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A Study of the Workfare Reform in Britain : with Special References to the Ideological Change of Labour Party (영국의 근로복지(Workfare) 개혁에 관한 연구 : 노동당의 이념적 변화를 중심으로)

  • Moon, Jin-Young
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.45-70
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    • 2004
  • This study purports to explain the difference between the welfare reform of Britain and that of either European countries or USA. For this purpose, Chapter two documents and reviews the inter-party debates around the Clause Four in the Labour Constitution, and duly ascertains the role of the reciprocity principle in the development of New Labour Project. Then, Chapter three argues that this reciprocity principle guides and controls the whole process of workfare reform of the Labour Government since 1997. Finally, Chapter four concludes that the salient features of the British workfare reform originated from recent changes of the British political climates, that is, the ideological change of the Labour Party.

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Workfare in the United Kingdom : A Study on New Deal under the New Labour Government (영국의 근로연계복지에 관한 평가 : 신노동당 정부의 New Deal을 중심으로)

  • Shin, Dong-Myeon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.23-43
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of New Deal under the New Labour government in Britain and examines the nature of New Deal with respect to workfare. The time difference of five years after the New Deal was put into effect shows that New Deal has contributed not only to include the socially excluded groups such as the young unemployed, the long-term unemployed, single parents, and the disabled into the labour market, but also to decrease the amount of income-based benefits providing for working generation. It can be said that the nature of New Deal under the New Labour is near to human capital development model rather than labour force attachment model. New Deal provides the opportunity of policy learning for the countries which pursue the reform of social security system to moving welfare beneficiaries being able to work into jobs. Policy learning can be summed up as follows. First, imposing mutual responsibility and obligations on unemployed person should be accompanied by implementing active labour market programmes of education and job training. Second, the delivery system which administrates workfare programmes should be decentralized in a local society. The cooperation between local government and enterprisers will be critical in implementing various employment programmes and moving unemployed person into jobs. Third, the case management for individual participating in workfare programme is necessary. The personal adviser should continue to provide employment services for the unemployed until he or she get a job and enter the state of self-reliance. Finally, the workfare programme should be firmly backed by the political leadership in order to overcome the oppositions of beneficiary groups under the existing social security system.

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The Comparison of Workfare in UK and Australia from the View Point of Social Contract Theory (사회계약론적 관점에서 본 영국과 호주의 근로연계복지 비교연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Ha
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.169-193
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    • 2006
  • The Purpose of this paper is to compare workfare system in UK with in Australia from the view point of social contract theory. There are two kinds of social contract theory - Hobbesian and Kantian theory. In view of these two types, this paper makes a comparative study of New Deal in UK and Mutual Obligation in Australia. The results of analysis can be summarized as follows. Firstly, in this respect of compulsive program formation background, Mutual Obligation and New Deal is all similar with Hobbesian social contract theory. Secondly, With regard to concern for the disadvantaged, Mutual Obligation is among Hobbesian social contract but New Deal is among Kantian social contract. Lastly, concerning orientation of compulsion, Mutual Obligation is close to Hobbesian social contract but New Deal is close to Kantian social contract.

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Reforms of Social Security System : Social Assistance Programmes in the U.K. (영국 사회보장제도의 개혁 : 사회부조(Social Assistance)를 중심으로)

  • Shin, Dong-Myeon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.46
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    • pp.178-209
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    • 2001
  • This paper aims to provide a critical assesment of Conservatives's and new Labour's social assistance reforms in the U.K. and their differential impacts on low income groups. During the period of 18 years in power, the Conservative governments enforced benefit recipients being capable of work to be out of benefits and to get into work. They employed not only 'carrots' to encourage beneficiaries being capable of work to have full-time work, but also 'sticks' to discourage them to depend on benefits. The reforms under the Conservative governments were closer to the workfare model. The new Labour government has continued to emphasize work regarding social security reform. It has raised 'from welfare to work' as the main reform objective. However, it has not necessarily focused on 'carrots and sticks' in order to get beneficiaries into work. Instead, the new Labour government has put its priority regarding social assistance reform on human capital development in order to develop the capability of beneficiaries for work. Britain under the new Labour government seems to be moving from workfare to activation model. These differentials between the Conservative governments and the new Labour government regarding social assistance reforms bring about the different policy outcomes. Under the Conservative government, social assistance programmes were prone to strengthen the state's control over benefit recipients and to increase stigma to them. Punitive, demeaning, stigmatising programmes of work and unending job search activities harm the bases of self-respect. On the contrary, the activation programmes under the new Labour government has contributed positively to both socially significant participation and autonomy of beneficiaries.

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An Analysis on the Low- income Unemployed and a Policy Development for the Self-supporting Program on Gender-mainstreaming Perspective (성 주류화의 관점에서 본 저소득 실업자에 대한 분석과 자활사업 정착을 위한 정책 제안)

  • Baek, Sun-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.43
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    • pp.76-105
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    • 2000
  • In the last two decades, the welfare states have undergone the changes of restructuring towards two ways. One is a restructuring of workfare and the other is a restructuring of the gender model of welfare state. In Korea, the workfare is reflecting on the DJ Welfarism 'Productive Welfare', but the gender model has a little effect on the public policies. By the way, It is imported that has the gender perspective in approaching the self-supporting program in the public assistance representing of the DJ Welfarism. Because almost 60% of the beneficiaries of the program are women. The Gender-mainstreaming strategy criticizes for the laws, the public policies, the public programs that considered gender-neutral or gender-blinded, and then complete the equality between women and men through the modification or development of those. The approach of Gender-mainstreaming is very important strategy for not only women who are self-reliance recipient but also successful settlement of self-supporting program. Nowadays that program is not execute yet. Then we hardly have information about recipients and the results that expected from that. At this point of gender-mainstreaming, this report suggest the strategy to development and settlement of the self-supporting program in the basics of analysis for the low-income unemployed and the government policy response to unemployment. For the gender models of the self-supporting program, the most important thing is throwing the male breadwinner model and adoption the dural-earner model (the gender model) about that program. Then we must produce gender-statistics data, develop programs for public work, job replacement, job training, evaluating system, etc. with gender perspective.

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A Study of Social Service Extension and Reorganization in Welfare State -Focusing on Social Service in Germany- (복지국가의 사회서비스 제도화 및 재구조화에 대한 고찰 - 독일의 사례를 중심으로-)

  • Park, Su-Sie
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.155-177
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    • 2009
  • This is a study to review provision and production system of social services in European welfare states and find out implications to Korea. Firstly, trends of social service extension and reorganization in welfare state restructuring process, and approaches in interventions to social service system are theoretically discussed. In this discussion, we focus on the discussion of Jessop's workfare in social service extension and reorganization and the concept of innovation in intervention to social service system by state. Then, In order to look at details of reorganization of social service system through restructuring of European welfare states, German case is reviewed. In this review, the reorganization of social service provision and production system in Germany is analyzed through the comparison with the pre-existing system in terms of relationships with public sector as well as between public and private sector respectively. Finally, implications of the European and German experiences to Korea are explored. In order to do so, the state of social services in Korea is examined whilst comparing to the European development process of social services. Also, pros and cons of the electronic voucher scheme, which transforming the social service provision system in Korea, are discussed then challenges in Korean social service delivery system are discussed.

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The Activation of Job Performance of the Elderly in Korea (노인의 직업활동 활성화 방안 구축을 위한 기초연구)

  • Chun, Jee-Won;Park, Mee-Sok
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.44 no.7
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    • pp.21-39
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    • 2006
  • In modem society, elderly people's continual working is not only effective for realizing elderly welfare but is also an efficient scheme for improving national competitive power with the aging of societies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain confirmed data on the methods by which people can prepare for elderly people's working and increase the workforce participation rate. The study subjects were 300 male and female elderly people over the age of 60, living and working in Seoul. The method of sampling was purposive sampling in which the subject are extracted and assigned according to their occupations and gender. The results were as follows. Firstly, elderly people have a strong desire for employment stability. Secondly, they lack knowledge on obtaining information about jobs and approaching their desired job field. Thirdly, the subjects suggested that it is necessary to raise the level of social recognition about elderly people's working and to develop an environment that is conducive for increasing the working rate of the elderly.

New DNA of the Korean welfare state: Towards social liberalism and freecurity (한국 복지국가의 새로운 DNA: 사회적 자유주의와 자유안정성을 향하여)

  • Choi, Young Jun
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.39-67
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    • 2018
  • The Korean welfare state has achieved remarkable development during the last two decades, but simultaneously we have witnessed growing prevalent social conflicts and exclusion in the society. This research argues that the source of current problems lies in the nature of the Korean welfare regime, so called, 'paternalistic liberalism'. The paternalistic liberalism has been formulated by the combination of legacies of the developmental state and neo-liberalism. Paternalism with the growth-oriented and employment-centered approach has been a significant factor to restrict individuals' freedom and happiness in the Korean welfare state. It has also been embedded in the Korean welfare state such as social insurance, workfare programs, and centralized social services. In this context, this research proposes social liberalism, pursuing real freedom for all, as a new paradigm for the Korean welfare state. Breaking from the old path, Freecurity, combining freedom and security, which is argued to be the upgraded version of flexicurity, is also newly proposed as the operating model of social liberalism.

The Condition of Labor Market and Unemployment Rates in Chonbuk Province after the Economic Crisis (IMF관리체제이후 전북지역의 노동시장 동향과 실업)

  • 남춘호
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.121-161
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    • 1999
  • 1997년 11월 대외지불 불능사태로 시작된 외환위기가 경제위기로 확산되면서 97년 4/4분기에는 2.5%에 불과하던 전북지역의 실업률은 99년 2월 8.4%로 피크를 이루었으나 그후로는 감소추세를 보이고 있다. 그렇지만 전북지역 노동시장의 전반적 고용동향을 살펴보면 실업률 통계로는 파악되지 않지만 실질적으로 준실업상태에 있는 실망노동자와 불완전취업자의 증가가 심각한 것으로 드러났다. 그리고 산업별 취업자 구조의 변화를 살펴보면 제조업과 건설업의 취업자 감소가 두드러졌으며, 농업부문이나 생계형 서비스업은 실업대란 시대에 완충역할을 해줄 것이라는 기대와는 달리 고용흡수력이 예상보다 훨씬 적은 것으로 드러났다. 취업과 실업 및 비경제활동 사이의 노동력 전이률을 살펴보면 남성과 핵심연령층에서는 취업정착률이 높지만 일단 실업자가 되면 실업으로부터의 탈출률이 낮은 것으로 드러났다. 반면에 여성의 경우에는 실망노동자(discouraged sorkers)효과로 인하여 실업률은 낮고 비경제활동으로의 이동이 크게 나타났다. 그리고 실업이나 비경활상태로부터의 (재)취업시에는 압도적으로 임시고/일고로의 취업이 많아서 98년 하반기 이후 전북지역에서 창출된 일자리가 주로 임시고/일고 위주로 이루어져 있음을 극명하게 보여준다. 한편 여성실업자의 경우 50%이상이 생계주책임자이며, 특히 여성가장 실업자의 경우에는 90%이상이 생계책임자이나 그들 대부분이 빈곤선이하에서 생활하고 있다. 그리고 전북지역에서는 전국수준에 비해서 장기실업률이 다소 높게 나타났다. 저학력층과 고령층, 생산직, 임시고일고등의 비정규직 실업자들의 구직기간이 긴 것으로 나타났다. 실업이 장기화되면 전반적으로 기간의존성효과(duration dependence effect)나 이질성효과(heterogeneity effect)로 인하여 재취업의 가능성은 더욱 떨어진다. 생산적복지(workfare)가 그 이름에 값하는 것이기 위해서는 시장경쟁력이 약한 취약계층에 대해서 직업훈련과 취업알선 및 채용장려, 공공근로 등의 제반 정책들이 가구되어야 할 것이다.

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A Study on the Effects of the Antipoverty Policy in Local Community : Focusing on the Self-Support System In Korea (지역사회 탈빈곤 정책의 효과 분석 : 경남, 전북지역 자활후견기관 운영의 성과 및 한계 분석과 개선방안의 모색)

  • Lee, Sang-Rok;Jin, Jae-Moon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.52
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    • pp.241-272
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    • 2003
  • The Self-Support Program was introduced as an antipoverty policy at 2002 year in Korea. But, the Self-Support Program's negative or positive effects have been debated from diverse perspectives to the present. Thus, in this paper, we analyzed the effects of the Self-Support Program using the survey data from program participants. Even though the effects of Workfare Programs can be evaluated by various indicators(ex. income, employment status, poverty status, etc.), in our analysis the effects of the Self-Support Program are evaluated by participants' self-reliant attitudes and behaviors. Major findings are as follows. First, we found that some kinds of self-reliant attitudes(ex. work commitment, self-esteem, etc.) were build up through participation on the Self-Support program, but some kinds of self-reliant factors(job competence and skill, self-sufficiency prospect, etc.) which are more relevant to the self-sufficiency were not build up thorough it. Second, we found the positive effects of the program among people who are females, olders, less educated, more healthy, and the participants who have acquired more certificate of qualifications. Third, we also found that self-support center's job training program, adequate task matching, agency climates and intra-networks influence on the positive effects of the Self-Support Program. These findings suggest that the Self-Support Program has not been successful up to now and it's reformations are required. It means that objectives of the Self-Support Program as an anti-poverty policy must be obvious and program contents must be diverse. And also program administration systems need to be reformed in oder to raise the effectiveness of the Self-Support Program.

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