• Title, Summary, Keyword: volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa)

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Study of different flexible aeration tube diffusers: Characterization and oxygen transfer performance

  • Hongprasith, Narapong;Dolkittikul, Natchanok;Apiboonsuwan, Kamolnapach;Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk;Painmanakul, Pisut
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2016
  • The research aims to study the different flexible rubber tube diffusers used in urban wastewater treatment processes and aquaculture systems. The experiment was conducted in small-scale aeration tank with different physical properties of the tubes that were used as aerators. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient ($k_La$), oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) and aeration efficiency (AE) were measured and determined to compare the diffusers. Moreover, the bubble hydrodynamic parameters were analyzed in terms of bubble diameter ($d_B$) and rising velocity ($U_B$) by a high speed camera (2,000 frames/s). Then the interfacial area (a) and liquid-side mass transfer coefficient ($k_L$) can be calculated. The physical properties (tube wall thickness, tensile strength, orifice size, hardness and elongation) have been proven to be the key factor that controls the performance (kLa and OTE). The effects of hardness and elongation on bubble formation, orifice size and a-area were clearly proved. It is not necessary to generate too much fine bubbles to increase the a-area: this relates to high power consumption and the decrease of the kL. Finally, the wall thickness, elongation and hardness associated of the flexible tube diffuser (tube No. 12) were concluded, to be the suitable properties for practically producing, in this research.

Application of Scale-Up Criterion of Constant Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient ($k_La$) for Production of Itaconic Acid in a 50 L Pilot-Scale Fermentor by Fungal Cells of Aspergillus terreus

  • Shin, Woo-Shik;Lee, Dohoon;Kim, Sangyong;Jeong, Yong-Seob;Chun, Gie-Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1445-1453
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    • 2013
  • The scale-up criterion of constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient ($k_La$) was applied for the production of itaconic acid (IA) in a 50 L pilot-scale fermentor by the fungal cells of Aspergillus terreus. Various operating conditions were examined to collect as many $k_La$ data as possible by adjusting the stirring speed and aeration rate in both 5 L and 50 L fermentor systems. In the fermentations performed with the 5 L fermentor, the highest IA production was obtained under the operating conditions of 200 rpm and 1.5 vvm. Accordingly, we intended to find out parallel agitation and aeration rates in the 50 L fermentor system, under which the $k_La$ value measured was almost identical to that ($0.02sec^{-1}$) of the 5 L system. The conditions of 180 rpm and 0.5 vvm in the 50 L system turned out to be optimal for providing almost the same volumetric amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) into the fermentor, without causing shear damage to the producing cells due to excessive agitation. Practically identical fermentation physiologies were observed in both fermentations performed under those respective operating conditions, as demonstrated by nearly the same values of volumetric ($Q_p$) and specific ($q_p$) IA production rates, IA production yield ($Y_{p/s}$), and specific growth rate (${\mu}$). Specifically, the negligible difference of the specific growth rate (${\mu}$) between the two cultures (i.e., $0.029h^{-1}$ vs. $0.031h^{-1}$) was notable, considering the fact that ${\mu}$ normally has a significant influence on $q_p$ in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as itaconic acid.

Effects of Hydrocarbon Additions on Gas-liquid Mass Transfer Coefficients in Biphasic Bioreactors

  • Silva, Teresa Lopes da;Calado, Vitor;Silva, Nadia;Mendes, Rui L.;Alves, Sebastiao S.;Vasconcelos, Jorge M.T.;Reis, Alberto
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2006
  • The effects of aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane and n-dodecane) on the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient $(k_L\;a)$ were studied in flat alveolar airlift reactor and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). In the flat alveolar airlift reactor, high aeration rates (>2vvm) were required in order to obtain efficient organic-aqueous phase dispersion and reliable $k_La$ measurements. Addition of 1% (v/v) n-hexadecane or n-dodecane increased the $k_La$ 1.55- and 1.33-fold, respectively, compared to the control (superficial velocity: $25.8{\times}10^{-3}m/s$, sparger orifice diameter: 0.5 mm). Analysis of the gas-liquid interfacial area a and the liquid film mass transfer coefficient $k_L$ suggests that the observed $k_La$ increase was a function of the media's liquid film mass transfer. Addition of 1% (v/v) n-hexadecane or n-dodecane to analogous setups using CSTRs led to a $k_La$ increase by a factor of 1.68 and 1.36, respectively (superficial velocity: $2.1{\times}10^{-3}m/s$, stirring rate: 250 rpm). These results propose that low-concentration addition of oxygen-vectors to aerobic microbial cultures has additional benefit relative to incubation in purely aqueous media.

Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii Using a New Bioreactor Equipped with Centrifugal Impellers (원심 임펠러가 장착된 발효조에서 G. hansenii에 의한 미생물셀룰로오스 생산)

  • Khan, Salman;Shehzad, Omer;Khan, Taous;Ha, Jung Hwan;Park, Joong Kon
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.506-511
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    • 2009
  • In order to improve the bacterial cellulose(BC) production yield, centrifugal and inclined centrifugal impellers were developed. A 6 flat-blade turbine impeller was used as a control system. The flow pattern in the fermenter and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient($k_La$) of these fermentation systems were studied. Fermentations were carried out for the production of BC by G. hansenii PJK in a 2-L jar fermenter equipped with new impellers. Liquid medium was circulated from the bottom, through the cylinder of the impeller and to the wall. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficients, $k_La$, of inclined centrifugal and centrifugal impeller systems at 100 rpm were 23 and 15% of the conventional turbine impeller system, respectively. However, the conversion of microbial cells to cellulose non-producing mutant decreased and this results in the increase in BC production at low rotating speed of impellers.

Effects of Various Bioreactors on Growth and Ginsenoside Accumulation in Ginseng Adventitious Root Cultures(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) (다양한 생물반응기 형태가 인삼(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) 부정근의 생장과 Ginsenoside 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yun-Soo;Hahn, Eun-Joo;Paek, Kee-Yoeup
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.249-253
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    • 2004
  • The type of air lift bioreactor affected the root growth in ginseng adventitious root cultures. Among bioreactors used in this experiment, bulb type bubble bioreactor (BU) was the best to increase root growth (41.92 g dry weight). The kLa value representing the oxygen transfer capacity from medium to explants (6.98 h$^{-1}$ ) in BU with 5 cm bubble column was higher than other bioreactors. On the other hand, cylindric tube bioreactor (CT) without bubble column resulted in minimum root growth (38.55 g dry weight) and kLa value (5.25 h$^{-1}$ ). Furthermore, the root growth (50.30 g dry weight) in BU with 10 cm bubble column more increased than 5 cm bubble column. However, the kLa value do not affected the secondary metabolite such as ginsenosides. These results show that the bubble column in air lift bioreactor increase kLa value and increased kLa value stimulate the growth of ginseng adventitious roots.

Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Biomass Growth Using Micro-nano Bubbles Reactor (마이크로-나노버블 반응조를 이용한 미생물성장 동력학 계수의 추정에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Young-Rip;Jung, Byung-Gil;Jung, Yoo-Jin;Cho, Do-Hyun;Sung, Nak-Chang
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.647-653
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this research are to evaluate and compare the oxygen transfer coefficients($K_{La}$) in both a general bubbles reactor and a micro-nano bubbles reactor for effective operation in sewage treatment plants, and to understand the effect on microbial kinetic parameters of biomass growth for optimal biological treatment in sewage treatment plants when the micro-nano bubbles reactor is applied. Oxygen transfer coefficients($K_{La}$) of tap water and effluent of primary clarifier were determined. The oxygen transfer coefficients of the tap water for the general bubbles reactor and micro-nano bubbles reactor were found to be 0.28 $hr^{-1}$ and 2.50 $hr^{-1}$, respectively. The oxygen transfer coefficients of the effluent of the primary clarifier for the general bubbles reactor and micro-nano bubbles reactor were found be to 0.15 $hr^{-1}$ and 0.91 $hr^{-1}$, respectively. In order to figure out kinetic parameters of biomass growth for the general bubbles reactor and micro-nano bubbles reactor, oxygen uptake rates(OURs) in the saturated effluent of the primary clarifier were measured with the general bubbles reactor and micro-nano bubbles reactor. The OURs of in the saturated effluent of the primary clarifier with the general bubbles reactor and micro-nano bubbles reactor were 0.0294 mg $O_2/L{\cdot}hr$ and 0.0465 mg $O_2/L{\cdot}hr$, respectively. The higher micro-nano bubbles reactor's oxygen transfer coefficient increases the OURs. In addition, the maximum readily biodegradable substrate utilization rates($K_{ms}$) for the general bubbles reactor and micro-nano bubbles reactor were 3.41 mg COD utilized/mg active VSS day and 7.07 mg COD utilized/mg active VSS day, respectively. The maximum specific biomass growth rates for heterotrophic biomass(${\mu}_{max}$) were calculated by both values of yield for heterotrophic biomass($Y_H$) and the maximum readily biodegradable substrate utilization rates($K_{ms}$). The values of ${\mu}_{max}$ for the general bubbles reactor and micro-nano bubbles reactor were 1.62 $day^{-1}$ and 3.36 $day^{-1}$, respectively. The reported results show that the micro-nano bubbles reactor increased air-liquid contact area. This method could remove dissolved organic matters and nutrients efficiently and effectively.

Effects of Dissolved Oxygen and Agitation on Production of Serratiopeptidase by Serratia Marcescens NRRL B-23112 in Stirred Tank Bioreactor and its Kinetic Modeling

  • Pansuriya, Ruchir C.;Singhal, Rekha S.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.430-437
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    • 2011
  • The effects of the agitation and aeration rates on the production of serratiopeptidase (SRP) in a 5-L fermentor (working volume 2-l) were systematically investigated using Serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112. The dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, biomass, SRP yield, and maltose utilization were all continuously measured during the course of the fermentation runs. The efficiencies of the aeration and agitation were evaluated based on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient ($K_La$). The maximum SRP production of 11,580 EU/ml with a specific SRP productivity of 78.8 EU/g/h was obtained with an agitation of 400 rpm and aeration of 0.075 vvm, which was 58% higher than the shake-flask level. The $K_La$ for the fermentation system supporting the maximum production (400 rpm, 0.075 vvm) was 11.3 $h^{-1}$. Under these fermentor optimized conditions, kinetic modeling was performed to understand the detailed course of the fermentation process. The resulting logistic and Luedeking-Piret models provided an effective description of the SRP fermentation, where the correlation coefficients for cell growth, SRP formation, and substrate consumption were 0.99, 0.94, and 0.84, respectively, revealing a good agreement between the model-predicted and experimental results. The kinetic analysis of the batch fermentation process for the production of SRP demonstrated the SRP production to be mixed growth associated.

Scaling Up Study of Exopolysaccharide Production through Mycelial Submerged Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (영지의 액체배양에 의한 세포외 다당 생산의 Scale Up 연구)

  • Lee, Hak-Su;Lee, Shin-Young
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 2009
  • A scaling up study for the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum was carried out in jar fermenter systems (2.6, 20 and 75 L) under bi-staged pH process. Profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and volumetric coefficient of oxygen transfer ($k_La$) as a function of operating variables (agitation speed and aeration rate) was investigated, and a correlation between $k_La$ and operating variables was analysed statistically. Under bi-staged pH process, no limitation of DO was observed at agitation speeds tested in the range of 200 and 600 rpm, and the highest EPS production was obtained at the level of DO of $40{\sim}80%$. From the regression analysis, the relation between $k_La$, gas velocity (Vs), stirrer speed (N) and impeller diameter (Di) could be expressed as : $$k_La=0.555{\times}Vs^{0.42}{\times}(N^3{\times}Di^2)^{0.33}\;(R^2=0.925,\;p<0.05)$$ It was found that under 2.6 L jar fermenter, the optimum agitation speed and aeration rate was 400 rpm and 1 vvm, respectively, obtaining the EPS production of 15.43 g/L. Under the submerged cultivation of G. lucidum in jar fermenters of $2.6{\sim}75\;L$, the similar EPS yields at each fermenter were achieved during scaling up based on $k_La$, and $k_La$ value for maximum EPS production was $85.4{\pm}26.70\;h^{-1}$.

The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Production of Citric Acid from Encapsulated Aspergillus niger (산소공급이 캡슐고정화 Aspergillus niger의 구연산 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Joong-Kon;Jeong, Geung-Sik
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.672-676
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    • 1999
  • Encapsulated Aspergillus niger was prepared in order to inspect the effect of oxygen supply on the production of citric acid. A. niger cells which had been immobilized in the calcium alginate capsule grew and mycellia penetrated through the capsule membrane after two days of cultivation and covered over all of the capsule after eight days. The mycellia became loose when the nitrogen source was sufficient of oxygen was deficient. The larger amount of encapsulated cells were put into a given growth medium, the smaller quantity of citric acid was produced. The increase of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient from 1.8 $hr^-$ to 2.55 $hr^-$ in the flask culture accelerated cell growth rate but did not influence the production of citric acid. The high oxygen supply rate($k_La:\;150\;hr^-$) in the concentric air lift reactor hastened the growth of cells and hindered the production of the citric acid. The reduction of nitrogen source level in the growth medium in the concentric air lift reactor increased citric acid production by 40 percent of that of flask cultivation and the culture period was shortened by 3 days. The variation of the geometry of the concentric air lift reactor did not influence the growth rate of encapsulated cells and production rate of citric acid.

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Optimization of Culture Conditions for Xylitol Production by A Mutant of Candida parapsilosis (Candida parapsilosis 돌연변이주에 의한 Xylitol 생산조건의 최적화)

  • Oh, Deok-Kun;Kim, Sang-Yong;Kim, Jung-Hoe
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.172-176
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    • 1996
  • Effect of culture conditions such as pH, temperature, agitation speed and oxygen transfer rate on xylitol production from xylose by Candide parapsilosis ATCC 21019 mutant was investigated in a jar fermentor. The initial concentration of xylosr was fixed at 50 g/l in this experiment. When pH was increased, cell growth and xylose consumption rate were increased, but maximum xylitol production was shown in the range of pH 4.5 and 5.5 with a yield of 0.68 g/g-xylose. The optimal temperature for xylitol production was determined to be $30^{\circ}C$. Considering the importance of dissolved oxygen tension, for xylitol production, the effect of oxygen transfer rate coefficient $(k_La)$ on fermentation parameters was carefully evaluated in the range of $20{\sim}85\;hr{-1}\;of\;k_La$ (corresponding to $100{\sim}300$rpm of agitation speed). The xylitol production was maximized at $30\;hr^{-1}\;of\;k_La$(150 rpm). A higher oxygen transfer rate supported better cell growth with lower xylitol yield. It was determined that maximum xylitol concentration, xylitol yield and productivity was 35.8 g/l, 71.6% and $0.58\;g/l{\sim}hr^{-1}$, respectively, at $30\;hr^{-1}\;of\;k_La$ In order to further increase xylitol productivity, ferementation using the concentrated biomass(20 g/l) was carried out at the conditions of pH 4.5, $30^{\circ}C$ and $30\;hr\;1$ of oxygen transfer rate. The final xylitol concentration of 40 g/l was obtained at 18 hours of culture time. From this result, it was calculated that xylitol yield was 80ft on the basis of xylose consumption and volumetric productivity was $2.22\;g/l{\sim}hr$ which was increased by $3{\sim}4$ fold compared with $0.5{\sim}0.7\;g/l-hr$ obtained in a normal fermentation condition.

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