• Title, Summary, Keyword: xanthophyll cycle

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Chilling Tolerance of Photosynthesis in Plants is Dependent on the Capacity to Enhance the Levels of the Xanthophyll Cycle Pigments in Response to Cold Stress

  • Kim, Hyun-Ju;Kang, In-Soon;Lee, Chin-Bum;Lee, Choon-Hwan;Cho, Sung-Ho;Moon, Byoung-Yong
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2005
  • Plants possess the ability to dissipate the excitation energy for the protection of photosynthetic apparatus from absorbed excess light. Heat dissipation is regulated by xanthophyll cycle in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. We investigated the mechanistic aspects of xanthophyll cycle-dependent photoprotection against low-temperature photoinhibition in plants. Using barley and rice as chilling-resistant species and sensitive ones, respectively, chilling-induced chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, composition of xanthophyll cycle pigments and mRNA expression of the zeaxanthin epoxidase were examined. Chilled barley plants exhibited little changes in chlorophyll fluorescence quenching either of photochemical or non-photochemical nature and in the photosynthetic electron transport, indicating low reduction state of PS II primary electron acceptor. In contrast to the barley, chilled rice showed a marked decline in those parameters mentioned above, indicating the increased reduction state of PS II primary electron acceptor. In addition, barley plants were shown to have a higher capacity to elevate the pool size of xanthophyll cycle pigments in response to cold stress compared to rice plants. Such species-dependent regulation of xanthophyll cycle activity was correlated with the gene expression level of cold-induced zeaxanthin epoxidase. Chilled rice plants depressed the gene expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase, whereas barley increased its expression in response to cold stress. We suggest that chilling-induced alterations in the pool size of xanthophyll cycle pigments related to its capacity would play an important role in regulating plant's sensitivity to chilling stress.

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LIGHT-DEPENDENT CHANGES OF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND XANTHOPHYLL CYCLE PIGMENTS IN MAIZE LEAVES DURING DESICCATION

  • Xu, Chang-Cheng;Lee, Choon-Hwan;Zou, Qi
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 1998
  • Changes of chlorophyll fluorescence and xanthophyll cycle pigment contents in maize leaves were investigated dunng desiccation in darkness or in the light. In darkness, a drastic dehydration of detached maize leaves down to 50% relative water content (RWC) affected photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and pht)tochemical quenching (qP) only slightly. In contrast, desiccation in the light with a moderate intensity led to a pronounced reduction in Fv/Fm with a Fo quenching when RWC was greater than 70%. This reduction in Fv/Fm could be recovered in darkness under hutrod condition. In leaves with RWC below 70%, significant reduction in Fv/Fm was accompanied by an increase of Fo, which could not be reversed within 5 h in darkness under humid condition. The nonphotochemical quenching increased during desiccation in the light with a concomitant rise in zeaxanthin at the expense of violaxanthin. Pretreatment with dithiothreitol (DTT), an inhibitor of zeaxanthin synthesis, inhibited the development of nonphotochemical quenching and prevented the xanthophyll interconversion during desiccation in the light. These results suggest that even light with a moderate intensity becomes excessive under dehydration and zeaxanthin-associated photoprotection of photosynthetic apparatus against photodamage is involved, but the protection is not complete against severe desiccation.

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Photochemical Response in 0-Year-Old and 1-Year-Old Needles of Picea glehnii during Cold Acclimation and Low Temperature

  • Bae, Jeong-Jin;Hara, Toshihiko;Choo, Yeon-Sik
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.317-325
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    • 2008
  • P. glehnii, an evergreen conifer found in northern areas, is known as a cold-resistant species. In this experiment, we measured the water content, PSⅡ efficiency, chlorophyll fluorescence, pigments of the xanthophyll-cycle and activity of enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle during cold acclimation and at subsequent low-temperature conditions to examine the importance of acclimation to cold tolerance. P. glehnii showed a decrease in PSⅡ efficiency (especially in Fv) during cold acclimation and at subsequent low temperatures. However, cold-acclimated needles showed higher PSⅡ efficiency at low temperatures than nonacclimated needles. In addition, 0-YON (first-year needles) showed an increase in $\beta$-carotene and lutein, while 1-YON (one-year-old needles) immediately developed an antioxidant mechanism in the ascorbate-gluthathione cycle as soon as they were exposed to low temperature and both 0-YON and 1-YON showed increased zeaxanthin and de-epoxidation ratios at continuous low temperature. Based on our results, we suggest that P. glehnii maintain PSⅡ efficiency at low temperature by effectively protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by rapid induction of an antioxidant mechanism in 1-YON and dissipation of excess energy by $\beta$-carotene and lutein in 0-YON.

Decrease of Photochemical Efficiency Induced by Methyl Viologen in Rice(Oryza sativa L.) Leaves is Partly due to the Down-Regulation of PSII

  • Kim, Jin-Hong;Lee, Choon-Hwan
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2002
  • In the rice leaves treated with methyl viologen (MV), the photochemical efficiency of PSII (or $F_{v/}$F $m_{m}$) was significantly decreased, and significant portion of the photoinactivation process was reversible during the dark-recovery. The dark-reactivation process was relatively slow, reaching its plateau after 2-2.5 h of dark incubation. The damaged portion of functional PSII was 13%, based on the value of I/ $F_{o}$- I/ $F_{m}$ after this dark-recovery period. The reversible photoinactivation process of PSII function in the MV-treated leaves consisted of a xanthophyll cycle-dependent development of NPQ and a xanthophyll cycle-independent process. The latter process was reversible in the presence of nigericin. As well as the increase in the values of Chl fluorescence parameters, the epoxidation process during the dark-recovery after the MV-induced photooxidation was very slow. These results suggest that the photooxidative effect of MV is partly protected by the down-regulation of PSII before inducing physical damages in core proteins of PSII.I.I.I.I.

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Developmental Changes in Photosynthetic Pigments and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Etiolated Rice Seedlings During Greening

  • Chun, Hyun-Sik;Moon, Byoung-Yong;Suh, Kye-Hong;Lee, Chin-Bum
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.309-314
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    • 1996
  • Developmental of photosynthetic pigments and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of dark-grown rice seedlings were studied during greening. Light-illumination stimulated accumulations of total chlorophylls and carotenoids in leaves of etiolated seedlings, accompanied by a decrease in the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b. When the composition of carotenoids was analyzed, violaxanthin level was shown to increase up to 24 h after the beginning of light illumination, followed by a subsequent decline. In contrast to this, zeaxanthin level increased consistently with progress of deetiolatin. The role of zeaxanthin is discussed in relation to chlorophyll fluorescence quenching. A study on chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics of the rice seedlings being deetiolated showed a time-dependent increase in Fv/Fm (yield of variable fluorescence/maximum yield of fluoresecnece) ratios, indicating that greening is responsible for the activation of photochemical reaction centers of the photosystem. When chlorophyll fluorescence quenching was examined, qNP (nonphotochemical quenching) and qE (energy-dependent quenching) exhibited a time-dependent decline with progress of greening. The presented results indicate that greening-induced development of the photosynthetic machinery is associated the conversion of the carotenoid violaxanthin to zeaxanthin, suggesting that zeaxanthin synthesized in the illuminated leaves may provide the protection from the damage when etiolated plants are exposed to light.

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Acclimation of maximum quantum yield of PSII and photosynthetic pigments of Panax quinquefolius L. to understory light

  • Fournier, Anick R.;T.A., John;Khanizadeh, Shahrokh;Gosselin, Andre;Dorais, Martine
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.347-356
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    • 2008
  • Forest-grown American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is exposed to daily and seasonal light variations. Our goal was to determine the effect of understory light changes on the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, expressed as $F_v/F_m$, and photosynthetic pigment composition of two-year-old plants. Understory light photon flux density and sunfleck durations were characterized using hemispherical canopy photography. Our results showed that understory light significantly affected the $F_v/F_m$ of American ginseng, especially during the initial development of the plants when light levels were the highest, averaging 28 mol $m^{-2}d^{-1}$. Associated with low $F_v/F_m$ during its initial development, American ginseng had the lowest levels of epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle of the season, suggesting an active dissipation of excess light energy absorbed by the chlorophyll pigments. As photon flux density decreased after the deployment of the forest canopy to less than 10 mol $m^{-2}d^{-1}$, chlorophyll a/b decreased suggesting a greater investment in light harvesting pigments to reaction centers in order to absorb the fleeting light energy.

Current Understanding of the Mechanism of qE, a Major Component of Non-photochemical Quenching in Green Plants

  • Zulfugarov Ismayil S.;Mishra Sujata R.;Han, Ok-Kyung;Safarova Rena B.;Nath Krishna;Lee, Choon-Hwan
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.175-183
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    • 2005
  • Plants dissipate excess excitation energy from their photosynthetic apparatus by a process called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). The major part of NPQ is energy dependent quenching (qE) which is dependent on the thylakoid pH and regulated by xanthophyll cycle carotenoids associated with photosystem (PS) II of higher plants. The acidification of the lumen leads to protonation and thus conformational change of light harvesting complex (LHC) proteins as well as PsbS protein of PSII, which results in the induction of qE. Although physiological importance of qE has been well established, the mechanistic understanding is rather insufficient. However, recent finding of crystal structure of LHCII trimer and identification of qE mutants in higher plants and algae enrich and sharpen our understanding of this process. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the qE mechanism. The nature of quenching sites and components involved in this process, and their contribution and interaction for the generation of qE appeared in the proposed models for the qE mechanism are discussed.

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Monthly HPLC Measurements of Pigments from an Intertidal Sediment of Geunso Bay Highlighting Variations of Biomass, Community Composition and Photo-physiology of Microphytobenthos (HPLC를 이용한 근소만 조간대 퇴적물내의 저서미세조류 현존량, 군집 및 광생리의 월 변화 분석)

  • KIM, EUN YOUNG;AN, SUNG MIN;CHOI, DONG HAN;LEE, HOWON;NOH, JAE HOON
    • The Sea
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2019
  • In this study, the surveys were carried out from October (2016) to October (2017) along the tidal flat of Geunso Bay, Taean Peninsula of the western edge of Korea. The sampling trips were carried out for a total of 16 times, once or twice a month. In order to investigate the monthly variation of the microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass, community composition and photo-physiology were analyzed by HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography). The total chlorophyll a (TChl a) concentrations used as an indicator of biomass of MPB in the upper 1 cm sediment layer ranged from 40.4 to $218.9mg\;m^{-2}$ throughout the sampling period. TChl a concentrations showed the maximum level on $24^{th}$ of February and remained high throughout March after which it started to declined. The biomass of MPB showed high values in winter and low values in summer. The monthly variations of Phaeophorbide a concentrations suggested that the low grazing intensity of the predator in the winter may have partly attributed to the MPB winter blooming. As a result of monthly variations of the MPB community composition using the major marker pigments, the concentrations of fucoxanthin, the marker pigment of benthic diatoms, were the highest throughout the year. The concentrations of most of the marker pigments except for chlorophyll b (chlorophytes) and peridinin (dinoflagellates) increased in winter. However, the concentrations of fucoxanthin increased the highest, and the relative ratios of the major marker pigments to TChl a except fucoxanthin decreased during the same period. The vertical distribution of Chl a and oxygen concentrations in the sediments using a fluorometer and an oxygen micro-optode Chl a concentrations decreased with oxygen concentrations with increasing depth of the sediment layers. Moreover, this tendency became more apparent in winter. The Chl a was uniformly vertical down to 12 mm from May to July, but the oxygen concentration distribution in May decreased sharply below 1 mm. The increase in phaeophorbide a concentration observed at this time is likely to be caused by increased oxygen consumption of zoobenthic grazing activities. This could be presumed that MPB cells are transported downward by bioturbation of zoobenthos. The relative ratios (DT/(DD+DT)) obtained with diadinoxanthin (DD) and diatoxanthin (DT), which are often used as indicators of photo-adaptation of MPB, decreased from October to March and increased in May. This indicated that there were monthly differences in activity of Xanthophyll cycle as well.

Astaxanthin Biosynthesis in Transgenic Arabidopsis by Using Chyb Gene Encoding β-Carotene Hydroxylase (β-Carotene Hydroxylase 관련 Chyb 유전자를 이용한 형질전환 Arabidopsis에서 Astaxanthin의 생합성)

  • Lee, Ho-Jae;Kang, Kwon-Kyoo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2004
  • Oxycarotenoids are oxygenated carotenoids that perform critical roles in plants. $\beta$-Carotene hydroxylase adds hydroxyl groups to the $\beta$-rings of carotenes and has been cloned from several bacteria and plants including Arabidopsis. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of $\beta$-carotene hydroxylase gene (Chyb) on the oxycarotenoids biosynthesis in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Construct of pGCHYB containing Chyb was established onto Gateway vector system (pENTR3C gateway vector and pH2GW7 destination vector). Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) was transformed with Agrobacterium tumerfacience GV3101 harboring pGCHYB construct driven by 35S promoter and hygromycin resistant gene. Seven hundred bases paired PCR products, indicating the presence of Chyb gene, were found in the transformants by PCR analysis using Chyb primers. Hygromycin resistance assay showed that transgenes were stably inherited to next generation. The overexpression of the Chyb gene resulted in the decrease carotenoid content. Especially, astaxanthin unusual oxycarotenoid in wild type Arabidopsis was detected in the transgenic plants. This means that decreased carotenoids might be converted into astaxanthin metabolism with the aid of silent gene in the host.