• Title, Summary, Keyword: wind fields

Search Result 457, Processing Time 0.052 seconds

Wind tunnel tests on flow fields of full-scale railway wind barriers

  • Su, Yang;Xiang, Huoyue;Fang, Chen;Wang, Lei;Li, Yongle
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.171-184
    • /
    • 2017
  • The present study provides a deeper understanding of the flow fields of a full-scale railway wind barriers by means of a wind tunnel test. First, the drag forces of the three wind barriers were measured using a force sensor, and the drag force coefficients were compared with a similar scale model. On this basis, the mean wind velocity and turbulence upwind and downwind of the wind barriers were measured. The effects of pore size and opening forms of the wind barrier were discussed. The results show that the test of the scaled wind barrier model may be unsafe, and it is suitable to adopt the full-scale wind barrier model. The pore size and the opening forms of wind barriers have a slight influence on the flow fields upwind of the wind barrier but have some influences on the flow fields and power spectra downwind of the wind barrier. The smaller pore size generates a lower turbulence density and value of the power spectrum near the wind barrier, and the porous wind barriers clearly provide better shelter than the bar-type wind barriers.

Scheme and application of phase delay spectrum towards spatial stochastic wind fields

  • Yan, Qi;Peng, Yongbo;Li, Jie
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.16 no.5
    • /
    • pp.433-455
    • /
    • 2013
  • A phase delay spectrum model towards the representation of spatial coherence of stochastic wind fields is proposed. Different from the classical coherence functions used in the spectral representation methods, the model is derived from the comprehensive description of coherence of fluctuating wind speeds and from the thorough analysis of physical accounts of random factors affecting phase delay, building up a consistent mapping between the simulated fluctuating wind speeds and the basic random variables. It thus includes complete probabilistic information of spatial stochastic wind fields. This treatment prompts a ready and succinct scheme for the simulation of fluctuating wind speeds, and provides a new perspective to the accurate assessment of dynamic reliability of wind-induced structures. Numerical investigations and comparative studies indicate that the developed model is of rationality and of applicability which matches well with the measured data at spatial points of wind fields, whereby the phase spectra at defined datum mark and objective point are feasibly obtained using the numerical scheme associated with the starting-time of phase evolution. In conjunction with the stochastic Fourier amplitude spectrum that we developed previously, the time history of fluctuating wind speeds at any spatial points of wind fields can be readily simulated.

Effect of hanging-type sand fence on characteristics of wind-sand flow fields

  • Cheng, Jian-jun;Lei, Jia-qiang;Li, Sheng-yu;Wang, Hai-feng
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.22 no.5
    • /
    • pp.555-571
    • /
    • 2016
  • A hanging-type sand-retaining wall is a very common sand-blocking fence structure used to prevent sand movement. This type of wall is widely used along the Qinghai-Tibet and Gobi desert railways in Xinjiang, Western China. To analyze the characteristics of wind-sand flow fields under the effect of such a sand fence structure, a wind tunnel test and a field test were carried out. The wind tunnel test showed the zoning characteristics of the flow fields under the effect of the hanging-type sand-retaining wall, and the field test provided the sediment transport data for effective wind-proof interval and the sand resistance data in the front and behind the sand-retaining wall. The consistency of the wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of wind-carried sand motion was verified by the correspondences of the acceleration zone in the flow field and the negative elevation points of the percentage variations of the sand collection rate. The spatial distribution characteristic of the field sand collection data further showed the spatial structural characteristic of the sandy air currents under the action of the hanging-type sand-retaining wall and the sand resistance characteristic of the sand-retaining wall. This systematic study on the wind-sand flow fields under the control of the hanging-type sand-retaining wall provides a theoretical basis for the rational layout of sand control engineering systems and the efficient utilization of a hanging-type sand-retaining wall.

The Effects of Data Assimilation on Simulated Wind Fields Using Upper-Air Observations (고층기상관측자료를 이용한 바람장 개선 효과 연구)

  • Jeong, Ju-Hee;Kwun, Ji-Hye;Kim, Yoo-Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.16 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1127-1137
    • /
    • 2007
  • We focused on effects on data assimilation of simulated wind fields by using upper-air observations (wind profiler and sonde data). Local Analysis Prediction System (LAPS), a type of data assimilation system, was used for wind field modeling. Five cases of simulation experiments for sensitivity analysis were performed: which are EXP0) non data assimilation, EXP1) surface data, EXP2) surface data and sonde data, EXP3) surface data and wind profiler data, EXP4) surface data, sonde data and wind profiler data. These were compared with observation data. The result showed that the effects of data assimilation with wind profiler data were found to be greater than sonde data. The delicate wind fields in complex coastal area were simulated well in EXP3. EXP3 and EXP4 using wind profiler data with vertically high resolution represented well sophisticated differences of wind speed compared with EXP1 and EXP2, this is because the effects of wind profiler data assimilation were sensitively adjusted to first guess field than those of sonde observations.

Prediction of typhoon design wind speed and profile over complex terrain

  • Huang, W.F.;Xu, Y.L.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
    • /
    • v.45 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-18
    • /
    • 2013
  • The typhoon wind characteristics designing for buildings or bridges located in complex terrain and typhoon prone region normally cannot be achieved by the very often few field measurement data, or by physical simulation in wind tunnel. This study proposes a numerical simulation procedure for predicting directional typhoon design wind speeds and profiles for sites over complex terrain by integrating typhoon wind field model, Monte Carlo simulation technique, CFD simulation and artificial neural networks (ANN). The site of Stonecutters Bridge in Hong Kong is chosen as a case study to examine the feasibility of the proposed numerical simulation procedure. Directional typhoon wind fields on the upstream of complex terrain are first generated by using typhoon wind field model together with Monte Carlo simulation method. Then, ANN for predicting directional typhoon wind field at the site are trained using representative directional typhoon wind fields for upstream and these at the site obtained from CFD simulation. Finally, based on the trained ANN model, thousands of directional typhoon wind fields for the site can be generated, and the directional design wind speeds by using extreme wind speed analysis and the directional averaged mean wind profiles can be produced for the site. The case study demonstrated that the proposed procedure is feasible and applicable, and that the effects of complex terrain on design typhoon wind speeds and wind profiles are significant.

Diurnal Variations of Air Quality under the Various Synoptic Wind Fields for Each Season over Taegu City (종관바람장에 따른 대구시의 계절별 대기질의 일변화)

  • 송은영;윤희경
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.113-130
    • /
    • 1996
  • Diurnal variations of air quality for each season over Taeau city were analyzed using the characteristic features of the various synoptic wind fields. The air quality data which were monitored by four stations are the hourly averaged sulfur dioxide($SO_2$), total suspended particulate(TSP) and oxidants ($O_3$) during the period of 1989 to 1992. The various synoptic wind fields obtained from the 850 hPa geopotential height were divided in to four geostrophic wind directions and two geostrophic wind speeds for each seasons. The synoptic weather conditions were again subdivided info two categories using the lotal cloud amounts, The results shows that diurnal and seasonal variations of the air quality over Taegu city, such as sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate and oxidants reseal the various characteristics under the same synoptic weather conditions.

  • PDF

The Effects of the Changed Initial Conditions on the Wind Fields Simulation According to the Objective Analysis Methods (객관분석기법에 의한 바람장 모의의 초기입력장 변화 효과 분석)

  • Kim, Yoo-Keun;Jeong, Ju-Hee;Bae, Joo-Hyun;Kwun, Ji-Hye;Seo, Jang-Won
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.15 no.8
    • /
    • pp.759-774
    • /
    • 2006
  • We employed two data assimilation techniques including MM5 Four Dimensional Data Asssimilation (FDDA) and Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) to find out the effects of the changed inetial conditions on the wind fields simulation according to the objective analysis methods. We designed 5 different modeling cases. EXP B used no data assimilation system. Both EXP Fl using surface observations and EXP F2 with surface and upper-air observations employed MM5 FDDA. EXP Ll using surface observations and EXP L2 with surface and upper-air observations used LAPS. As results of, simulated wind fields using MM5 FDDA showed locally characterized wind features due to objective analysis techniques in FDDA which is forcefully interpolating simulated results into observations. EXP Fl represented a large difference in comparison of wind speed with EXP B. In case of LAPS, simulated horizontal distribution of wind fields showed a good agreement with the patterns of initial condition and EXP Ll showed comparably lesser effects of data assimilation of surface observations than EXP Fl. When upper-air observations are applied to the simulations, while MM5 FDDA could hardly have important effects on the wind fields simulation and showed little differences with simulations with merely surface observations (EXP Fl), LAPS played a key role in simulating wind fields accurately and it could contribute to alleviate the over-estimated winds in EXP Ll simulations.

Simulation of multivariate non-Gaussian wind pressure on spherical latticed structures

  • Aung, Nyi Nyi;Ye, Jihong;Masters, F.J.
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.223-245
    • /
    • 2012
  • Multivariate simulation is necessary for cases where non-Gaussian processes at spatially distributed locations are desired. A simulation algorithm to generate non-Gaussian wind pressure fields is proposed. Gaussian sample fields are generated based on the spectral representation method using wavelet transforms method and then mapped into non-Gaussian sample fields with the aid of a CDF mapping transformation technique. To illustrate the procedure, this approach is applied to experimental results obtained from wind tunnel tests on the domes. A multivariate Gaussian simulation technique is developed and then extended to multivariate non-Gaussian simulation using the CDF mapping technique. It is proposed to develop a new wavelet-based CDF mapping technique for simulation of multivariate non-Gaussian wind pressure process. The efficiency of the proposed methodology for the non-Gaussian nature of pressure fluctuations on separated flow regions of different rise-span ratios of domes is also discussed.

Influence of a community of buildings on tornadic wind fields

  • Li, Zhi;Honerkamp, Ryan;Yan, Guirong;Feng, Ruoqiang
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.165-180
    • /
    • 2020
  • To determine tornadic wind loads, the wind pressure, forces and moments induced by tornadoes on civil structures have been studied. However, in most previous studies, only the individual building of interest was included in the wind field, which may be suitable to simulate the case where a tornado strikes rural areas. The statistical data has indicated that tornadoes induce more significant fatalities and property loss when they attack densely populated areas. To simulate this case, all buildings in the community of interest should be included in the wind field. However, this has been rarely studied. To bridge this research gap, this study will systematically investigate the influence of a community of buildings on tornadic wind fields by modeling all buildings in the community into the wind field (designated as "the Community case under tornadic winds"). For comparison, the case in which only a single building is included in the tornadic wind field (designated as "the Single-building case under tornadic winds") and the case where a community of buildings are included in the equivalent straight-line wind field (designated as "the Community case under straight-line winds") are also simulated. The results demonstrate that the presence of a number of buildings completely destroys the pattern of regular circular strips in the distribution of tangential velocity and pressure on horizontal planes. Above the roof height, the maximum tangential velocity is lower in the Community case under tornadic winds than that in the Single-building case under tornadic winds because of the higher surface friction in the Community case; below the roof height, greater tangential velocity and pressure are observed in the Community case under tornadic wind fields, and more unfavorable conditions are observed in the Community case under tornadic winds than under the equivalent straight-line winds.

Application and First Evaluation of the Operational RAMS Model for the Dispersion Forecast of Hazardous Chemicals - Validation of the Operational Wind Field Generation System in CARIS (유해화학물질 대기확산 예측을 위한 RAMS 기상모델의 적용 및 평가 - CARIS의 바람장 모델 검증)

  • Kim, C.H.;Na, J.G.;Park, C.J.;Park, J.H.;Im, C.S.;Yoon, E.;Kim, M.S.;Park, C.H.;Kim, Y.J.
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.19 no.5
    • /
    • pp.595-610
    • /
    • 2003
  • The statistical indexes such as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error), Mean Bias error, and IOA (Index of agreement) are used to evaluate 3 Dimensional wind and temperature fields predicted by operational meteorological model RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Meteorological System) implemented in CARIS (Chemical Accident Response Information System) for the dispersion forecast of hazardous chemicals in case of the chemical accidents in Korea. The operational atmospheric model, RAMS in CARIS are designed to use GDAPS, GTS, and AWS meteorological data obtained from KMA (Korean Meteorological Administration) for the generation of 3-dimensional initial meteorological fields. The predicted meteorological variables such as wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and precipitation amount, during 19 ∼ 23, August 2002, are extracted at the nearest grid point to the meteorological monitoring sites, and validated against the observations located over the Korean peninsula. The results show that Mean bias and Root Mean Square Error are 0.9 (m/s), 1.85 (m/s) for wind speed at 10 m above the ground, respectively, and 1.45 ($^{\circ}C$), 2.82 ($^{\circ}C$) for surface temperature. Of particular interest is the distribution of forecasting error predicted by RAMS with respect to the altitude; relatively smaller error is found in the near-surface atmosphere for wind and temperature fields, while it grows larger as the altitude increases. Overall, some of the overpredictions in comparisons with the observations are detected for wind and temperature fields, whereas relatively small errors are found in the near-surface atmosphere. This discrepancies are partly attributed to the oversimplified spacing of soil, soil contents and initial temperature fields, suggesting some improvement could probably be gained if the sub-grid scale nature of moisture and temperature fields was taken into account. However, IOA values for the wind field (0.62) as well as temperature field (0.78) is greater than the 'good' value criteria (> 0.5) implied by other studies. The good value of IOA along with relatively small wind field error in the near surface atmosphere implies that, on the basis of current meteorological data for initial fields, RAMS has good potentials to be used as a operational meteorological model in predicting the urban or local scale 3-dimensional wind fields for the dispersion forecast in association with hazardous chemical releases in Korea.