• Title, Summary, Keyword: xylitol

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Effect of xylitol on dental caries prevention : a literature review

  • Lee, Young-Eun;Kim, Ji-Hye;Cho, Min-Jeong;Song, Keun-Bae;Choi, Youn-Hee
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.449-465
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    • 2019
  • Xylitol is a sweetening agent used to prevent dental caries. It is formulated and consumed in various forms, and its use is recommended in particular for oral health. However, dental specialists are not familiar with xylitol or well-acquainted with the appropriate method to use it. Furthermore, the caries-prevention effect of xylitol has been controversial. Thus, in this study, we aimed to analyze previously published studies on the dental caries prevention effect of xylitol to verify its true effects and establish an appropriate method to use it. We analyzed 94 clinical research manuscripts obtained from domestic and international online databases and found that although 11 manuscripts reported no significant dental caries prevention effect of xylitol, most manuscripts reported dental caries prevention with xylitol. Compared to the manuscripts that reported dental caries prevention with xylitol, those are assessed lower amounts of xylitol or shorted consumption periods, and had dosage form that could not retain xylitol sufficiently long in the mouth, similar to milk. Thus, consumption of 5-11 g of xylitol in the form of gums, candies, or tablets over a long time period could effectively reduce the risk of dental caries. It has the advantage of ease of consumption, regardless of the gender, age, or disability of the person.

Candida parapsilosis에 의한 Xylitol 발효시 Arabinose가 미치는 영향

  • 오덕근;김상용
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 1997
  • Effect of arabinose on xylitol production from xylose by Candida parapsilosis KFCC 10875 was investigated at the different concentrations of arabinose. When the arabinose was added in xylose medium, the cell growth increased and the final cell concentration was maximum at 10 g/l arabinose. The consumption rate of arabinose was greatly lower than those of xylose and arabinose. Above 10 g/l arabinose, it was not completely consumed and then remained in the medium during xylitol fermentation. Estimated cell mass obtained from arabinose increased with increasing consumed arabinose. As arabinose concentration was increased, xylitol production decreased but ethanol production increased. The inhibitory effect of ethanol, a major by-product, on xylitol production was also studied. As the ethanol concentration added increased, xylitol production decreased. When cells were inoculated in a xylose medium after removing ethanol, xylitol production was not inhibited. This results suggested that the inhibition of xylitol production resulted from ethanol which was formed by adding arabinose. It was also interesting that total products(xylitol and ethanol) yield was constant regardless of the arabinose concentration. This result suggested that the total amount of products such as xylitol and ethanol from xylose was constant regardless of the arabinose concentration and arabinose shifted the carbon flow from xylitol to ethanol.

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Xylitol Sensitivity among Oral Streptococci

  • Na, Hee Sam;Kim, Sheon Min;Song, Yu Ri;Choi, Yoon Hee;Chung, Jin
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2014
  • Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that inhibits the growth of oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans. In this study, we tested xylitol sensitivity among the oral streptococci. We also compared nucleotide homology of putative fructose phosphotransferase system (PTS) and xylitol sensitivity, since xylitol is transported via the fructose PTS. Among the tested Streptococci, S. pneumonia showed the highest resistance to xylitol while S. gordonii and S. sanguinis showed the most sensitive growth inhibition. These streptococci could be grouped according to their xylitol sensitivity. S. mutans and S. salivarius showed similar bacterial growth inhibition by xylitol. S. mitis, S. oralis, S. pneumonia, S. intermedius and S. anginosus showed relatively low sensitivity to xylitol. When the genetic homologies of five fructose PTSs were compared among the tested streptococci, closely related streptococci showed similar sensitivity to xylitol. Taken together, fructose PTSs may mediate the sensitivity to xylitol in oral streptococci.

Effect of Acetic Acid on Xylitol Fermentation by Candiac parapsilosis (Candida parapsilosis에 의한 Xylitol 발효시 Acetic acid가 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Yong;Yoon, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Jung-Min;Oh, Deok-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.756-761
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    • 1996
  • Influence of acetic acid on xylitol production from xylose using Candida parapsilosis KFCC 10875 was investigated at the different concentrations of acetic acid. Acetic acid was totally consumed below 1.0 g/l of its concentration, whereas partially consumed above 3.0 g/l and remained in the medium during xylitol fermentation. Cell growth, xylose consumption, and xylitol production decreased when acetic acid concentration was increased. Specific growth rate of cell and specific consumption rate of xylose also decreased with increasing the concentration of acetic acid. However, the xylitol yield from xylose and specific production rate of xylitol were maximum at 1.0 g/l of acetic acid. The inhibitory effect of acetic acid on xylitol fermentation increased when pH was decreased.

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Synthesis of Transglucosylated Xylitol Using Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase and Its Stimulating Effect on the Growth of Bifidobacterium. (Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase를 이용한 당전이 Xylitol의 합성과 비피더스균 생육증식 효과)

  • 김태권;박동찬;이용현
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.442-449
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    • 1998
  • Several transglucosylated xylitols were synthesized using intermolecular transglucosylation reaction of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) and their bifidogenic effects were investigated. The CGTase from Thermoanaerobacter sp. showed the highest transglycosylation activity on xylitol compared to those obtained from other strains. Extruded starch was identified to be the most suitable glucosyl donor for transglucosylation reaction on xylitol molecule by CGTase. The optimum reaction conditions for transglucosylation were also studied using extruded starch as a glucosyl donor. The transglucosylated xylitols were purified by activated carbon column chromatography with ethanol gradient elution from 0 to 18%, and their chemical structures were analyzed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometer, $\^$13/C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, and enzyme digestion method. Two transglucosylated xylitol, F-I and F-II, which had one or two glucose molecules attached to maternal xylitol by ${\alpha}$-1,4-linkage, were mainly obtained. F-II showed increased stimulation effect on the growth of Bifidobacterium breve compared to xylitol, indicating the possibility utilized as a new functional alternative sweetners having bifidogenic effects.

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High-Yield Production of Xylitol from Xylose by a Xylitol Dehydrogenase Defective Mutant of Pichia stipitis

  • Kim, Min-Soo;Chung, Yun-Seung;Seo, Jin-Ho;Jo, Do-Hyun;Park, Yun-Hee;Ryu, Yeon-Woo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.564-569
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of xylitol fermentation by a xylitol dehydrogenase defective mutant PXM-4 of P stipitis CBS 5776 and to determime optimum conditions for the high yield ofxylitol production from xylose. Gluconic acid was selected as a co substrate for the xylitol fermentation, since gluconic acid neither blocked xylose transport nor repressed xylose reductase expression. An increase of gluconic acid concentration reduced the rates of xylitol production and cell growth by decreasing medium pH, and the optimal concentration of gluconic acid was determined to be 20 gll with approximately 100% xylitol conversion yield. A fed-batch cell culture resulted in a 44.8 g/l xylitol concentration with 100% yield, based on the amount of xylose consumed.

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Quality of Yackwa as Influenced by Xylitol Addition

  • Chung, Hai-Jung
    • Food Quality and Culture
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.11-14
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    • 2009
  • Yackwa was prepared by substituting syrup with xylitol (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and the quality characteristics were evaluated. Volume and specific volume were higher in Yackwa prepared with xylitol than the control. Crude fat content of xylitol-containing Yackwa were significantly higher than that of control (p<0.05), but moisture content was not different among treatments. Incorporation of xylitol in Yackwa lowered the redness and yellowness values (p<0.05). Instrumental hardness results showed that the addition of xylitol decreased the hardness of Yackwa. Sensory evaluation revealed no significant difference in overall desirability between control-and xylitol-containing groups. Therefore, Yackwa made with up to 30% xylitol in place of syrup is as acceptable as control Yackwa without depressing sensory quality.

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Production of Xylitol by Catabolite Derepressed Mutant of Candida sp. (Candida sp.의 Catabolite Derepressed Mutant에 의한 Xylitol 생산)

  • 한완옥;서진호;유연우
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.6-12
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    • 1998
  • In order to produce xylitol from hemicellulose hydrolysate which is widely used as a substrate, the development of strain such as catabolite derepressed mutant is required. After treatment of Candida sp. with EMS, GM-17 and PM-34 as catabolite derepressed mutant were isolated from Candida guilliermondii and Candida parapsilosis, respectively. Mutant GM-17 and PM-34 simultaneously assimilated xylose and glucose during the fermentation. The specific xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities of mutant strains were also higher than those of wild strains in glucose medium and mixed medium of glucose and xylose. The xylitol productivity and yield of mutant GM-17 and PM-34 were improved as compared to the wild types in the mixed medium. The xylitol productivity and yield of mutant GM-17 were 0.09 g/L·hr and 0.56 g-xylitol/g-xylose, and those of mutant PM-34 were 0.21 g/L·hr and 0.52 g-xylitol/g-xylose in the mixed medium, respectively.

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EFFECT OF XYLITOL ON BINDING OF ORAL BACTERIA TO SALIVA-COATED SURFACES (Xylitol이 구강세균의 부착에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Hye-Jin;Choi, Ho-Young
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.170-180
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    • 1997
  • Cariogenicity of the bacteria is attributed to their binding capacity to the teeth. Bacterial attachment to oral surfaces is an essential step for colonization and subsequently infection. Therefore, it is conceivable that caries prevention can be achieved fundamentally by inhibition of bacterial attachment. The rationale for caries prevention through the use of sugar substitutes or limited use of sugar has been revealed. Among many sugar substitutes, xylitol has been shown to exhibit the most profound cariostatic effect, inhibiting glucose metabolism and possibly binding of mutans streptococci. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of xylitol on binding of different species of oral bacteria. The effect of xylitol on binding of [$^3H$]-labeled oral bacteria to hydroxyapatite coated with human saliva(SHA) as a model for the pellicle-coated tooth surfaces was investigated. The strains of oral bacteria used in this study were A. viscosus T14V, A. viscosus WVU627, P. gingivaiis 2561, P. gingivalis A7Al-28, S. gordonii G9B, S. gordonii Challis, S. sobrinus 6715, S. mutans UA101, S. mutans KPSK -2, S. mutans T8, and S. mutans UA130. The obtained results were as follows: 1. P. gingivalis A7 Al-28, S. mutans UA130, S. mutans T8 grown with xylitol showed greater binding to SHA than the organism grown without xylitol. Among these, S. mutans T8 showed the greatest rate of increase in its binding to SHA ; 8-fold increase in its binding with xylitol. 2. S. mutans KPSK -2 grown with xylitol showed 2 times lesser binding to SHA than the organism grown without xylitol. 3. Binding ability of the remaining strains grown with xylitol to SHA was almost same as that of the organisms grown without xylitol. The overall results suggest that use of xylitol in the oral cavity may affect the complex oral bacterial ecosystem.

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Effect of xylitol and erythritol on the quality characteristics of Yuza tea (자이리톨과 에리스리톨을 이용한 유자차의 품질 특성)

  • 윤재영;김희섭
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.737-744
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    • 2003
  • The effects of xylitol and/or erythritol as the alternative ingredients to sugar on the quality characteristics of Yuza tea were studied. The relative sweetness of xylitol and erythritol to a 10% sucrose solution were 1.10 and 0.71 respectively and there were no change after the addition of the acid and flavoring agent. The sensory characteristics of Yuza tea with xylitol were quite similar in many attributes to Yuza tea with sugar, while Yuza tea with erythritol had many undesirable attributes. Yuza tea with a mixture of xylitol and erythritol(1:1) was less sweet and less acceptable than Yuza tea with sugar. The consumer acceptance test showed that the overall acceptability of Yuza tea made with xylitol was similar to the Yuza tea with sugar. Adding sucralose to the Yuza tea with a mixture of xylitol and erythritol improved the sweetness and overall acceptability in the consumer acceptance test. The pH value of the erythritol Yuza tea was 3.16 and showed a significantly lower value than the 3.39 of sugar and xylitol. The refractive index of the sugar Yuza tea was the highest at 21.03$^{\circ}$Bx. The vitamin C content of Yuzachung with sugar was 34.5mg/100g and the dietary fiber content was 2,80g/100g. Xylitol Yuzachung showed the highest a and b values, but when it was diluted with water to make Yuza tea, the intensity of the color was not significantly different from the Yuza tea with sugar.