• Title, Summary, Keyword: whey protein

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Production of Functional Whey Protein Concentrate by Monitoring the Process of Ultrafilteration

  • Jayaprakasha, H.M.;Yoon, Y.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.433-438
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    • 2005
  • This investigation was undertaken in order to elicit the relationship between the extent of ultrafiltration processing of whey and its effect on composition and yield of resultant whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was fractionated through ultrafiltration to an extent of 70, 80, 90, 95, 97.5% and 97.5% volume reduction followed by I stage and II stage diafiltration. After each level of ultrafiltration, the composition of WPC was monitored. Similarly, the initial whey was adjusted to 3.0, 6.2 and 7.0 pH levels and ultrafiltration was carried out to elicit the effect of pH of ultrafiltration on the composition. Further, initial whey was adjusted to different levels of whey protein content ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 per cent and subjected to ultrafiltration to different levels. The various range of retentate obtained were further condensed and spray dried in order to assess the yield of WPC per unit volume of whey used and the quantity of whey required to produce unit weight of product. With the progress of ultrafiltration, there was a progressive increase in protein content and decrease in lactose and ash content. The regression study led to good relationships with $R^2$ values of more than 0.95 between the extents of permeate removed and the resultant changes in composition of each of the constituents. Whey processed at pH 3.0 had significantly a very low ash content and high protein content as compared to processing at 6.2 and 7.0. The yield of WPC per unit volume of whey varied significantly with the initial protein content. Higher initial protein content led to higher yield of all ranges of WPC and the quantity of whey required per unit weight of spray dried WPC significantly reduced. Regression equations establishing the relationship between initial protein content of whey and the yield of various types of WPC have been derived with very high $R^2$ values of 0.99. This study revealed that, the yield and composition of whey can be monitored strictly by controlling the processing parameters and WPC can be produced depending on the food formulation requirement.

Whey Protein Attenuates Angiotensin II-Primed Premature Senescence of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through Upregulation of SIRT1

  • Hwang, Jung Seok;Han, Sung Gu;Lee, Chi-Ho;Seo, Han Geuk
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.917-925
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    • 2017
  • Whey protein, a by-product of milk curdling, exhibits diverse biological activities and is used as a dietary supplement. However, its effects on stress-induced vascular aging have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that whey protein significantly inhibited the Ang II-primed premature senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In addition, we observed a marked dose- and time-dependent increase in SIRT1 promoter activity and mRNA in VSMCs exposed to whey protein, accompanied by elevated SIRT1 protein expression. Ang II-mediated repression of SIRT1 level was dose-dependently reversed in VSMCs treated with whey protein, suggesting that SIRT1 is involved in preventing senescence in response to this treatment. Furthermore, resveratrol, a well-defined activator of SIRT1, potentiated the effects of whey protein on Ang II-primed premature senescence, whereas sirtinol, an inhibitor of SIRT1, exerted the opposite. Taken together, these results indicated that whey protein-mediated upregulation of SIRT1 exerts an anti-senescence effect, and can thus ameliorate Ang II-induced vascular aging as a dietary supplement.

Experimental and Modelling Study of the Denaturation of Milk Protein by Heat Treatment

  • Qian, Fang;Sun, Jiayue;Cao, Di;Tuo, Yanfeng;Jiang, Shujuan;Mu, Guangqing
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 2017
  • Heat treatment of milk aims to inhibit the growth of microbes, extend the shelf-life of products and improve the quality of the products. Heat treatment also leads to denaturation of whey protein and the formation of whey protein-casein polymer, which has negative effects on milk product. Hence the milk heat treatment conditions should be controlled in milk processing. In this study, the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein and casein when undergoing heat treatment were also determined by using the Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein with casein extended with the increase of the heat-treated temperature and time. The effects of the heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the denaturation degree of whey protein and on the combination degree of whey protein and casein were well described using the quadratic regression equation. The analysis strategy used in this study reveals an intuitive and effective measure of the denaturation degree of whey protein, and the changes of milk protein under different heat treatment conditions efficiently and accurately in the dairy industry. It can be of great significance for dairy product proteins following processing treatments applied for dairy product manufacturing.

Optimization of Whey-Based Medium for Growth and ACE-Inhibitory Activity of Lactobacillus brevis

  • Ahn, Jae-Eun;Park, Seung-Yong;Lee, Byong-H.
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2007
  • A Whey-based medium was formulated with Lactobacillus brevis to investigate whether any functional peptides could derive from whey protein. The optimal concentrations of the ingredients of the medium for the growth of Lactobacillus were determined as 2% whey protein concentrate and 1% glucose and 0.5% yeast extracts. The growth of Lb. brevis was improved with the supplementation of yeast extracts than glucose. The viable cells counts of Lb. brevis reached to 2.0 × 10$^8$CFU/mL in the whey-based medium. The whey protein hydrolysates recovered from the supernatant after centrifugation at 10,000 x g for 10min induced strong inhibitory activity against ACE. When the whey protein hydrolysate were partially purified by a membrane tubing below 8,000Da, the partially purified fraction remained 64.7 ${\pm}$ 3.6% of the ACE inhibition activity of the whey protein hydrolysates and IC$_{50}$ was 38.8 ${\pm}$ 2.2mg/mL. The whey-based medium was proved to be effective in producing ACE inhibitory peptides by lactic bacteria fermented whey protein.

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Production and Properties of Edible Film Using Whey Protein

  • Chae, Seung-Il;Heo, Tae-Ryoen
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.122-125
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    • 1997
  • The utilization of excess whey is necessary to reduce dairy waste because the large amount of whey disposal in waste streams has caused environmental problems. During whey protein film production as the effective means of utilization of excess whey, we have examined the effects of pH, temperature, and plasticizers for water vapor permeability(WVP), tensile strength(TS), and elongation rate(%E) of the whey protein films. The 10% whey protein films had the highest WVP(28.73g$.$mm/kPa$.$day$.$㎡) and TS(1.85${\pm}$0.11Mpa). But, in this case, an increase of WVP was caused by the thickness of whey protein films. At the concentration of 8% whey protein, appropriate thickness was obtained. Whey protein films prepared at the pH 6.75 and 95$^{\circ}C$ showed lower WVP(28.38g$.$mm/kPa$.$day$.$㎡) and elongation rate(12.9%) and higher TS value(3.769${\pm}$0.407 MPa) than at the pH 6.75 and 75$^{\circ}C$. As the temperature increased, WVP of films decreased slightly and tensile strength increased slightly, while elongation rate decreased significantly. Higher WVP and TS were observed at pH6.75 compared to pH7-9. In contrast, significantly higher elongation was observed at pH 9comapred to pH6.75-8. Among the plasticizer types used, the addition of sorbitol showed the highest TS value(6.244${\pm}$0.297 MPa) at the concentration 0.4g sorbitol and elongation rate(49%) at the concentration of 0.6g sorbitol.

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Emulsifying Properties of Whey Protein Hydrolysates (유청 단백질 가수분해물의 유화특성)

  • 양희진;이수원
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was carried out to study changes in solubility and emulsifying properties of whey protein. Whey protein hydrolysates were obtained from tryptic hydrolysis of whey protein concentrate at pH 8.0 and 37$^{\circ}C$ for 6 hours. Emulsifying activity of whey protein hydrolysate was highest at 4 hours of hydroysis and at 5.50% of DH. During hydrolysis of whey protein concentrate with trypsin, ${\alpha}$-lactalbumin was not easily broken down. But ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin was hydrolysed rapidly from the early stage of hydrolysis, producing several low molecular weight peptides, which have to participate in increasing emusifying activity. The solulbility of hydyolysates tended to increase depending on hydrolysis time; however, there was a gradual decrease after 5 hours. The hydrolysate had a minimum solubility near the isoelectric point range (pH 4∼5). The more hydrolysed the whey protein concentrates, the more soluble they are near the pl. They aye also more soluble above pH 6. Emulsifying activity of hydrolysates showed similar results to solubility. Creaming stability gradually increased when hydrolysis increased, increasing rapidly above pH 8 after 4 hours of hydrolysis.

Effect of Whey Protein Isolate on Ice Recrystallization Characteristics in Whey Protein Isolate/κ-Carrageenan Matrix

  • Chun, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Ji-Min;Min, Sang-Gi
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the physical and thermal properties of ${\kappa}$-carrageenan (${\kappa}$-car) gel added whey protein isolate (WPI) as a cryoprotectant. The concentration of ${\kappa}$-carrageenan was fixed at 0.2 wt%. The mean ice crystal size of the WPI/${\kappa}$-car was decreased according to increasing whey protein isolate concentration. The temperature of gel-sol (Tg-s) and sol-gel (Ts-g) transition of WPI/${\kappa}$-car maxtrix was represented in the order of 3.0, 0.2, 5.0 and 1.0 wt%. In addition, the transition temperature of gel-sol of WPI in sucrose solution were showed in order of 1.0, 5.0, 0.2 and 3.0 wt% depending on whey protein isolate concentration. The shape of ice crystal was divided largely into two types, round and rectangular form. 1.0 wt% WPI/${\kappa}$-car matrix at pH 7 and 9 showed minute and rectangular formation of ice crystals and whey protein isolate in sucrose solution at a concentration of 1.0 wt% WPI/${\kappa}$-car matrix at pH 3 and 5 showed relatively large size and round ice crystals. The ice recrystallization characteristics and cryprotective effect of ${\kappa}$-carrageenan changed through the addition of different concentrations of whey protein isolate. It seems that the conformational changes induced interactions between whey protein isolate and ${\kappa}$-carrageenan affected ice recrystallization.

Effects of Carboxymethyl Chitosan on Yield and Whey Protein Loss in Cottage Cheese

  • Kim, Kyung-Tae;Kang, Ok-Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2005
  • A standard $1\%$ w/v solution of CM-chitosan made from squid pen was added to milk at levels of $0.5\sim3\%$ (v/v) to improve the yield and rheological properties of cottage cheese by whey protein retention. Cheese curd did not form at levels higher than $3\%$ (v/v) CM-chitosan standard solution. Yield and total protein of cottage cheese increased up to $2\%\;by\;11\;to\;42\%\;and\;17\;to\;38\%$ respectively, compared to control cheese. Whey protein losses were decreased by 11 to $42\%$ and thus accounted for all of the increase in yield. Anomalous results were obtained at the $0.8\%$ level, which neither improved yield or whey protein retention nor stabilized rheological parameters, and at the $0.5\%$ level, which improved yield and total protein without increasing whey protein retention. Elasticity and cohesiveness of CM-chitosan-containing cheese were generally improved and stabilized during storage. Monitoring of cheese chromaticity values for four weeks revealed a delay in the onset of yellowing in cheeses with CM-chitosan compared to the controls, while the concentration of added CM-chitosan had little influence on cheese chromaticity. The addition of CM-chitosan solution could be applied directly to industrial scale cottage cheese-making without the need for any modification of the production process.

Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

  • Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika;Lee, Na-Kyoung;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.350-359
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    • 2015
  • This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

Comparison of Size-Exclusion Chromatography and Flow Field-Flow Fractionation for Separation of Whey Proteins

  • Kang, Da-Young;Moon, Jae-Mi;Lee, Seung-Ho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.1315-1320
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    • 2011
  • Whey protein (WP) is a mixture of proteins, and is of high nutritional values. WP has become an important source of functional ingredients in various health-promoting foods. In this study, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) were used for separation and analysis of whey proteins. It was found that a lab-prepared WP from raw milk is mostly of ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin with small amount of higher molecular weight components, while a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) powder contains relatively larger amount of components other than ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin, including IgG and protein aggregates. Results suggest that AsFlFFF provides higher resolution for the major whey proteins than SEC in their normal operation conditions. AsFlFFF could differentiate the BSA and Albumin, despite a small difference in their molecular weights, and also was able to separate much smaller amount of aggregates from monomers. It is noted that SEC was able to show the presence of low molecular weight components other than the major whey proteins in the WP samples, which AsFlFFF could not show, probably due to the partial loss of those low molecular weight species through the membrane.