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Effects of Maturity at Harvest and Wilting Days on Quality of Round Baled Rye Silage

  • Kim, J.G.;Chung, E.S.;Seo, S.;Ham, J.S.;Kang, W.S.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1233-1237
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    • 2001
  • A study was conducted to determine the effects of maturity at harvest and wilting days on the quality of round baled rye (Secale cereale L.) silage. This study was a $3{\times}3$ factorial arrangement in a split plot design with 3 replicates. The main plot was 3 harvesting dates at the stage of boot (20 Apr.), heading (29 Apr.) and flowering (14 May). The subplot was wilting day : 0 (unwilted), 0.5 and 1 day (0, 1, and 2 days at boot stage). Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of rye silage were significantly greater than those of rye before ensiling, but crude protein (CP) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were vice versa. Buffering capacity (BC) of rye harvested at flowering stage was decreased from 264 to 202 meq/kg at 1 day wilting, however, it was increased when harvested at boot or heading stage. The pH in wilted silage was the highest while that of flowering stage was the lowest. Water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content of wilting rye was lower than that of unwilted, and the lowest at late harvesting stage. All plots had minimal WSC content for silage fermentation. Wilting treatment and delayed harvesting date caused an increase in dry matter (DM) content of round bale silage. The content of ammonia-N expressed as a portion of total N showed negative correlation with DM content. High quality silage according to ammonia-N content could be obtained from mid-harvest with wilting. There were highly significant differences in each organic acid between harvesting dates and wilting periods. Acetic and butyric acid contents were increased with delayed harvesting and prolonged wilting period, the lactic acid content, however, was decreased. This study demonstrated that harvest of rye from heading to flowering stage with wilting would be a recommendable method for making high quality rye silage using round bale system.

Effect of Pre-wilting on the Forage Quality of Organic Sorghum$\times$Sudangrass Silage (예건이 수수$\times$수단그라스 교잡종 유기 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Jong-Duk;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jeon, Kyeong-Hup;Yang, Ka-Young;Kwon, Chan-Ho;Yoon, Sei-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.519-527
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    • 2009
  • The main nutritional problem of sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage is low quality and dry matter (DM) contents. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether field pre-wilting treatment of sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage increases DM content and forage quality of the silage. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were consisted of five different wilting days: 0 day (direct cut silage), 0.5 day, 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage with pre-wilting showed low 4.00 pH values, however direct cut silage (control) showed a 4.30 value because of its high moisture content. The DM content of sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage with pre-wilting was high above 25.1% after 1 days, however that of direct cut silage had 17.6%. And the effluent of wilted silage was decreased with prolonged wilting period, but that of direct cut silage produced effluent of 183 mL/kg. Crude protein and ether extract with wilted silage were decreased, however crude ash was increased with prolonged wilting period. Silage with pre-wilting had higher acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents than control silages, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) showed the opposite results. Lactic acid and total organic acid were increased with prolonged wilting period. For the palatability of dairy goat, silage with 2 days wilting was highest among silages. The experiment results indicate that wilted sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage could be recommended as effective method for reducing effluent, increasing pH and forage quality more than direct cut silage. Optimum pre-wilting day of sorghum$\times$sudangrass hybrid silage may be 1 days.

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Effects of Wilting Days on the Quality of Round Baled Grass Silage (예건기간이 라운드베일 목초 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Jong-Geun;Chung Eui-Soo;Seo Sung;Ham Jun-Sang;Kim Maeong-Joong;Lee Jong-Kyeong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of management practices on the qualify of round baled grass silage at experimental field of grassland and Forage Crops division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon from 1997 to 1998. The experiment was consisted of three different wilting days : 0 (unwitted), 0.5 and 1 day with three replications. Crude fiber content was increased with prolonged wilting period, but other components did not show any trends. There was no significant differences in acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content between wilting periods, but there was significant difference in IVDMD (in vitro dry matter digestibility) between one-day wilted and unwitted silage. Dry matter (DM) content changed from 23.7% to 40.5% in relation to prolonged wilting period. Wilting treatment caused a decrease in each organic acid content of round baled grass silage and an increase in the silage quality. Wilting also could reduce the DM loss. This study demonstrated that one-day wilting would be a recommendable method for making high quality round baled grass silage.

Quality and Aerobic Deterioration of Italian Ryegrass Silage Prepared with Propionic Acid and Wilting I. Fermentation chracteristics of the silage (Silage의 품질과 호상적 변패에 대한 proponic acid 와 예건의 효과 I. Silage의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 고영두;김두환;송영민
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 1991
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of propionic acid and wilting on fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass silage. Grass material was wilted for a day before ensiling and propionic acid(0. 0, 0. 2. 0. 5 and 0.8 7~ of fresh matter) was applicated at ensiling time. Chemical composition, fermentation acids, pH, microbial population and distribution of the nitrogen contents were evaluated. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The contents of dry matter and water soluble carbohydrate in the silage were increased by wilting, and crude fibre, NDF and ADF were decreased with increasing propionic acid levels. 2. The pH values of the silage increased by increasing DM content, but decreased with increasing propionic acid levels. Lactic acid content lowed in wilted silage, and acetic acid and butyric acid formation were decreased with increasing propionic acid levels. 3. Total nitrogen content in the silage was i n ~ r e a s e d ( ~ < . 05) by addition of propionic acid and wilting, and was the highest in the prewilting-0.8 Q propionic acid applicated silage. The production of NHBN was decreased with propionic acid and was the lowest in the 0.8 % treated silage. 4. The number of total bacteria and yeasts were estimated $10^6~10^7$, $10^2~10^3$ respectively. Moulds number were decreased with increasing propionic acid levels.

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Effects of Pre-wilting Treatment and Formic Acid Addition on Quality of Silage Made from Spring Sown Oat Crops (봄재배 연맥의 Silage 제조 이용시 예건 및 Formic Acid 처리에 의한 품질개선 효과)

  • 김정갑;진현주;신재순;정의수;한민수
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 1996
  • Spring sown oat crops were grown during early March to late June in 1993~1994. The crops were harvested at different stage of maturity to determine the yield performance, chemical components and net energy value of the plants for silage utilization. The pattern of dry matter accumulation, absolute growth rate(Abs. GR), leaf weight ratio(LWR), stalk diameter(SD) and other growth parameters were analysed to evaluate the suitability of the plant materials for ensiling. The effect5 of wilting treatment and formic acid addition on the quality of silage was also disscused during the experiments. Spring sown oat crops was evaluated as a suitable materials for whole plant silage making. The best qualitative oat silage was obtained at the stage of soti dough to hard dough, when the plant reached 32.2~35.7% in dry matter concentration. Spring sown oat produced 9.43 ton in DM basis, 5.79 ton in TDN and 57.550 MJ-NEL/ha in net energy lactation. Early harvesting of the oat corps needed wilting treatment of the material before ensiling. Under pre-witing treatment (1/2 day) and formic acid addition(0.3%) silage quality point of oat crops harvested at the bloom stage was improved from 58 to 84 point.

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Prevention on Sunburn during the Wilting in Stalk Curing of Burley Tobacco (버어리종 대말림시 볕데임발생 방지)

  • 배성국;임해건;김요태;조천준
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 1995
  • This study was made of the effects from exposure to air temperature and amount of solar radiation during the wilting period on the sunburn of burley tobacco. Tobacco stalks were cult with one hour interval from 8:00 to 16:00, and were left on the field to expose to weather, and tobacco single leaf placed under 4 temperatures regimes in indoor. Sun-burn of the leaves was occurred when the leaves were exposed to temperature higher than 33$^{\circ}C$, and to solar radiation more than 800w/$m^2$ between 11:00-15:00 in a day during the curing season. The leaf temperature was increased until 52$^{\circ}C$ under the weather condition. The tobacco leaves were also burned without solar radiation when the leaves were exposed to high temperature until 5$0^{\circ}C$ of leaf temperature. Sun-bum was increased at upper leaves and at higher moisture content of leaf.

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Effect of Rice Seedling Growth According to Wetting Agents and Growing Media (상토 유형별 계면활성제 처리가 수도 유묘 소질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sun-Taek;Kim, Hong-Gi;Chio, Yun-Pyo;Cha, Hui-Jung;Lee, Moon-Sub;Bok, Tae-Gyu;Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.171-175
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to find the effect on growing media and proper time for water supply in rice seedling stages. Plant height of rice seedling for SIPAN-BRL among current several growing medias was higher in Chuchungbyeo than Ilpumbyeo, and that of root length was higher in check among used growing medias. Fresh and dry weight of shoot and root of two rice cultivar. Water time to absorption on each treatment of growing media concentration took similarly in SIPAN-BNH and check were similar. But 500 minutes did in 100ppm and did 370 and 470minute in 300 and 500ppm, respectively. Wilting time of rice seedling was appeared highly at 300ppm of SIPAN-BRL in Chuchungbyeo and 100ppm of SIPAN-BRL in Ilpumbyeo, while it prolonged at 300ppm in Chuchungbyeo and 500ppm in Ilpumbyeo, respectively. Water content at wilting stage was appeared highly at SIPAN-BRL 500ppm in both Chuchungbyo and Ilpumbyeo, while SIPAN-BNL was high in 300ppm of Chuchung-byeo and Ilpumbyeo, respectively. Plant and root length of SIPAN-BNL treated with 300ppm in 10day-rice seedling were highly appeared, while dry weight of shoot was high at 300ppm SIPAN-BNL.

Effect of Harvest Stage, Wilting and Crushed Rice on the Forage Production and Silage Quality of Organic Whole Crop Barely (수확시기, 예건 및 싸라기 처리가 유기 청보리의 사초 생산성 및 사일리지 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jeon, Kyeong-Hup;Yang, Ga-Young;Kwon, Chan-Ho;Sung, Ha-Guyn;HwangBo, Soon;Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2010
  • Although whole crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is now widely grown as a silage crop in Korea, forage production and silage quality of that for organic farm have not been published. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of harvest stage on forage production and quality of organic barley, and effect of field wilting and crushed rice for shortening of harvest date and improvement of forage quality. The experiment was split-plot design with three replications. Main plots were heading, milking and yellow stages, and sub-plot were field wilting for I day, crushed rice 10% (CR10%) and 15% (CR15%) treatments. The dry matter (DM) contents of heading, milking and yellow stages were 12.8%, 21.9% and 29.8%, respectively. The DM yields of heading, milking and yellow stages were 10,346, 15,819 and 18,336 kg/ha, respectively, and the total digestible nutrients (TDN) of these were 6,288, 9,550 and 10,178 kg/ha, respectively. The pH of milking stage showed low 4.00 pH values. The crude protein, ether extract, crude ash, non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and TDN contents were decreased as harvest stage progressed, while neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were increased. The crude ash (CA) of milking stage showed the lowest among harvest stages. Field wilting and crushed rice treatments decreased CA, NDF and ADF contents, and increased NFC and TDN contents. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) decreased with progressed harvest stage, while field wilting and crushed rice treatments increased that of barley silage. Lactic acid and total organic acid contents of milking stage were the highest, and butyric acid of milking stage was the lowest among harvest stage. The good effect of field wilting and crushed rice was observed in heading stage. The experiment results indicate that optimum harvest stage of barley silage for organic was milking stage. The field wilting and crushed rice additive could be recommended as effective method for shortening harvest date and increasing forage quality of organic barley silage

Moisture Effect on Fermentation Characteristics of Cup-Plant Silage

  • Han, K.J.;Albrecht, K.A.;Muck, R.E.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.636-640
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    • 2000
  • Cup-plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) has potential to produce high biomass and highly digestible forage in the wetlands where other productive forages do not grow or produce well. However, high moisture content at harvest is a considerable disadvantage of cup-plant for the production of high quality silage. This study was conducted to determine the effect of moisture content on the characteristics of cup-plant silage. Harvested cup-plant was ensiled in farm scale plastic bag silos and laboratory silos. In the plastic bag silos, first growth (FG) and regrowth (RG) cup-plant was harvested, wilted and ensiled. Dry matter content of FG and RG was 280 g/kg and 320 g/kg after 48 hr of wilting. The silage made with FG had pH 5.3 and 5.63 g/kg DM of acetate as a major volatile fatty acid. The composition of lactate, butyrate and acetate production was 1.0: 0.9: 2.3. The pH of silage made with RG was 4.5 and lactate was a major fermentation end product (16.8 g/kg DM). In the laboratory silos, wilted and unwilted first growth cup-plant material was ensiled to compare the early fermentation end products at days 2, 4, 11, and 40. Wilting increased dry matter content by 42% in the harvested material. Wilted silage showed about one unit lower pH until day 11. The contents of ammonia nitrogen and acetate were higher in un wilted silage, while that of lactate was higher in wilted silage (p<0.05). Butyrate and propionate were not detected in the wilted silage until day 40. We conclude from the results that moisture control is essential for the production of high quality cup-plant silage and high pH of cup-plant silage is due to low concentrations of fermentation end products.

The Evvalution of Different Factors Influencing the Quality of Silage (Silago 품질에 영향을 미치는 각종요인의 평가)

  • 한정대;윤익석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 1978
  • To study about the effect of harvested stage and physical treatment such as wilting or chopping of plant material on the quality of silage, Italian ryegrass(Lolium multiflorum) harvested at pre-headed or heading stage and Seombadi(Dystaenia takesimana Nakai) harvested at pre-flowering stage, were used for the purpose. The materials were treated in four different ways which were a) non-treated, b) one day-wilted, c) chopped with 1 to 2cm length and d) wilted and chopped, and those were ensiled in plastic containers and stored at room temperature for three months. After three months of storage, it was investigated and obtained the following results. 1) Having 6.31 of NFE/CP ratio and low content of crude fiber, Seombadi contained more suitable constituents for silage than Italian ryegrass. 2) Under the non-treated or chopped condition, the loss of NFE was higher, and lower with wilted material. 3) Wilting or chopping improved DM digestibility. 4) Compared with Italian ryegrass harvested at pre-headed stage, the storage amount per unit volume of heading stage-Italian ryegrass and Seombadi were higher 8% and 69% respectively, and wilting and/or chopping increased the storage amount 41 to 134%. 5) The majority of weight loss during storage was observed at 1st week after ensiling, it continued slightly until 4th week. The highest loss in 8th week were 3.76% of nontreated material. 6) One day wilting increased DM content of silage 23 to 131%. Wilting and chopping increased pH and lactic acid improved the quality considerably. 7) The correlation between $NH_3$ and butyric acid, and between lactic acid and DM were r=0.782**, r=0.634** respectively. The regression equation were y=12.853X+4.908 (X=butyric acid), y=0.016X+1.309(X=DM content), respectively. 8. The above results indicate that it is necessary to wilt or chop material to make good quality silage from Italian ryegrass, and such treatment can improve the quality of silage with Seombadi also.

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