• Title, Summary, Keyword: white precipitates

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Comparative Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination, Mineral Composition and Spectral Characteristics of White, Reddish Brown and Mixed Precipitates Occurring at Osip Stream Drainage, Gangwondo, South Korea (강원도 오십천 수계에 분포하는 백색침전물, 적갈색침전물 및 혼합침전물의 중금속 오염, 광물조성 및 분광학적 특성의 비교분석)

  • Lim, Jeong Hwa;Yu, Jaehyung;Shin, Ji Hye;Koh, Sang-Mo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.13-28
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed precipitation environment, heavy metal contamination, and mineral composition of white, reddish brown and mixed precipitates occurring at the Osip stream drainage, Gangwondo. Furthermore, spectral characteristics of the precipitates associated with heavy metal contamination and mineral composition was investigated based on spectroscopic analysis. The pH range of the precipitates was 4.43-6.91 for white precipitates, 7.74-7.94 for reddish brown precipitates, and 7.59-7.9 for the mixed precipitates, respectively. XRF analysis revealed that these precipitates were contaminated with Ni, Cu, Zn, and As. The white precipitates showed high Al concentration compared to reddish brown precipitates as much as 3.3 times, and the reddish brown precipitates showed high Fe concentration compared to white precipitates as much as 15 times. XRD analysis identified that the mineral composition of the white participates was aluminocoquimbite, gibbsite, quartz, saponite, and illite, and that of reddish brown precipitates was aluminum isopropoxide, kaolinite, goethite, dolomite, pyrophyllite, magnetite, quartz, calcite, pyrope. The mineral composition of the mixed precipitates was quartz, albite, and calcite. The spectral characteristics of the precipitates was manifested by gibbsite, saponite, illite for white precipitates, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite for reddish brown precipitates, and albite for the mixed precipitates, respectively. The spectral reflectance of the precipitates decreased with increase in heavy metal contamination, and absorption depth of the precipitates indicated that the heavy metal ions were adsorbed to saponite and illite for white precipitates, and goethite and magnetite for reddish brown precipitates.

Preliminary Study on the Phase Transition of White Precipitates Found in the Acid Mine Drainage (산성광산배수에서 발견되는 흰색침전물의 상전이에 대한 예비 연구)

  • Yeo, Jin Woo;Kim, Yeongkyoo
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2019
  • The white aluminum phases in acid mine drainage usually precipitates when mixed with stream waters with relatively high pH. The minerals in white precipitates play important roles in controlling the behavior of heavy metals by adsorbing and coprecipitation. By the phase transition of these minerals in white precipitates, dissolution and readsorption of heavy metals may occur. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary information on the phase transition of the mineral phases in white precipitates. In this study, the mineral phase changes in the white precipitates collected from the stream around Dogye Mining Site over time were investigated with different pH values and temperatures. White precipitates consist mainly of basaluminite, amorphous $Al(OH)_3$ and a small amount of $Al_{13}$-tridecamer. During aging, the incongruent dissolution of the basaluminite occurs first, increasing the content of the amorphous $Al(OH)_3$. After that, pseudoboehmite is finally precipitated following the precursor phase of pseudoboehmite. At $80^{\circ}C$, this series of processes was clearly observed, but at relatively low temperatures, no noticeable changes were observed from the initial condition with coexisting basaluminite and amorphous $Al(OH)_3$. At high pH, the desorption of $SO{_4}^{2-}$ group in basaluminite was initiated to promote phase transition to the pseudoboehmite precursor. Over time, the solution pH decreases due to the dissolution and phase transition of the minerals, and even after the precipitation of pseudoboehmite, only the particle size slightly increased but no clear cystal form was observed.

Changes in Compositions of Effluent Water from Mine Wastes in Danbung Mine, Munkyung (문경 단붕탄광 폐석장 유출수의 조성변화)

  • 지상우;김선준;안지현
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Groundwater Environment
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 1997
  • Stream water and precipitates were analyzed for metal contents to evaluate the compositional changes of effluent water from mine waste Danbung mine located in the vicinity of Munkyung. Samples were collected before and after the rainy season in 1995 and before the rainy season in 1997 to observe seasonal variation and the charge of the status of pollution after the lapse of two years. Increased metal contents and lowered pH values after rainy season are thought of the results of flushing of oxidation products of pyrite accumulated during dry season in mine wastes. The results of two years later showed that pollution by AMD have progressed more seriously in that pH has been lowered by one order and metal contents increased about twice. The spatial distribution of various Fe, Al hydroxides and sulfates occurring as red and white precipitates also changed. Red precipitates occurred at stream bed in longer distance after two years and white precipitates occurred far down from the mine wastes where no precipitates had been observed 1995. And metal contents in sediments also increased up to more than ten times.

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Study on the whitening phenomenon on inside of glass bottle by surface analysis methods (표면분석에 의한 유리 용기내의 백색현상 연구)

  • 강승구;이기강;김명석
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.640-647
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    • 1996
  • It has been found that an white precipitates at the inside surface is a common characteristics of soda-lime-silica glasses which have not undergone special surface treatments during hot weather season. In this study, the white deposits were examed using by solution method, surface analysis etc., and the dependence of weathering on the atmospheric condition was also investigated. As a results, the white precipitates on the glass surface was discorved as carbonates like $Na_2CO_3{\cdot}H_2O,CaCO_3$. Coming to atmosphere-dependence, it was shown that the glass made and stored at sea shore province had 3 times much severe weathering than that at land province.

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Biodegradation of Kraft Lignins by White-Rot Fungi(I) -Lignin from Pitch Pine- (백색부후균에 의한 크라프트 리그닌의 분해(I) -리기다소나무 리그닌-)

  • 김명길;안원영
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.56-70
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to investigate the structural characteristics of kraft lignin and the wood degrading characteristics, the productivity of ligninolytic enzymes and the enzymatic degradation of kraft lignin by white-rot fungi. To purify kraft lignin, precipitation of kraft pulping black liquors of pitch pine meal was done by titration with lN $H_{2}SO_{4}$ reaching to pH 2, and isolation of the precipitates done by centrifugation. The isolated precipitates from pitch pine were redissloved in lN NaOH, reprecipitated by titration with lN $H_{2}SO_{4}$, washed with deionized water, and kept ofr analysis after freeze drying. Fractionation of the precipitates in solution by successive extraction with $CH_{2}Cl_{2}$ and MeOH, and the fractionates were named SwKL, SwKL I, SwKL II, and SwKL III for pitch pine kraft lignin. The more molecular weights of kraft lignin increased, the less phenolic hydroxyl groups and the more aliphatic hydroxyl groups. Because as the molecular weights increased, the ratio of etherified guaiayl/syringyl(G/S ratio) and the percentage were increased. The spectra obtained by 13C NMR and FTIR assigned by comparing the chemical shifts of various signals with shifts of signals from autherized ones reported. The optimal growth temperature and pH of white-rot fungi in medium were $28^{\circ}C$ and 4.5-5.0, respectively. Especially, in temperature and pH range, and mycelial growth, the best white-rot fungus selected was Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biodegradation. For the degradation pathways, the ligninolytic fungus jcultivated with stationary culture using medium of 1% kraft lignin as a substrate for 3 weeks at $28^{\circ}C$. The weight loss of pitch pine kraft lignin was 15.8%. The degraded products extracted successively methoanol, 90% dioxane and diethyl ether. The ether solubles were analyzed by HPLC. Kraft lignin degradation was initiated in $\beta$-O-4 bonds of lignin by the laccase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the degraded compounds were produced from the cleavage of $C\alpha$-$C\beta$ linkages at the side chains by oxidation process. After $C\alpha$-$C\beta$ cleavage, $C\alpha$-Carbon was oxidized and changed into aldehyde and acidic compounds such as syringic acid, syringic aldehyde and vanilline. And the other compound as quinonemethide, coumarin, was analyzed. The structural characteristics of kraft lignin were composed of guaiacyl group substituted functional OHs, methoxyl, and carbonyl at C-3, -4, and -5 and these groups were combinated with $\alpha$ aryl ether, $\beta$ aryl ether and biphenyl. Kraft lignin degradation pathways by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were initially accomplished cleavage of $C\alpha$-$C\beta$ linkages and $C\alpha$ oxidation at the propyl side chains and finally cleavage of aromatic ring and oxidation of OHs.

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Effect of Matrix Phase on the Abrasive Wear Behavior of the High Cr White Iron Hardfacing Weld Deposites (고크롬 철계 오버레이용접층의 긁힘마모거동에 미치는 기지상의 영향)

  • 백응률
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.114-124
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    • 1998
  • The effect of matrix phase (austenite, pearlite, martensite) on the low stress abrasion resistance in the chromium-carbide-type high Cr white iorn hardfacing weld deposites has been investigated. In order to examine matrix phase, a series of alloys with different matrix phase by changing the ratio of Cr/C system by heat treatment were employed. The alloys were deposited twice on a mild steel plate using self-shielding flux cored arc welding process. The low stress abrasion resistance of the alloys against sands was measured by the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Abrasion Test(RWAT). Even though formation of pearlite phase in the matrix showed higher hardness than that of austenite, there was no observable difference in wear resistance between the pearlite and austenite phase for the same amount of chromium-carbide in the matrix. On the other hand, the formation of martensitic phase,, from heat treated austenitic alloys (high content of Cr), enhanced wear resistance due to its fine secondary precipitates.

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The Preliminary Study of the Secondary Precipitates from Samsanjeil and Sambong Mine, Goseong, Gyeongnam (경남 고성군 삼산면 삼산제일광산과 삼봉광산 주변 하천 침전물에 관한 예비 연구)

  • Cho, Hyen-Goo;Chang, Byoung-Jun;Kim, Soon-Oh;Choo, Chang-Oh
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2006
  • In this study, we identified the secondary precipitates from Samsan-jeil and Sambong mine, Goseong, Gyeongnam by means of scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Copper sulfide minerals had been produced from the mines during last few decades, however they are not worked. White and blue precipitates were found at the downstream of mine rock dump at Sambong mine and green one was at Samsan-jeil mine. The white precipitate covered the host rock surface with thickness of $30{\mu}m$, and is a kind of diatom with $10{\mu}m$ in length and $3{\mu}m$ in width. It is a species Fragilaria constuens, which is contained a order Pennales(pennate diatom) and lives in fresh water. The blue precipitate is the alteration product of chalcopyrite. It resultes in the increase in the ratio Cu:Fe from 5 to 13. The green precipitate has worm-like morphology with $10{\sim}20nm$ in diameter and $200{\sim}300nm$ in length. It is mainly composed of secondary copper sulfate such as woodwardite. However, it could be formed by the activity of microorganism, because the copper content is more than any secondary copper sulfate reported in copper sulfide mine. In order to identity the green precipitate exactly, the further research is needed.

Histochemical and Electron Microscopic Study on the Zinc-containing Neurons in Rat Spinal Cord (흰쥐의 척수에서 아연이 함유된 신경원에 대한 조직화학 및 전자현미경적 연구)

  • Cho, Hyun-Wook;Han, Weon-Dong
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.243-252
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    • 1996
  • The somata and boutons of the zinc-containing neurons in the spinal cord of the rats were labeled by intraperitoneal injection of sodium selenite and silver amplification. The labeled somata of the neurons were located in laminae V, VI, VII and X of the gray matter. The zinc selenium reaction products were retrogradely transported and precipitated into somata of the neuron with survival 8 hours. This observation suggest that all or part of the spinal cord zinc-containing neurons are interneurons. At survival 1 hour, the loaded axonal boutons with zinc precipitates of zinc-containing neurons were distributed in the gray matter and in the processes of lateral and ventral funiculi of the white matter. In particular, AMG stained boutons with huge form were appeared in the lamina IX. Ultrastructurally, the zinc precipitates were located in the cytoplasmic lysosomes or the vesicle within boutons of the zinc-containing neuron in accordance with survival times.

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Antimicrobial Activities of Ethosome-Encapsulated Palmitoyl Tripeptide (Ethosome에 캡슐화된 Palmitoyl Tripeptide의 항균효과)

  • Lee, Yeon-Jung;Lee, Yun Sub;Jin, Byung Suk
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.570-576
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    • 2014
  • Palmitoyl tripeptide (M330) showed higher antimicrobial activities than methyl paraben or phenoxy ethanol through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. However, when the M330 was added into cosmetic formulation, white precipitates formed due to the electrostatic interaction between M330 and carbopol (carboxy vinyl polymer) as a thickener in cosmetics, and the viscosity of cosmetics decreased sharply. Also, the antimicrobial activities of M330 in cosmetics became lower than those of methyl paraben or phenoxy ethanol. Thus, the encapsulation of M330 in ethosome vesicle was attempted in order to recover the declined antimicrobial activities of M330 in cosmetics and prevent the precipitates from forming. When ethosome-encapsulated M330 was added into cosmetics, the precipitates did not form, and the decrease in the viscosity of cosmetics was not large compared to the addition of unencapsulated M330. Challenge tests showed that antimicrobial activities against gram negative bacteria were improved by the encapsulation of M330, but the encapsulation was not effective against gram positive bacteria and fungus. A combination of M330 with EDTA showed synergistic inhibitory potential against C. albicans. After coencapsulation of M330 and EDTA in ethosome, antimicrobial activities proved to be higher than those of unencapsulated M330 and EDTA.

Geochemistry of Acid Mine Water and Stream Sediment around the Donghae Coal Mine (동해탄광 주변 산성광산폐수와 하상퇴적물의 지구화학)

  • Oh, Dae Gyun;Kim, Jung Youp;Chon, Hyo Taek
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 1995
  • Geochemistry of stream water and sediment collected in the vicinity of the Donghae coal mine in the Samchuk coalfied were investigated in order to evaluate the environmental impacts of acid mine drainage. The pH of stream water ranges from 2.85(at 2 km away from the mine) to 7.92(at uncontaminated tributary). The main cation and anion species in the upper stream are $Ca^{2+}$ and $SO_{4}{^2-}$, respectively. The level of pH and the amount of $HCO^{3-}$ in stream water increase to the downstream and where uncontaminated small tributaries are joining, and in the area covered with limestone. From the results of thermodynamic calculation, the main forms of iron in stream water are estimated as $Fe^{2+}$ and $FeSO_{4}{^0}$, and most of them could be precipitated as FeO(OH) with increase of pH. The white precipitates in stream sediments particularly found around the coal mine are proved to be $Al(OH)_3$ by XRD and XRF analysis. As a result of investigation for seasonal variation of AMD, the level of pH decreased and conductivity increased in dry season.

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