• Title, Summary, Keyword: working-age population

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An Analysis on Changing Pattern of Economic Active Population by Working Life Table for Korean Men (우리나라 노동생명표에 의한 노동력추이 분석)

  • 조진만
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 1990
  • This is a study which attempt to analyze changing patierns of economic active popu-lation, t o estimato- future patterns, and exa- mine vartons problems arises by changing c ire u mst ances of t he labor force market in- clunging soici al, economic ic, heathl th and demoi-graph ic aspects. We have constructed series of wotking life table which are useful in syt uiolyioig the lirocess of growth and structural change of labor force. Work i ng life tables represent ihie life eyele of econrmic' activity in hi ypothetical cohorts, that is. gen-erat i on of men Sn bject at eat' b period ot f their lives th given ra to's o mor tali it y and of par-- tici pation in economic activities. The tabloes prot' ide measorues of the alvet'age he ng t able of economically aeti \- e life. and agespecific rates of en trannee' into and retirement from the hahn' force. In const routing working life tables, age-specific activity rates and life tabole popula- titoto which represents contemporary condi-tions of moortality in Korea au'e the basic' maltoerials. We have derived the age-specific rates foorm economically active population survey, whoich were conducted by the Bureau of Statistics, Economic Planning Borard of the Korean government. Working life tables are constructed for men wtable these materi- als in the year of 1970, 1980 and 1988 by a modified Wolfbein-Wool's method. Some of the findings may be summerized as follow : 1) A central part of constructing working life table is calculation of stationary' economic active population, which represents the number of men in the stationtary population extoected to be in the labor force at each age group in the life span. The stationary economic active population by age have generally a universal pattern, where they rise sharply in the early twenties, approach its' peak in the thirties decline thereafter. at first graolually and then more rapidly at an advanced age. Korean men show the same general pa ttern of age distribution of stationary eco-- nomic active population with sharp increase hegining from the age interval of 20 to 24, reaching to maximum level at older age. The population. however, presumably, increased substantially due to increaseing school atte endance rates. Another difference exiSts in the youngest age groups, that is the activity rate in the year of 1988 is lower than that of Japan. The table shows an analysis of changes in the age distrihution of labor force between 1970, 1980 and 1988. 2) It was shown an analysis of changes in the age distribution and cause of separation from labor force. The entrance rate to labor force has increased from 18~\5 persons to 299 persons per 1000 head of stationary population between that of 1980 than that of 1988 for Korean men in 20~24 age group. The entrace rate to labor force shows a rapid entrance appearance concentrated on the 15~24 age group. The separation rate from labor force by retirment in Korea in the year of 1988 shows a great difference of the about four times as much as that of Japan. 3) The functions of table illustrate the patterns of working life of males in Korea in 1970, 1980 and 1988. The average remaining number of economically active years, e at age 15 in 1988 is 46.39 which is 2.12 years of increase compared with that of at age 15 in 1970,1980 and 1988 are 43.90,44.27 and 46.39 respectively, showing steadily increase dur- ing the past double decade the increase in the length of economically active life various age may be considered to have come both from extention of general life expectancy and from increasing entrance rate to economic activity in high age that of working is far greater in 1988 than that of 1980. The gaps between expectation of life and average remaining years of economically active widened due to rapid improvement of mortality level in Ko- rea. This observation together with the population pressure by the appearance of a group of younger population implies that constant increase of economically inactive population among older age group.

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The Study on Potential Gains in Working Life Expectancy according to the Degree of Reduction of Specific Causes of Death (특정사인제거정도가 부분노동력여명에 미치는 연장효과에 관한 연구)

  • 신성철
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.13-29
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    • 1986
  • This study was carried out to calculate working life expectancy and its potential gains according to the degree of reduction in the specific causes of death. It sought to ascertain what potential gains in labor force longevity might be reasonably achieved through efforts to reduce mortality from injuries and poisoning, diseases of circulatory system, neoplasms and the other causes of death. The data were drawn from the three sources such as "The 1982 Causes of Death Statistics," "Abridged Life Table for Korea 1978~'79" and "The 1982 annual Report of Economically Active Population" issued by Economic Planning Board. Analytical tools used in this study were the cause-deleted life table and the Wolfbein Wool's working life table method. Partial life expectancy was adopted as an index of this study, This application will be widely used as a good demographic tool for analyzing the dynamics of labor force and causes of death. Some of the findings are summerized as follows. 1. Partial life expectancies from initial age 15, 25, and 45 respectively to terminal age 65 are 44.86, 35.59 and 17.41 year in life expectancy itself, 37.08, 32.83 and 15.21 year in working life expectancy, 7.78, 2.76 and 2.20 years in inactive life years. 2. Potential gains in working expectancy from initial age 15, 25 and 45 to terminal age 65 by the complete elimination of the specific causes of death are 1.36, 0.94 and 0.27 years in injuries and poisoning, 0.88, 0.83 and 0.54 years in diseases of circulatory system, 0.56, 0.54 and 0.37 years in neoplasms, 1.13, 1.02 and 0.58 years in the other causes of death. The relationship between degree of reduction in causes of death and potential gains in working life years is in direct proportion. The prime orders of reduction effectiveness in age groups by the causes of death are injuries and poisoning in age 15-24, the other causes of death in age 25-49 and diseases of circulatory system in age 50 and over. 3. If it were possible to reduce 25%, 50% and 75% in mortality condition 1978~'79, the average length of working life would be 38.08, 39.13 and 40.17 years in age 15, and 33.68, 34.57 and 35.44 years in age 25, and 15.67, 16.14 and 16.63 years in age 45.

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A Comparative Study on the Poverty Trend and Driving Factors in Welfare States (복지국가의 빈곤 추세와 변화요인에 관한 비교연구)

  • Kim, Hwan-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.271-297
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    • 2005
  • Since the 1980s, the western welfare states have experienced a wide spectrum of socio-economic changes; changes in population composition, the economic globalization, the post-industrialization, an increasing flexibility in the labor market. etc. This study examines the trend of poverty in welfare states, and analyzes how those socio-economic changes are related to it. For these purposes, this study first calculates the poverty indices for several years in 10 welfare states using the Luxembourg Income Study database, and then decomposes the index by subpopulation and income sources. Major findings of this study can be summarized as follows. First of all, the welfare state in general has experienced an increasing trend in the degree of poverty since the 1980s. In particular, poverty has greatly intensified in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Many other welfare states including Canada, Germany, Sweden, and Norway have also experienced substantial increases in poverty. The increasing trend of poverty is not wholly due to changes in population composition such as increases in the aging population and one-parent(mother) families. Contrary to the traditional belief, these population groups are not as much poor as the working-age population. In particular, the degree of poverty in the elderly is less severe than in the working-age group. Furthermore, since the 1980s the market income poverty in the aging population has shown a decreasing trend in many welfare states. The degree and trend of poverty in one-parent families vary greatly across countries, owing to the labor market and income transfer policies. The most important reason for the increasing poverty trend in the welfare state is that the degree of poverty has been deepening in the working-age population. Especially, the market income poverty of the working-age population has considerably increased in every country except the Netherlands. Structural changes in the economy and the labor market may drive the increasing trend of poverty. Further studies and deliberate anti-poverty policies are needed to tackle the factors relating to the increase in the market income poverty.

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Developmental Trajectories of Attention in Normal Korean Population

  • Huh, Han Nah;Kang, Sung Hee;Hwang, Soon Young;Yoo, Hanik K.
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the trajectory of change of diverse attention and working memory in Koreans from 4 to 40 years of age. Methods: The data of 912 subjects from 4 to 15 years of age obtained from a previous standardization study of the computerized comprehensive attention test were merged with the newly obtained data of 150 subjects aged 16 to 40 years from this study. We evaluated the various kinds of attention, in which each subtest had five indicators. Working memory, with parameters such as number of correct responses and span, was also measured. Results: Our findings indicated that attention developed as age increased, and it decreased or was maintained after a certain age. Selective and sustained attention developed rapidly in children and adolescents, until mid-teens or 20 s when it ceased development. Divided attention, however, developed up to approximately age 20. In addition, working memory developed until mid-teens or 20 s. Conclusion: We presented the standardized data on diverse kinds of attention and working memory in children, adolescents, and adults in Korea. We could recognize any patterns of change in attention and working memory with increasing age.

Income Level Necessary for Old-age Living by Income Status (노령계층의 소득계층별 필요소득수준 연구)

  • 석재은
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.79-113
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    • 2003
  • This study is intended to explore an income level necessart for the old-age by income Status. Firstly, it is verified whether there is significant difference between old-age and working age or not. Secondly, if their difference is found, it will be identified that it is determined by certain factors. Thirdly, it is brought out needful income level for the old-age living through analysing old-age consumption expenditure level over working age. The results in this research are as follows. Firstly, there is a significant difference between old-age and working age. Secondly, the major factors which generated difference between old-age and working age consumption expenditure are income, household size, and age. Thirdly, the income level necessary for oldage living is on average 61 %. By income status, it is 90-100% for low income status, 60-70% for middle income status, 50-60% for high income status.

Optimal Control Policy for Replacements Involving Two Machines and One Repairman

  • Noh, Jang-Kab
    • Journal of the military operations research society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.61-83
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    • 1991
  • There has been a great deal of research dealing with the optimal replacement of stochastically deteriorating equipment and research in queueing systems with a finite calling population. However. there has been a lack of research which combines these two areas to deal with optimal replacement for a fixed number of machines and a limited number of repairmen. In this research, an optimal control policy for replacement involving two machines and one repairman is developed by investigating a class of age replacement policies in the context of controlling a G/M/1 queueing system with a finite calling population. The control policy to be imposed on this problem is an age-dependent control policy, described by the control limit $t^{\ast}$. The control limit is operational only when the repairman is idle; that is. if both machines are working, as soon as a machine reaches the age $t^{\ast}$ it is taken out of service for replacememt. We obtain the ${\epsilon}$-optimal control age which will minimize the long-run average system cost. An algorithm is developed that is applicable to general failure time distributions and cost functions. The algorithm does not require the condition of unimodality for implementation.

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Employment Status and Work-Related Difficulties among Family Members of Terminally Ill Patients Compared with the General Population

  • Kim, Seon Young;Chang, Yoon-Jung;Do, Young Rok;Kim, Sam Yong;Park, Sang Yoon;Jeong, Hyun Sik;Kang, Jung Hun;Kim, Si-Yung;Ro, Jung Sil;Lee, Jung Lim;Lee, Woo Jin;Park, Sook Ryun;Yun, Young Ho
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.373-379
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    • 2013
  • Background: Although caregiving to patients with terminal illness is known to be a stressful burden to family members, little attention has been focused on work-related problems. We aimed to investigate employment status and work-related difficulties of family caregivers of terminal cancer patients, comparing with the general population. Methods: Using structured questionnaires, we assessed family caregivers of 481 cancer patients determined by physicians to be terminally ill, from 11 university hospitals and the National Cancer Center in Korea. Results: Among 381 family caregivers of terminal cancer patients (response rate, 87.6%), 169 (43.9%) were not working before cancer diagnosis, but currently 233 (63.7%) were not working. Compared with the general population (36.5%), the percentage of not working among the family caregivers was higher (OR=2.39; 95%CI=1.73-3.29). A major reason for not working was to provide assistance to the patients (71.6%). 40.6% of those who continued working and 32.3% of those who not working family members reported extreme fatigue. Caregivers of old age, those who were female, those with a lower household income, and those caring for patients with a low performance status were not working at a more significant rate. Conclusion: Family caregivers of terminal cancer patients suffer job loss and severe work-related difficulties, probably due to caregiving itself and to fatigue. We need to develop supportive programs to overcome the burden of caregivers of the terminally ill.

A Study on the Policy Implications for Using Aging Workforces of Research and Development Field in the Era of Working Age Population Decline (생산가능인구 감소시대에 대비한 장년 연구개발 인력 활용 모델 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Min
    • Journal of Engineering Education Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.3-10
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate the policy implication and a usage model for aging workforces of research and development field in the era of working age population decline and the introduction of the retirement age legislation. In spite the importance of the use for aging workforces of R&D, previous studies have not been taken in terms of R&D workforces. In addition, the activated policies and services was implemented for the aged and retired people. Therefore, we suggested the usage model in four folds: 1) internal employment model, which is to hire and employ pre-retired active workforces by their retirement age, 2) internal and external linkage model, which is to make them to depart from their previous workplaces and move them to new workplaces where they can apply their knowledge and skills, 3) extending retirement age model, which is to expand their age limit and provide their job opportunities after they left their work, and 4) ouplacement model, which is to provide them with employment information and service as well as operate the educational programs before they leave the workpalce. Finally, we suggested the update of legislation and law for old workers, government supports for retiring workforces, and the conversation and compromise between R&D workforces and managers of workplaces.

The Accuracy of the National Population Projections for the Republic of Korea and Its Implications (우리나라 인구추계의 정확성과 시사점)

  • Woo, Hae-Bong
    • Survey Research
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.71-96
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    • 2009
  • This paper examined the accuracy of the national population projections for the Republic of Korea produced from the 1980s to the early 2000s. Specifically, this study assessed the forecast accuracy of the Total Fertility Rate and life expectancy at birth as well as total and age-group populations. Overall, the data indicated no significant improvement in forecasting total populations. The largest forecast errors were for the young and the elderly, while projections of the working age population were comparatively accurate. The past population projections consistently over-estimated TFR but under-estimated life expectancy at birth. This study also showed that forecast errors in fertility were substantially larger than those in mortality, indicating that behaviorally determined factors are difficult to forecast.

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