• Title, Summary, Keyword: vspA

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Application of the tri-axial drill-bit VSP method to drilling for geological survey in civil engineering

  • Soma Nobukazu;Utagawa Manabu;Seto Masahiro;Asanuma Hiroshi
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.70-79
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    • 2004
  • We have examined the applicability of the triaxial drill-bit VSP method (TAD-VSP) to the geological survey of possible sites for a high-level radioactive waste disposal repository. The seismic energy generated by a drill bit is measured by a downhole multi-component detector, and the resulting signals are processed to image the geological structure deep underground. In order to apply the TAD-VSP method to civil-engineering-scale drilling, we have developed a small but highly sensitive and precise three-component downhole seismic measurement system, and recorded drill-bit signals at a granite quarry. We have successfully imaged discontinuities in the granite, possibly related to fractures, as highly reflective zones. The discontinuities imaged by the TAD-VSP method correlate well with the results of other borehole observations. In conclusion, the TAD-VSP method is usable in geological investigations for civil engineering because the equipment is compact and it is simple to acquire the drill-bit signal.

The Relationship Between Green Stem Disorder and the Accumulation of Vegetative Storage Protein in Soybean

  • Zhang, Jiuning;Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki;Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.22-22
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    • 2019
  • Green stem disorder (GSD) of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is characterized by delayed senescence of stems with normal pod ripening and seed maturation (Hobbs, 2006). GSD complicates harvesting of soybeans by significantly increasing the difficulty in cutting the affected plants. There is also the potential for moisture in the stems to be scattered on the seed, reducing the grade and storability of the seed. Not only the cause of GSD is yet unknown, but also GSD cannot be evaluated until maturity, therefore the method to evaluate GSD in early growth stage with high sensitivity is necessary. In previous studies, it has been reported that vegetative storage protein (VSP) accumulates and the syndrome of GSD appears in soybean after depod treatment (Fischer, 1999). Soybean VSP is a storage protein which is abundant in young sink leaves and degraded during seed fill (Wittenbach, 1982). Hence, we have established a system to quantify VSP of high sensitivity by using standard protein made by genetically transformed E. coli and specific antibody against VSP, and studied the relationship between VSP and GSD, by depod experiment and drought/excess wet experiments. The result of depod experiment with the cultivar 'Yukihomare' was the same with the previous studies, VSP accumulated much more than control and the syndrome of GSD appeared in soybean in depod treatment. Drought and excess wet had different impact on GSD. Excess wet caused GSD of the cultivar 'Tachinagaha (GSD susceptible)', while drought caused a little syndrome of GSD in the cultivar 'Touhoku 129 (GSD resistant)'. The accumulation of VSP differed between the two cultivars over time. In conclusion, the accumulation of VSP came along with the emergence of GSD. Different cultivars showed different response to drought and excess wet. In the future, it is expected that the dynamics of VSP will be elucidated in detail, leading to the development of early diagnosis technology for green stem disorder and the elucidation of mechanism of soybean GSD.

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Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

  • Kang, Sun Moon;Kang, Geunho;Seong, Pil-Nam;Park, Beomyoung;Cho, Soohyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1336-1344
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    • 2014
  • The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% $O_2/20%$ $CO_2/30%$ $N_2$, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% $O_2/20%$ $CO_2/30%$ $N_2$, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at $4^{\circ}C$ for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) was significantly (p<0.05) retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color ($a^*$) was kept higher (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage.

Zero-Offset VSP Data Processing for Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments in East Sea (동해 가스하이드레이트 부존지역 제로오프셋 VSP 탐사 자료의 자료처리)

  • Kim, Myung-Sun;Byun, Joong-Moo;Yoo, Dong-Geun
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2009
  • Conventionally, vertical-seismic-profiling (VSP) survey that provides high-resolution information has mainly performed to obtain the exact depth of the gas hydrate-bearing sediment, which is one of the key factors in the development of the gas hydrate. In this study, we extracted interval velocities and created corridor stacks from the first domestic zero-offset VSP data, which were acquired with three component receivers at UBGH09 borehole in Ulleung Basin where gas hydrate exists. Then we compared the corridor stacks with a CMP stacked section from surface seismic data. First of all, we converted the signals recorded with three component receivers to true vertical and horizontal components by phase rotation, and divided the data into direct waves and reflected waves by wavefield separation processing. The trend of the interval velocity extracted from the zero-offset VSP was similar to that of the sonic log obtained at the same borehole. Because the interval velocity of the gas hydrate-bearing sediment above the BSR was high, and it decreased suddenly through the BSR, we could infer that free gas is accumulated below the BSR. The results of comparing the corridor stacks to the CMP stacked section of the surface seismic data showed that most reflection events agreed well with those in the surface CMP stacked section and that the phase-rotated VSP data corresponded better with the surface seismic data than the VSP data without phase rotation. In addition, by comparing a corridor stack produced from the transverse component with the CMP stacked section of the surface seismic data, we could identify PS mode-converted reflections in the CMP stacked section.

Imaging Fractures by using VSP Data on Geothermal Site (지열지대 VSP 자료를 이용한 파쇄대 영상화 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Min;Byun, Joong-Moo;Song, Ho-Cheol;Park, Kwon-Gyu;Lee, Tae-Jong
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2011
  • Attention has been focused on geothermal energy as an alternative energy because it is continuously operable without external supply. Most of geothermal anomalies in Korea are related to deep circulation of groundwater through a fracture system in granite area. Therefore it is very important to understand the distribution of the fracture system which is the main channel of ground water. In this research, we constructed the velocity models with a fracture system and the layered sediments, respectively, and generated synthetic data sets with them to verify the presented vertical seismic profiling (VSP) preprocessing scheme. We compared the results from conventional VSP preprocessing flow to those from VSP preprocessing flow considering fracture system. We noticed that the preprocessing flow considering fracture system retains more sufficient signal including down-going wave than conventional preprocessing. In addition, we applied 3D VSP prestack phase screen migration to the preprocessed reversed VSP (RVSP) data from Seokmo Island so that we were able to image fracture structure of the geothermal site in Seokmo Island.

Expression and Purification of the Phosphatase-like Domain of a Voltage-Sensing Phosphatase, Ci-VSP (막 전위 감지 탈인산화 효소, Ci-VSP의 유사 탈인산화 효소 도메인의 발현과 정제)

  • Kim, Sung-Jae;Kim, Hae-Min;Choi, Hoon;Kim, Young-Jun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.1032-1038
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    • 2011
  • Recently identified Ciona intestinalis voltage sensor-containing phosphatase (Ci-VSP) consists of an ion channel-like transmembrane domain (VSD) and a phosphatase-like domain. Ci-VSP senses the change of membrane potential by its VSD and works as a phosphoinositide phosphatase by its phosphatase domain. In this study, we present the construction of His-tagged phosphatase-like domain of Ci-VSP, its recombinant expression and purification, and its enzymatic activity behavior in order to examine the biochemical behavior of phosphatase domain of Ci-VSP without interference. We found that Ci-VSP(248-576)-His can be eluted with an elution buffer containing 25 mM NaCl and 100 mM imidazole during His-tag purification. In addition, we found the proper measurement condition for kinetics study of Ci-VSP(248-576)-His against p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). We measured the kinetic constant of Ci-VSP(248-576)-His at $37^{\circ}C$, pH 5.0 or 5.5, under 30 min of reaction time, and less than $2.0\;{\mu}g$ of protein amount. With these conditions, we acquired that Ci-VSP(248-576)-His has $K_m$ of $354{\pm}0.143\;{\mu}M$, $V_{max}$ of $0.0607{\pm}0.0137\;{\mu}mol$/min/mg and $k_{cat}$ of $0.359{\pm}0.009751\;min^{-1}$ for pNPP dephosphorylation. Therefore, we produced a pure form of Ci-VSP(248-576)-His, and this showed a higher activity against pNPP. This purified protein will provide the road to a structural investigation on an interesting protein, Ci-VSP.

Synthesis and Properties of Photocrosslinkable Polymers Containing Rosin Moiety (2) (로진을 함유하는 광경화성 고분자의 합성과 특성(2))

  • 김우식;류상철;홍기헌;이동호;민경은
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.757-762
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    • 2000
  • Vinylbenzyloxystyrylpyridine (VSP) as a photosensitive monomer was synthesized by the reaction of 4-hydroxystyrylpyrydine with 4-vinylbenzyl chloride. Photocrosslinkable polymers containing rosin moiety were then prepared by radically copolymerizing VSP with a methacrylic monomer having rosin moiety. In these copolymerizations, the VSP feed ratios of 5 to 20 mol% were used. The contents of VSP units in the copolymers were determined by UV spectroscopy to be 5.3 to 17.3 mol%. The numberaverage molecular weights of these polymers were in the range of 18000 to 28000 and the polydispersity indexes were about 1.8. The glass transition temperatures were about 15$0^{\circ}C$ and the initial decomposition temperatures were about 34$0^{\circ}C$. The polymers were relatively fast photocrosslinked and the photocrosslinking reaction could be traced by the UV spectroscopy and the residual yield method.

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Effect of Packaging Method on the Lipid Oxidation, Protein Oxidation, and Color in Aged Top Round from Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) during Refrigerated Storage

  • Kang, Sun Moon;Kang, Geunho;Seong, Pilnam;Park, Beomyoung;Cho, Soohyun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the packaging method on the lipid and protein oxidation, and color in aged top round from Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for 14 d at $4^{\circ}C$. Catalase activity was the highest (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging (VP) treatment during storage, and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+vacuum skin packaging (VSP) treatments than in other treatments at d 14. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher (p<0.05) in VP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments at d 14. During storage, total antioxidant activity was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatment than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment. TBARS value was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment during storage and was lower (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP treatments, respectively. Carbonyl content was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 10 d. From 7 d, the $a^*$ value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments. The $b^*$ value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 3 d, and was higher (p<0.05) in 80% Ox-MAP+VSP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+ VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment at d 14. Therefore, VP improved the oxidation and red color stabilities in stored-aged top round compared with Ox-MAP. In addition, 50% Ox-MAP improved the lipid oxidation and red color stabilities compared with 80% Ox-MAP, and its inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation was enhanced by combination with VSP.

A Study on the Configuration Modeling and Aerodynamic Analysis of Small Airplanes for Flight Training (교육용 소형 항공기의 형상 모델링과 공력 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Hwankee
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2020
  • This paper presents comparative results of configuration modeling and aerodynamic analysis to single-engine airplanes such as C-172, SR-20, and DA40NG. The software OpenVSP was used as an airplane configuration modeling tool. OpenVSP can provide the fastest method to get three-dimensional aircraft configuration from given basic data and drawings of aircraft. Parametric design input in OpenVSP, from given aircraft geometric parameters, was applied to small airplanes mentioned. New aircraft models in this study were reversely designed to coincide with the publicly obtained dimensions of the original aircraft. The basic aerodynamic analysis of newly designed modeling aircraft was performed by the vortex lattice method. Results are shown that the similarity of aerodynamic data obtained except for the lack of DA40NG. In conclusion, the modeling process applied to this work is valuable to obtain conceptual design insight in the reverse design from the small airplanes currently in use for flight training.

Stabile Fermentation of Citric Acid Using Immobilized Saccharomycopsis lipolytica

  • Kim, Eun-Ki;Ronnie S. Roberts
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.130-135
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    • 1991
  • The effects of media composition on citric acid fermentation using surface immobilized Saccharomycopsis lipolytica were studied. The use of the standard medium for these organisms resulted in rapid decrease of citric acid production and a transformation of immobilized cell morphologies from a yeast-type to a mycelium-type. When the standard medium was enriched with vitamins, trace minerals, a growth factor and ammonium to form a Vigorous Stationary Phase (VSP) fermentation type medium, relatively stable citric acid production (10 mg/lㆍh) was obtained. Using the VSP type medium, the surface immobilized cells also retained their yeast-type form.

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