• Title, Summary, Keyword: vulnerability assessment

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Vulnerability assessment index at process-level for the identification of adaptive strategies in wastewater treatment plants under climate change

  • Kim, Dongwoo;Jacome, Gabriel;Lee, SeungChul;Moya, Wladimir;Nam, KiJeon;Yoo, Changkyoo
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.3054-3066
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    • 2017
  • Many studies have been conducted on climate change vulnerability assessments to develop adaptive strategies for climate change on a national or global scale. The development of an assessment tool for climate change on a process-level is necessary for evaluating vulnerability and to suggest an effective adaptive strategy in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Therefore, we proposed a vulnerability assessment index at the process-level in a WWTP to evaluate adaptive strategies for climate change in this study. The suggested process-level vulnerability assessment index is based on three performance WWTP indices: the effluent quality index (EQI), global warming potential (GWP), and operational cost index (OCI). Four different advanced WWTP processes were evaluated using the suggested vulnerability assessment index based on the A2 scenario, which is one of the carbon emission scenarios making predictions out to 2100 developed by the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC). The adaptive strategies were evaluated at four conventional treatment processes to see the improvement of vulnerability of their processes, where the changes of their vulnerabilities are compared together. Suggested adaptive strategies in case studies showed that the process-level vulnerabilities were significantly decreased in the anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic ($A_2O$) and Virginia initiative project (VIP) processes, especially during the flood and winter seasons. Therefore, it is expected that the proposed vulnerability assessment index can be useful as a decision-supporting tool for selecting the appropriate adaptive strategy for each process.

Guidelines for the VESTAP-based Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment (VESTAP 기반 기후변화 취약성 평가 지침)

  • Park, Doo-Sun;Park, Boyoung;Jung, Eunhwa
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.339-346
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    • 2017
  • The Korea Adaptation Center for Climate Change (KACCC) located in Korea Environment Institute has serviced a climate change vulnerability assessment support tool (VESTAP) since 2014 in order to help local governments to establish their own adaptation plans. Owing to its easy usage, the VESTAP has been utilized by not only local governments but also academia for examination of climate change vulnerability in various fields. However, the KACCC has not suggested a standard usage how to compose indices for climate exposure, sensitivity, and adaptation capacity which are main components of vulnerability although the KACCC manages operation and application of the VESTAP. Many users had no choice but to compose indices based on their own interpretation on the components of vulnerability. This technical note suggests the standard usage of VESTAP by reevaluating some vulnerability assessments previously developed. This may help users to correctly compose indices for climate change vulnerability assessment, and may minimize possibility of inter-user inconsistency in definition of vulnerability assessments.

The lnfluence of Weighting Value derived by the Regression Equation on the Result of Vulnerability Assessment (회귀식에 의해 도출된 가중치가 취약성 평가에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoo, Somin;Lee, Woo-kyun;Chae, Yeo-ra;Kwak, Hanbin;Kim, Moon-Il;Jung, Raesun
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.331-348
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    • 2013
  • The frequency and intensity of abnormal climate caused by climate change is increasing in Korea. Also, the amount of damage from disaster is increasing rapidly. The research on vulnerability assessment analyzes environmentally, socially and economically vulnerable indicators and is ongoing to reduce the intensity of damage and establish adaptation policies for climate change. Therefore, in this study, we assessed vulnerability using weighting value derived by the regression equation. There are 3 evaluation items : vulnerability assessment for farmland erosion to flood, vulnerability assessment for health to heat wave, vulnerability assessment for forest fire to drought. For this study, indicators for each sectors were selected and spatial data for each sectors were established using GIS program. Results showed that vulnerability to heat wave was more affected by climate factors. On the other hand, vulnerability to flood and drought was more affected by social-economic factors. Then, to analysis efficiency of the regression analysis, vulnerability result was compared between the existing vulnerability research with no weighting applied and the vulnerability research with the influence of weighting value derived by the regression. This study showed that the regression analysis is efficient to provide practical and feasible alternatives in terms of planning climate change adaptation policies and it is expected to be utilized for vulnerability assessment in the future.

A Study on the Vulnerability Assessment for Agricultural Infrastructure using Principal Component Analysis (주성분 분석을 이용한 농업생산기반의 재해 취약성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung Jae;Kim, Sung Min;Kim, Sang Min
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.55 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate climate change vulnerability over the agricultural infrastructure in terms of flood and drought using principal component analysis. Vulnerability was assessed using vulnerability resilience index (VRI) which combines climate exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Ten flood proxy variables and six drought proxy variables for the vulnerability assessment were selected by opinions of researchers and experts. The statistical data on 16 proxy variables for the local governments (Si, Do) were collected. To identify major variables and to explain the trend in whole data set, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted. The result of PCA showed that the first 3 principal components explained approximately 83 % and 89 % of the total variance for the flood and drought, respectively. VRI assessment for the local governments based on the PCA results indicated that provinces where having the relatively large cultivation areas were categorized as vulnerable to climate change.

Deformation-based vulnerability functions for RC bridges

  • Elnashai, A.S.;Borzi, B.;Vlachos, S.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.215-244
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    • 2004
  • There is an ever-increasing demand for assessment of earthquake effects on transportation structures, emphasised by the crippling consequences of recent earthquakes hitting developed countries reliant on road transportation. In this work, vulnerability functions for RC bridges are derived analytically using advanced material characterisation, high quality earthquake records and adaptive inelastic dynamic analysis techniques. Four limit states are employed, all based on deformational quantities, in line with recent development of deformation-based seismic assessment. The analytically-derived vulnerability functions are then compared to a data set comprising observational damage data from the Northridge (California 1994) and Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe 1995) earthquakes. The good agreement gives some confidence in the derived formulation that is recommended for use in seismic risk assessment. Furthermore, by varying the dimensions of the prototype bridge used in the study, and the span lengths supported by piers, three more bridges are obtained with different overstrength ratios (ratio of design-to-available base shear). The process of derivation of vulnerability functions is repeated and the ensuing relationships compared. The results point towards the feasibility of deriving scaling factors that may be used to obtain the set of vulnerability functions for a bridge with the knowledge of a 'generic' function and the overstrength ratio. It is demonstrated that this simple procedure gives satisfactory results for the case considered and may be used in the future to facilitate the process of deriving analytical vulnerability functions for classes of bridges once a generic relationship is established.

Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply in Agricultural Reservoir Utilizing Probability Distribution and Reliability Analysis Methods (농업용 저수지 공급량과 수요량의 확률분포 및 신뢰성 해석 기법을 활용한 물 공급 취약성 평가)

  • Nam, Won-Ho;Kim, Tae-Gon;Choi, Jin-Yong;Lee, Jeong-Jae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2012
  • The change of rainfall pattern and hydrologic factors due to climate change increases the occurrence probability of agricultural reservoir water shortage. Water supply assessment of reservoir is usually performed current reservoir level compared to historical water levels or the simulation of reservoir operation based on the water budget analysis. Since each reservoir has the native property for watershed, irrigation district and irrigation water requirement, it is necessary to improve the assessment methods of agricultural reservoir water capability about water resources system. This study proposed a practical methods that water supply vulnerability assessment for an agricultural reservoir based on a concept of probabilistic reliability. The vulnerability assessment of water supply is calculated from probability distribution of water demand condition and water supply condition that influences on water resources management and reservoir operations. The water supply vulnerability indices are estimated to evaluate the performance of water supply on agricultural reservoir system, and thus it is recommended a more objective method to evaluate water supply reliability.

Insights from existing earthquake loss assessment research in Croatia

  • Hadzima-Nyarko, Marijana;Sipos, Tanja Kalman
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.365-375
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    • 2017
  • Seismic risk management has two main technical aspects: to recommend the construction of high-performance buildings and other structures using earthquake-resistant designs or evaluate existing ones, and to prepare emergency plans using realistic seismic scenarios. An overview of seismic risk assessment methodologies in Croatia is provided with details regarding the components of the assessment procedures: hazard, vulnerability and exposure. For Croatia, hazard is presented with two maps and it is expressed in terms of the peak horizontal ground acceleration during an earthquake, with the return period of 95 or 475 years. A standard building typology catalogue for Croatia has not been prepared yet, but a database for the fourth largest city in Croatia is currently in its initial stage. Two methods for earthquake vulnerability assessment are applied and compared. The first is a relatively simple and fast analysis of potential seismic vulnerability proposed by Croatian researchers using damage index (DI) as a numerical value indicating the level of structural damage, while the second is the Macroseismic method.

A Study on Vulnerability Assessment to Climate Change in Regional Fisheries of Korea (국내 수산 부문의 지역별 기후변화 취약성 평가 연구)

  • Lee, Beo-Dul;Kim, Bong-Tae;Cho, Yong-Sung
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.57-70
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    • 2011
  • Fisheries are subject to unexpected weather condition. While some change of it may be positive for some fisheries, the current state suggests that the effects will be undesirable for many fisheries. The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability to climate change in 11 regional fisheries of Korea using the framework of IPCC. The vulnerability assessment depends upon the interrelation of three key elements; exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, which were derived from Analytical Hierarchy Process method in this study. These elements would contribute to comprehend relative importance at the regional characteristics of fisheries. We compared the vulnerability index of 11 regional fisheries so as to look for strategies and adaptation methods to the impacts of potential climate change. Jeoun-Nam, Kyeong-Nam, and Jeju are identified as the most vulnerable provinces to climate change on their fisheries because they have high level of sensitivity to predicted climate change and relatively low adaptive capacity. The relatively low vulnerability of Ulsan, Gyeonggi reflects high financial independence, well-equipped infrastructure, social capital in these regions. Understanding of vulnerability to climate change suggests future research directions. This paper will provide a guide to local policy makers and fisheries managers about vulnerability and adaptation planning to climate change.

Development of Meteorologic Data Retrieval Program for Vulnerability Assessment to Natural Hazards (재해 취약성 평가를 위한 기상자료 처리 프로그램 MetSystem 개발)

  • Jang, Min-Won;Kim, Sang-Min
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 2013
  • Climate change is the most direct threatening factors in sustaining agricultural productivity. It is necessary to reduce the damages from the natural hazards such as flood, drought, typhoons, and snowstorms caused by climate change. Through the vulnerability assessment to adapt the climate change, it is possible to analyze the priority, feasibility, effect of the reduction policy. For the vulnerability assessment, broad amount of weather data for each meterological station are required. Making the database management system for the meteorologic data could troubleshoot of the difficulties lie in handling and processing the weather data. In this study, we generated the meteorologic data retrieval system (MetSystem) for climate change vulnerability assessment. The user interface of MetSystem was implemented in the web-browser so as to access to a database server at any time and place, and it provides different query executions according to the criteria of meteorologic stations, temporal range, meteorologic items, statistics, and range of values, as well as the function of exporting to Excel format (*.xls). The developed system is expected that it will make it easier to try different analyses of vulnerability to natural hazards by the simple access to meteorologic database and the extensive search functions.

A Study for Rule Integration in Vulnerability Assessment and Intrusion Detection using Meaning Based Vulnerability Identification Method (의미기반 취약점 식별자 부여 기법을 사용한 취약점 점검 및 공격 탐지 규칙 통합 방법 연구)

  • Kim, Hyung-Jong;Jung, Tae-In
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.121-129
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    • 2008
  • This paper presents vulnerability identification method based on meaning which is making use of the concept of atomic vulnerability. Also, we are making use of decomposition and specialization processes which were used in DEVS/SES to get identifiers. This vulnerability representation method is useful for managing and removing vulnerability in organized way. It is helpful to make a relation between vulnerability assessing and intrusion detection rules in lower level. The relation enables security manager to response more quickly and conveniently. Especially, this paper shows a mapping between Nessus plugins and Snort rules using meaning based vulnerability identification method and lists usages based on three goals that security officer keeps in mind about vulnerability. The contribution of this work is in suggestion of meaning based vulnerability identification method and showing the cases of its usage for the rule integration of vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection.