitol did not influence pH and total acidity. The intensity of redness and amount of residual anthocyanin were increased according to increase of levels of xylitol, which showed a positive effect on color. However, the addition of more than 10% of xylitol resulted in negative changes in hardness and spreadmeter values. These and consumer preference results showed that the optimum amount of xylitol was less than 10%. Substituting sugar with 10% of xylitol and 25% of sorbitol, 10% of xylitol and 25% of maltitol or 10% of xylitol and 12.5% of sorbitol and maltitol did not change the pH, total acidity, hardness or spreadmeter value, but the redness and the amount of residual anthocyanin were still increased by these ratios. The most preferred ratio according to the sensory test was 10% of xylitol with 12.5% of sorbitol and maltitol each.

Xylitol Mitigate Neutrophil Inflammatory Response Against Porphyromonas gingivalis Infection

  • Na, Hee Sam;Song, YuRi;Choi, Yoon Hee;Chung, Jin
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2018
  • Periodontitis is generally a chronic disorder characterized by breakdown of tooth-supporting tissues, producing dentition loss. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a Gramnegative anaerobic rod, is one of the major pathogens associated with periodontitis. Neutrophils are first line defense cells in the oral cavity that play a significant role in inflammatory response. Xylitol is a known anti-caries agent and has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we conducted experiments to evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of xylitol on P. gingivalis infected neutrophils for possible usage in prevention and treatment of periodontal infections. P. gingivalis was intraperitoneally injected and peritoneal lavage was collected for cytokine determination. For in vitro study, neutrophils were collected from mouse peritoneal cells after zymosan injection or bone marrow cells. Neutrophils were stimulated with live P. gingivalis and ELISA was used to determine the effect of xylitol on P. gingivalis induced cytokine production. $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$ concentration and neutrophil population in the peritoneal lavage was increased in P. gingivalis-infected mouse. Peritoneal cells infected with live P. gingivalis revealed significantly increased production of $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ at multiplicity of infection of 10. Neutrophils from bone marrow and peritoneal lavage revealed increased production of $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$. Xylitol significantly mitigated P. gingivalis induced cytokine production in neutrophils. Findings indicate that xylitol is an anti-inflammatory agent in neutrophils infected with live P. gingivalis, that suggests its use in periodontitis management.

Quantitative comparison of mRNA expression of glucosyltransferase (GTF) between $xylitol-resistant(X^R)$ and $xylitol-sensitive(X^S)$ mutans streptococci (Mutans streptococci의 자일리톨 내성균주와 감성균주의 glucosyltransferase mRNA의 정량적 비교 연구)

  • Lee, MI-Na;Kim, Young-Jae;Lee, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Chong-Chul
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2006
  • Since the long-term exposure of mutans streptococci to xylitol is known to select for xylitol-resistant $(X^R)$ natural mutants, the occurrence and survival of such $(X^R)$ strains were performed in batch culture methods. The aim of the study was to compare the differentiation and quantification of mRNA expression of the gtf genes of $X^R\;and\;X^S$ mutans streptococci. Using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the expression of each gtf was determined. In $X^R$ strains, the relative levels of transcription of gtfB and gtfC were decreased while that of gtfD was increased, suggesting the presence of independent promoters. It also suggested that mutation related to production of glucosyltransferase occurred under the exposure of xylitol could explain the caries-preventive mechanisms of xylitol.

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Effects of various sugar alcohols on the sensory properties of Mulberry rice cake (당 알코올을 이용한 뽕설기의 관능적 특성)

  • Kim Heesup;Yoon Jaeyoung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.520-528
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    • 2004
  • The effects of the substitution of sugar alcohol for sugar on the sensory properties of mulberry rice cake, 'Bbongseolgy', were evaluated in two phases. First, the relative sweetness of xylitol, erythritol and palatinose to the sucrose in the food systems were examined with paired comparison tests. Second, the sensory properties of the mulberry rice cake containing xylitol, erythritol and palatinose substitution for sugar at a sweetness level equal to sucrose were studied. Sensory analysis for the mulberry rice cake characteristics was conducted and consumer acceptability tests were performed. The physical properties of mulberry rice cake were also examined. The relative sweetness of xylitol, erythritol and palatinose, compared to sucrose, in the solid model food system were 1.00, 0.63 and 0.42, respectively. This result showed that the relative sweetness of xylitol, erythritol and palatinose to sugar was slightly lower than those in the liquid model food system, in which flavor did not influence the sweetness. Mulberry rice cake with erythritol or palatinose had very similar characteristics, with lower fracturability and tenderness, and higher moistness, compactness and chewiness compared to that with sucrose or xylitol. Mulberry rice cake with xylitol was significantly the most fracturable, grainy, and driest, and the least adhesive, among the samples. The consumer test showed no difference in overall acceptability among the samples and consumers perceived differences only in moistness, coarseness and compactness among the samples. Mulberry rice cake with erythritol was the most favored in many characteristics. These results indicate that erythritol substitution for sugar inmulberry rice cake is suitable as a low-calorie rice cake with beneficial functions to improve in the health and texture of the rice cake.

Development of Red Wine Using Domestic Grapes, Campbell Early. Part (I) - Chracteristics of Red Wine Fermentation Using Campbell Early and Different Sugars - (국산 포도(Campbell Early)를 이용한 적포도주의 개발(I) - 첨가되는 당을 달리한 Campbell Early 포도주의 발효특성 -)

  • Kim, Jae-Sik;Sim, Ji-Young;Yook, Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2001
  • Red wines were prepared with Campbell Early harvested at Youngdong, Chungbuk Province in 1999 of which average sugar content and total acidity(tartaric acid %) were $12^{\circ}Brix$ and 0.7%, respectively. In order to investigate the effect of addition of various sugars on the quality of red wine, sucrose, xylitol, glucose, corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup(HFCS) and isomaltooligosaccharide(IMO) were added to musts to have $21^{\circ}Brix$ of sugar content. Fermentation of red wine in which glucose was added was faster than any other sugars with the final ethanol content of 12%(v/v). Wines to which sucrose and HFCS were added showed similar fermentation rates to glucose added one but alcohol contents were 10.3%(v/v) and 11.2%(v/v), respectively. Alcohol contents of wines made with xylitol, corn syrup and IMO was relatively low to about 7% (v/v) after fermentation. The pH values of wines were almost unchanged in all treatments during fermentation and the total acidities of wines were decreased from 0.7% to lower than 0.3%. The colors of wines were changed to redder and darker during fermentation. In sensory evaluation xylitol added wine showed the best preference and kept xylitol unfermented in it.

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Quality Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Various Sugar Alcohols (당알코올 첨가 스폰지 케이크의 품질특성)

  • Lee, Jin-Kyung;Oh, Myung-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.615-624
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the use of sugar alcohols as alternative sweeteners for replacing sucrose in sponge cake. The sponge cakes were prepared with only sucrose or a 50% replacement of sucrose with various sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol). The specific gravity of cake batter containing only sucrose was significantly higher and the viscosity was significantly lower than those containing sugar alcohol (p<0.001). Among sugar alcohols, xylitol was the most similar to sucrose. The thermal characteristics, as assessed by differential scanning calorimetry, showed that sucrose delayed gelatinization of cake batter more than sugar alcohol, as the onset temperature and the peak temperature of cake batter containing only sucrose were higher than those containing sugar alcohol. The moisture content of cake containing sorbitol was the highest and that containing only sucrose was the lowest among cakes. The specific volume of cakes containing only sucrose and xylitol were higher and the baking loss rate of those were lower than other sugar alcohols. The volume and symmetry index of cake containing only sucrose were the highest among cakes (p<0.001), and xylitol was similar to sucrose for the above indices. The redness (a) and yellowness (b) values of crust containing only sucrose were significantly higher than those containing sugar alcohols (p<0.001). The a and b values of crumb containing erythritol were the lowest among cakes, showing a pale yellowish color. The microstructure, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy, showed that the cake containing only sucrose had more uniformly and finely distributed pores and a smoother cross section than that containing sugar alcohols. Cake containing xylitol was similar to cake containing only sucrose. Hardness, chewiness, and gumminess of cake containing only sucrose were higher than those containing sugar alcohols, whereas the adhesiveness of cakes containing sugar alcohols were higher than those containing only sucrose (p<0.01). Among sugar alcohols, xylitol was the most similar to sucrose in textural properties. In a sensory quality test, the tenderness and moistness of cakes containing sorbitol and erythritol were higher than those containing only sucrose and xylitol. The overall acceptance of cakes containing xylitol and only sucrose were higher than those containing sorbitol and erythritol (p<0.001). Thus, xylitol is more appropriate as a 50% replacement for sucrose than erythritol and sorbitol when preparing sponge cake.