• Title/Summary/Keyword: wheat flour

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Quality characteristics of Korean Wheat flour and Imported Wheat flour (우리밀가루와 수입밀가루의 품질 특성)

  • 정곤
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2001
  • This study is designed to find out the physicochemical quality and the morphological features of Korean wheat flour and imported wheat flour with a view to shed light on their difference. In terms of components, Korean wheat flour and imported wheat flour are similar, but the latter turns out to be better than the former when it comes to crude protein, the ratio of water absorption and the power of maintenance. Yet Korean wheat flour turns out to be better than imported wheat flour. In terms of the chromaticity of wheat flour, the latter turns out to be higher than the former when it comes to L value, while the former turns out to be higher than the latter when it comes to a value and b value. In terms of the morphological features of wheat flour, both are in the shape of an oval with starch particles irregularly attached to gluten. And imported wheat flour is getter than Korean wheat flour in terms of the size of particles.

Comparison of Quality Analyses of Domestic and Imported Wheat Flour Products Marketed in Korea (시판 중인 우리밀 및 수입밀 밀가루의 품질 및 특성 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Sang Sook;Chung, Hae Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 2014
  • The physicochemical characteristics of 4 domestic wheat flour products were compared to those of 4 imported wheat flour products marketed in Korea. The contents of moisture, ash, protein, total dietary fiber (TDF), color (L, a, b), whiteness, solvent retention capacity (SRC), water absorption index (WAI), water soluble index (WSI), pasting characteristics by rapid visco analyzer (RVA), and principle component analysis (PCA) were analyzed. The domestic wheat flour products were composed of higher content in ash and protein, compared to the imported wheat flour products. The domestic wheat flour products had lower SRC and WSI characteristics than the imported wheat flour products. The values of lactic acid SRC (LASRC) in the imported wheat flour products showed an increasing trend as the protein content increased. The differences in viscosity were observed in the domestic wheat flour products. However, no major significant differences of viscosity were found among the imported wheat flour products. The result of PCA showed a consistent trend in the imported wheat flour (strong, medium, and weak), while a consistent trend was not shown in the domestic wheat flour products. Therefore, further research is needed to standardize the different types of domestic wheat flour products.

Rheological Properties of Dough with Whole Wheat Flour (전립분 첨가 반죽의 물리적 특성)

  • 김영호;최광수;손동화;김정호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.817-823
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    • 1996
  • The rheological prouerties of dough were evaluated the dough added whole wheat flour during breadmaking. From the farinogram, water absorption of the dough was decreased as the amount of coarse whole wheat flour was increased. While water absorption of the dough was increased as the amount of fine whole wheat flour was increased. Arrival time and development time of the dough with coarse whole wheat flour were longer than those of fine whole wheat flour. As the amount of whole wheat flour was increased, the weakness was increased. Weakness of coarse whole wheat flour was higher than that of fine whole wheat flour. From the extensograph, extension and resistance to extension were decreased with increasing the amount of whole wheat flour. Resistance to extension of coarse whole wheat flour was higher than that of fine whole wheat flour. From the amylograph, as the amount of whole wheat flour increased, maximum viscosity was decreased gradually. Though the amount of coarse whole wheat flour and fine whole wheat flour was increased up to 30% and 50%, respectively, external characteristics of bread was remained in normal. As the amount of whole wheat flour was increased, the value of whiteness was decreased.

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Qualities of Bread and Changes in Phytic Acid during Breadmaking with Whole Wheat Flour (전립분 첨가빵의 품질과 제빵 과정 중 Phytic Acid 변화)

  • 김영호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.779-785
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    • 1996
  • The qualities of bread and change of phytic acid during breadmaking with whole wheat flour were investigated. The ratios of ash contents in wheat flour and whole wheat flour were 0.41% and 1.57%, respectively. The ratios of fiber contents in wheat flour and whole wheat flour were 0.14% and 1.83%, respectively. In amino acid analysis, glutamic acid was determined to be 32~36g/100g protein, which was the highest. Lysine, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid were higher in whole wheat flour than those of wheat flour. Proline, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine were higher in wheat flour than those of whole wheat flour. The ratio of phytic acid content in wheat flour and whole wheat flour was 0.312% and 0.734%, respectively. The content of phytic acid during beadmaking was decreased approximately 65% after proofing, while this was almost constant in the process of oven baking. The content of phytic acid in bread with 3% yeast had less hydrolysis than that in bread with 5% yeast during breadmaking. The phytic acid content in the 0.1% yeast food was decreased more than the 0, 0.3, and 0.5% yeast food groups. As the amount of whole wheat flour increased, the volume of bread was decreased, and color became dark. The sensory evaluation was showed the quality of bread to be the highest when the amounts of coarse whole wheat flour and fine whole wheat flour was 20% and 30%, respectively. Though the amount of coarse whole wheat flour and fine whole wheat flour were increased up to 30% and 50%, respectively, external characteristics of bread was remained in normal.

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Discoloration of Korean Wheat Flour Noodles with Additives (첨가제를 이용한 한국산 밀가루 국수의 탈색)

  • Kim, Myung-Shin;Koh, Bong-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.792-798
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    • 2000
  • The objectives of this study were to reduce the characteristic dark color of Korean wheat flour noodles. Several additives were tested to reduce dark color of wheat flour dough and 2% ascorbic acid and 0.05% cysteine were selected as additives to Korean wheat flour noodle. Comparative study was performed between commercial imported wheat flour noodle and Korean wheat noodle with two additives to investigate the color, mechanical and sensory properties of noodles. Addition of 2% ascorbic acid increased the brightness of raw and dried Korean wheat flour noodles and 0.05% cysteine was the most effective in improving the brightness for cooked wheat flour noodles. Mechanical properties of cooked Korean wheat flour noodles with 2% ascorbic acid and 0.05% cysteine were similar to that of the imported wheat flour noodles. However, sensory evaluation test showed Korean wheat flour noodles with 2% ascorbic acid had the darkest yellowish-red color, the strongest aftertaste and the lowest overall quality. Therefore, the addition of cysteine was the most effective in mechanical and sensory attributes as well as discoloration of cooked wheat flour noodles.

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Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

  • Choi, In-Duck;Kang, Chun-Sik;Cheong, Young-Keun;Hyun, Jong-Nae;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2012
  • Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

Quality Characteristics of Muffins with Korean Whole Wheat Flour (국내산 전립분을 첨가한 머핀의 품질 특성)

  • An, Hyelyung
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to examine quality properties of muffin by the amount of addition of Korean whole wheat flour (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) as there is increasingly higher interest in the healthy food. The effect of Korean whole wheat flour were evaluated in terms of height, volume, weight, specific volume, baking loss rate, colorimeter, and sensory evaluation. Texture and moisture contents of muffins when storage (1, 3, 5 days) was measured. As the ratio of Korean whole wheat flour increased, the baking loss rate and weight increased, whereas the volume and specific volume was not significant. During storage, moisture content of muffins decreased significantly. The addition of Korean whole wheat flour increased lightness (L value) of crust and crumb decreased, whereas redness (a value) and yellowness (b value) increased. The control group (CON) showed the highest springiness lowest hardness. The muffin with 25% of Korean whole wheat flour (WHF25) in test group showed the high springiness low hardness. According to the sensory evaluation, the control group showed the highest score in terms of taste, however WHF25 showed the highest score in appearance, color, flavor, texture and overall acceptance, WHF25 showed the best result and the optimum addition of Korean whole wheat flour. Furthermore, this study proposes the possibility of development of various confectionery with using Korean whole wheat flour.

The Effect of Potato Lipoxygenase on the Farinograph Characteristics of Wheat Flour Dough (감자 Lipoxygenase 가 밀가루 반죽의 페리노그라프 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 문정원;서명자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.110-115
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    • 1994
  • To investigate the effect of potato lipoxygenase on the farinograph characteristics of wheat flour dough, composite flours containing enzyme-active potato flor (EPF) and hot-ar dried potato flour(HPF) were used. EPF was made by freeze-drying potato tuber. DPF (denaturated potato flour) was prepared by holding EPF at 8$0^{\circ}C$ for 18 hr in a dry oven. The potato flours were added to wheat flour at a level of 10% , respectivley. EPFB (enzyme-active potato flour blends, 90% wheat flour +105 enzyme -active potato flour) containing lipoxygenase activity gave higher farinogram peak time and higher stability values, lower MTI (mixing tolerance index ) and lower weakness values than those of HPFB(hot-air potato flour blends, 90% wheat flour + 10 % hot-air potato flour). Moreover, then lipoxygenase was added to DPFB(denatured potato flour blends , 90% wheat flour + 10% denatured potato flour) at a level of EPFB, it resulted in increasing stability, peak time and decreasing MTI , weakness at a level of EPFB. When the lipoxugenase was added to wheat flour with fumaric acid at alevel of 6.5 $\times$ 10units/g flour, lipoxygenase overcame the deleterious effects that fumaric acid including activated double-bond compounds have at mixing stability. Also the addition of liposxygenase with linoleic acid to defatted wheat flour resulted in the increase in stability and decrease in MTI value compared with those of linoleic acid and defatted wheat flour.

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The Effects of Wheat Flour Addition on Retarding Retrogradation in Korean Rice Cakes(Karedduk) (떡의 노화 억제에 대한 밀가루 첨가의 효과)

  • Kim, Sang-Sook;Chung, Hae-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the effects of adding hard and soft wheat flour to Korean rice cakes(Karedduk) to retard retrogradation, by examining texture properties and descriptive sensory qualities after 2 and 24 hrs of storage at $5^{\circ}C$. The hard and soft wheat flour were combined with dry rice flour at levels of 0, 5, 10, and 20%. The texture properties, as analyzed by a Texture Analyzer, revealed that the springiness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of the rice cakes containing wheat flour were similar to those of the control, while chewiness, gumminess, and hardness were lower compared to the control. Also, in sensory analyses, hardness was significantly different in the rice cakes containing wheat flour compared to the control after 24 hrs of storage at $5^{\circ}C$. Overall, the instrumental texture properties were highly correlated with the sensory characteristics. These results suggest that adding hard and soft wheat flour to Korean rice cakes(Karedduk) is effective at retarding retrogradation.

Effects of Storage Temperatures and Heating Methods on the Textural characteristics of Wheat Flour Gels and Loaf Bread (저장 온도 및 가열 방법이 밀가루겔 및 식빵의 조직 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 고하영;윤계순
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.566-571
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    • 1999
  • Effects of storage temperature at 18oC and 5oC for 9 days and heating conditions on textural char acteristics in strong wheat flour gels were investigated using a Instron after microwave (2450MHz, 700W). Heating condition did not affect the texture property in the wheat flour gels, but the frozen storage was very effective to prevent the hardening of the samples. Hardness, adhesiveness, and gumminess in the wheat flour gels decreased in increasing moisture content from 45% to 55%, but there was little change in cohesiveness. The storage at room temperature for 2 hours resulted in increased hardness in the heated wheat flour gels. PE wrap package of the wheat flour gels prevented weight loss by 3~6% and hardening effectively. Sugar, or sugar and shotening resulted in increased hardness in loaf bread. The hardness and weight loss in loaf breads were markedly changed by the heating time with microwave. The most critical time point was around 4 minutes following the heating.

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