• Title, Summary, Keyword: water-soluble polysaccharides

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Analysis of the Extraction Condition of Soluble Acidic Polysaccharides from Ginseng Marc (인삼박으로부터 수용성 산성다당체의 추출 조건 분석)

  • Choi, You-Jin;Hwang, Keum-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate the optimum conditions for extraction of soluble acidic polysaccharides from ginseng marc. Method of carbazole-sulfuric acid was applied to determine the amount of acidic polysaccharides in ginseng marc. The amounts of soluble acidic polysaccharides in water extract of ginseng marc were increased with increasing extraction temperature. The contents of acidic polysaccharides were not significantly different despite the extraction time increasing from 0.5 hours to 6 hours. To estimate the rehydration rate of the freeze dried polysaccharide, the extracted acidic polysaccharide fraction powder was determined the amount of soluble acidic polysaccharides by carbazole-sulfuric acid method again. The rehydration rate of acidic polysaccharides from water-extract of red ginseng marc at room temperature was 100%. On the other hand, the rehydration rate of acidic polysaccharide of red ginseng marc at boiling temperature was about 50%. The rehydration rate of acidic polysaccharides from water-extract of white ginseng marc at room temperature was 50%. The rehydration rate of acidic polysaccharide of red ginseng marc at boiling temperature was about 40%. The rate of soluble acidic polysaccharide of Red Ginseng is higher than that of White Ginseng. We can find out the maximum extraction method of soluble acidic polysaccharide from ginseng marc.

Soy Oligosaccharides and Soluble Non-starch Polysaccharides: A Review of Digestion, Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Effects in Pigs and Poultry

  • Choct, M.;Dersjant-Li, Y.;McLeish, J.;Peisker, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1386-1398
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    • 2010
  • Soybean contains a high concentration of carbohydrates that consist mainly of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides. The NSP can be divided into insoluble NSP (mainly cellulose) and soluble NSP (composed mainly of pectic polymers, which are partially soluble in water). Monogastric animals do not have the enzymes to hydrolyze these carbohydrates, and thus their digestion occurs by means of bacterial fermentation. The fermentation of soybean carbohydrates produces short chain fatty acids that can be used as an energy source by animals. The utilization efficiency of the carbohydrates is related to the chemical structure, the level of inclusion in the diet, species and age of the animal. In poultry, soluble NSP can increase digesta viscosity, reduce the digestibility of nutrients and depress growth performance. In growing pigs, these effects, in particular the effect on gut viscosity, are often not so obvious. However, in weaning piglets, it is reported that soy oligosaccharides and soluble NSP can cause detrimental effects on intestinal health. In monogastrics, consideration must be given to the anti-nutritive effect of the NSP on nutrient digestion and absorption on one hand, as well as the potential benefits or detriments of intestinal fermentation products to the host. This mirrors the needs for i) increasing efficiency of utilization of fibrous materials in monogastrics, and ii) the maintenance and improvement of animal health in antibiotic-free production systems, on the other hand. For example, ethanol/water extraction removes the low molecular weight carbohydrate fractions, such as the oligosaccharides and part of the soluble pectins, leaving behind the insoluble fraction of the NSP, which is devoid of anti-nutritive activities. The resultant product is a high quality soy protein concentrate. This paper presents the composition and chemical structures of carbohydrates present in soybeans and discusses their nutritive and anti-nutritive effects on digestion and absorption of nutrients in pigs and poultry.

Effect of Seatangle and Seamustard Intakes on Carcinogen Induced DNA Adduct Formation and the Absorption of Calcium and Iron (다시마와 미역의 섭취가 발암물질에 의한 DNA 손상과 칼슘 및 철 흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • 성미경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.717-724
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    • 2000
  • A number of epidemiological studies has indicated lifestyles including dietary habits are closely related to the development of certain forms of cancer. These findings have led several investigators to identify the ways in which these factors mdulate the risk of cancer. Seaweeds are rich sources of non-digestible polysaccharides which possibly posses physiological functions. In vitro studies showed several components in seaweeds inhibit tumor cell growth and mutagenicity of known food mutagens. On the other hand non-digestible polysaccharides of different food sources negatively affect mineral nutrition by decreasing mineral absorption. The objectives of this study was to investigate the effect of major seaweed intake on azoxymethane(AOM) - induced DNA damage a known cancer initiation step and on apparent absorption of calcium and iron. To accomplish these objectives twenty five ICR mice were divided into five groups and fed one of the following diets for 10 days : control diet d, diet containing 10% water-soluble fraction of seamustard or seatangle diet containing 10% water-insoluble fraction of seamustard or seatangle. AOM was injected 6 hours before sacrifice and N7-methylated guanines from the colonic DNA were quantified using a gas chromatography -mass spectroscopy. Fecal samples were collected on days 4 and 8. Caclium and iron contents of the diets and feces were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the apparent absorption of these minerals. Results are as follows. AOM-induced guanine methylation of colon was decreased in animals fed diets containing water-soluble fractions of seamustard or seatangle compared to those in animals fed control diet although only the seatnagle fed group showed statistically significant effect. Apparent calcium absorption was significantly reduced in animals fed diets containing water-insoluble fractions of seaweeds. Iron absorption was significantly decreased and negatively balanced in animals fed diets containing water-insoluble fractions of both seaweeds, and water-soluble fraction of seatangle. In conclusion, seamustard and seatangle intakes may effectively prevent colon tumorigenesis by reducing a carcinogen-induced DNA damages, and more mechanistic studies on possible role of seaweeds on carcinogenesis are required. Also, adverse effects of seaweed diets cintaming a large amount of polysaccharides on mineral nutrition should be carefully monitored.

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Behavior and Influence of EPS on Membrane Fouling by Changing of HRT in MBR with Gravitational Filtration (중력여과 방식의 MBR을 이용한 하수처리에서 HRT 변화에 따른 EPS의 거동과 막오염에 대한 영향)

  • Kim, SI-Won;Kwak, Sung-Jin;Lee, Eui-Sin;Hong, Seung-Mo;Min, Kyung-Sok
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.865-870
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    • 2006
  • The behavior and influence of EPS on membrane fouling by changing of hydraulic retention time was investigated, using lab. scale submerged membrane bio-reactor, which was operated with gravitational filtration and fed supernatant of primary sedimentation in waste water treatment plant as influent. The membrane was adopted micro-filter of polyethylene hollow fiber. EPS was analysed as polysaccharides and protein especially, into soluble and bound EPS separately. The concentration of soluble EPS was increased at short HRT, then membrane fouling was rapidly progressed and flux was depressed. The most of EPS clogged membrane pore were polysaccharides, while protein was important parameter affected on membrane fouling because of it's more accumulating in the more term operating.

Production of Mycelia and Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Submerged Culture of Lentinus lepideus in Bioreactor (생물반응기를 이용한 잣버섯(Lentinus lepideus)의 균사체 및 수용성 다당체 생산특성)

  • Ahn, Jin-Kwon;Ka, Kang-Hyeon;Lee, Wi-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2007
  • The mushroom Lentinus lepideus was used to produce mycelial as well as soluble polysaccharides in bioreactor cultures. To determine optimal submerged culture conditions, both growth characteristics and water soluble polysaccharides production were compared among four different types of bioreactor and culture conditions. For the production of mycelial biomass, the following bioreactors were proven to be effective in decreasing order: an external-loop type air-lift bioreactor (ETAB; 7g/l), a balloon type air bubble bioreactor (BTBB; 6.2g/l), a stirrer type bioreactor (STB; 6g/l), and a column type air bubble bioreactor (CTBB; 5g/l). Maxiaml production of water soluble exopolysaccharides (EPS; 0.62g/l) and endopolysaccharides (PPS; 7.7%) could also be obtained from BTBB. The mycelial biomass increased with increase in glucose concentration from 15g/l to 75g/l in the media. In contrast, PPS contents in the cells decreased with increase in glucose concentration in the media, showing the highest PPS content (7%) at 15g/l. Among different medium feeding types, fed-batch culture based on concentration control in media (10g/l) produced higher mycelia than fed-batch culture based on volume control of media (5.8g/l) or batch culture (3.4g/l). EPS production was also higher in fed-batch culture based on medium concentration control than that in other feeding types.

Cytotoxic Effects of Hot Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Mushroom, Lentinus edodes and Vitamin A & E Supplementation against $P_388$ Cells (표고버섯의 열수추출 다당류 및 비타민 A와 E 첨가가 $P_388$의 세포독성에 미치는 영향)

  • 최미연
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1091-1099
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    • 1995
  • The cyutotoxic effects of hot water soluble polysaccharides extract(PS) from the mushroom, Lentinus edodes, and in combinations with vitamin A or vitamin E on life span of ICR mice bearing P388 cancer cells and in vitro against P388 cancer cells were examined. The chemical components of PS and fractions were analyzed and survival time and cell number of P388 treated with extract fractions with and without vatamin A or E supplementation were also measured. The results obtained were summarized as follows; The extract of fraction B was shown to have the highest antitumor activity against P388 implanted in ICR mice. The antitumor fraction B was consisted of 82.0% of polysaccharide and 4.2% of protein. All three fractions seemed to have in vivo antitumor activity against P388, and fraction B showed the highest activity, In vitro P388 cell growht was inhibited 76%, 89%, 54% by the addition of fraction A, B and C respectively. Vitamin A or E did not appear to have any accelerating effects on either in vivo or in vitro cell cytotoxicity when each of them was combined with the PS and fractions. All three fractions contained more than 68% of polysaccharides. The fraction B showed the highest value of 88% in polysaccharides. Monsaccharides of the fraction B were identified as galactose(59.1%), glucose(29.2%), fructose(2.8%) and uronic acid(4.2%). Hydrolysis of protein from the fraction B was didentifed to have 17 kinds of defined and 5 undifined amino acids. The inhibitory effects of the hot water extracts from mushroom against cancer cell growth of P388 were stronger than the control group. And the survival time of ICR mice was shown to be 161% between the control group and the experimental groups.

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Chemical Constituents of Saccharides and Triterpenoids in the Korean Native Mistletoes (III) - Structural Features of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Korean Oak Mistletoe(Loranthus yadoriki Sieb.) - (한국산(韓國産) 겨우살이류(類)의 당류(糖類)와 Triterpenoids의 화학적(化學的) 조성(組成) (III) -한국산 참나무겨우살이(Loranthus yadoriki Sieb.)의 수용성 다당류의 구조적 특성 -)

  • Lee, Su-Hee;Ahn, Won-Yung
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.28-36
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    • 1996
  • This experiment was carried out to elucidate the sugar composition of polysaccharides and the structural features of water-soluble polysaccharides(WSP) isolated from Korean oak mistletoe, Loranthus yadoriki Sieb. The 48-hours ball-milled meals of extractive-free dried mistletoe sawdusts were extracted with distilled water for $24hrs{\times}2$ at room temperature. The extracts poured into 95% ethyl alcohol to precipitate. The separated precipitate of WSP, in form of yellowish white powder by lyophilization, was fractionated into four subfractions of WSP-1, WSP-2, WSP-3 and WSP-4 by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column. The sugar composition of WSPs was analyzed by GLC in form of their glycitol acetates, and the structure of polysaccharides in Fractions WSP-1 and WSP-2 was determined by FT-IR and GC-MS after methylation through and acetylation. The sugars of WSPs from Korean oak mistletoe, Loranthus yadoriki, are majorly arabinose and galactose in stem, galactose in leaves very high in content and showed difference in composition and monomeric units between stems and leaves. D-galactose, D-glucose and L-arabinose are the simple sugars consisting of polysaccharides in WSP-1. ($1{\rightarrow}3$)-Linked galactan is the bakcbone with side chain of ($1{\rightarrow}5$)- -L-arabinofuranosyl residues and ($1{\rightarrow}6$)- -D-galactopyranosyl residues, and ($1{\rightarrow}4$)-linked glucan also presents. ($1{\rightarrow}4$)-Linked rhamnogalacturonan and ($1{\rightarrow}4$)- and ($1{\rightarrow}3$)-linked galactan present in WSP-2.

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Quality Characteristics and Content of Polysaccharides in Green Tea Fermented by Monascus pilosus

  • Kim, Mee-Jung;Kim, Song-Suk;Lee, Sang-Il
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we designed a method to manufacture elevated fermented green tea by using Monascus pilosus, which is known as a functional microbe, and observe its antioxidant abilities and quality characteristics. The water-soluble substance (WSS) content of the fermented tea by M. pilosus (FTM) was lower than that of the non-fermented tea (NFT), although the alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) content of the FTM was higher than that of NTM. On the other hand, the fractionated distilled water-soluble polysaccharide (DWSP), CDTA-soluble polysaccharides (CDSP), sodium carbonate-soluble polysaccharide (SCSP) and KOH soluble hemicellulose (HC) obtained from the AIS of the FTM was markedly higher than that of NFT. In the antioxidant parameters, the electron donating ability of all fractions, except HC, extracted from FTM was higher than that of NFT, and iron chelating ability of all fractions, except CDSP, extracted from FTM was higher than that of NFT. Whereas the DWSP and SCSP obtained from the FTM were higher than that of NFT, the activity of the HC fraction from both NFT and the FTM could not be detected. In addition, the xanthin oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities of the DWSP, CDSP and the SCSP obtained from the NFT were significantly higher than that of FTM, the aldehyde oxidase (AO) inhibitory activities of the DWSP and SCSP extracted from the FTM were markedly higher than that of the NFT. Meanwhile, the acceptance of NFT and FTM had no significant difference, while the quality of aroma, taste and mouthfeel of the FTM was higher than that of NFT. These results suggest that the post-fermented tea by Monascus microorganisms may be responsible for functional components as well as contribute to the improvement of the tea quality.

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Water Soluble Polysaccharide from Defatted Botryococcus braunii (탈지 미세조류 Botryococcus braunii 로부터의 수용성 다당의 항산화 활성과 항균활성)

  • Lee, Da Gyung;Park, Jae Kweon
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2015
  • Sulfated polysaccharides from plants or seaweed are well known for antioxidant, anticoagulant activity or other biological activities. The aim of the present study is to optimize the condition for the isolation of water soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and evaluate the biological activity. WSP was isolated from defatted microalgae B. braunii using chlorosulfonic acid or sulfuric acid. Among WSP isolated using sulfuric acid showed the lowest the content of total carbohydrates (g/L), whereas showed the highest antioxidant activity. Also the preliminary structural analysis of WSP was performed by FT-IR spectroscopy analysis.

Extraction and Purification of Bioactive Materials from Agaricus blazei Fruiting Bodies (아가리쿠스 버섯에서 생리활성물질의 추출 및 정제)

  • 최정우;류동열;김영기;홍억기;권명상;한진수
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2000
  • ${\beta}$-Glucan a kind of polysaccharide which is particularly abundant in Agaricus blazei is known as the bioactive materials especially anticancer agents. The process development of the isolation and the purification process of water soluble ${\beta}$-glucans from A. blazei was achieved. and the process operation variables were optimized. Crude polysaccharides (CR.PS) were obtained from A. blazei by hot water extraction filtration solvent precipitation dialysis and freeze drying. Neutral and acidic fraction of polysaccharides were separated from crude polysaccharides by ion chromatography and then high molecular weight and low molecular weight fraction were separated from neutral fraction by gel chromatography. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of each compounds were performed with FT-IR NMR spectroscopy. Based on these analysis the optimal conditions of temperatures operating time organic solvent volume for precipitation and dialysis time were determined.

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