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Effects of High Pressure Treatment on the Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Milk (초고압 처리가 우유의 미생물학적 및 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jieun;Choi, Eun-Ji;Park, Sun Young;Jeon, Ga Young;Jang, Ja-Young;Oh, Young Jun;Lim, Seul Ki;Kim, Tae-Woon;Lee, Jong-Hee;Park, Hae Woong;Kim, Hyun Ju;Jeon, Jung Tae;Choi, Hak-Jong
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.267-274
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    • 2014
  • High pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal method used to prevent bacterial growth in the food industry. Currently, pasteurization is the most common method in use for most milk processing, but this has the disadvantage that it leads to changes in the milk's nutritional and chemical properties. Therefore, the effects of HPP treatment on the microbiological and chemical properties of milk were investigated in this study. With the treatment of HPP at 600 MPa and $15^{\circ}C$ for 3 min, the quantity of microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria were reduced to the level of 2-3 log CFU/ml, and coliforms were not detected during a storage period of 15 d at $4^{\circ}C$. An analysis of milk proteins, such as ${\alpha}$-casein, ${\beta}$-casein, ${\kappa}$-casein, ${\alpha}$-lactalbumin, ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin by on-chip electorophoresis revealed that the electrophoretic pattern of the proteins from HPP-treated milk was different from that of conventionally treated commercial milk. While the quantities of vitamins and minerals in HPP-treated milk were seen to be comparable to amounts found in raw milk, the enzyme activity of lipase, protease and alkaline phosphatase after HPP treatment was reduced. These results suggest that HPP treatment is a viable method for the control of undesirable microorganisms in milk, allowing for minimal nutritional and chemical changes in the milk during the process.

Vitamin B5 and B6 Contents in Fresh Materials and after Parboiling Treatment in Harvested Vegetables (채소류의 수확 후 원재료 및 데침 처리에 의한 비타민 B5 및 B6 함량 변화)

  • Kim, Gi-Ppeum;Ahn, Kyung-Geun;Kim, Gyeong-Ha;Hwang, Young-Sun;Kang, In-Kyu;Choi, Youngmin;Kim, Haeng-Ran;Choung, Myoung-Gun
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.172-182
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    • 2016
  • This study was aimed to determine the changes in vitamin $B_5$ and $B_6$ contents compared to fresh materials after parboiling treatment of the main vegetables consumed in Korea. The specificity of accuracy and precision for vitamin $B_5$ and $B_6$ analysis method were validated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The recovery rate of standard reference material (SRM) was excellent, and all analysis was under the control line based on the quality control chart for vitamin $B_5$ and $B_6$. The Z-score for vitamin $B_6$ in food analysis performance assessment scheme (FAPAS) proficiency test was -1.0, confirming reliability of analytical performance. The vitamin $B_5$ and $B_6$ contents in a total of 39 fresh materials and parboiled samples were analyzed. The contents of vitamin $B_5$ and $B_6$ ranged from 0.000 to 2.462 and from 0.000 to $0.127mg{\cdot}100g^{-1}$, respectively. The highest contents of vitamin $B_5$ and $B_6$ were $2.462mg{\cdot}100g^{-1}$ in fresh fatsia shoots (stem vegetables), and $0.127mg{\cdot}100g^{-1}$ in fresh spinach beet (leafy vegetables), respectively. Moreover, the vitamin $B_5$ and $B_6$ contents for parboiling treatment in most vegetables were reduced or not detected. In particular, the contents of vitamin $B_5$ in parboiled fatsia shoots and vitamin $B_6$ in parboiled yellow potato and spinach beet were decreased 20- and 4-fold compared with fresh material, respectively. These results can be used as important basic data for utilization and processing of various vegetable crops, information for dietary life, management of school meals, and national health for Koreans.

Comparison of Nutritional Compositions between Amaranth Baby-Leaves Cultivated in Korea (국내 재배 아마란스 어린잎의 영양성분 비교)

  • Jang, Hye-Lim;Yoo, Min;Nam, Jin-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.980-989
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    • 2016
  • In the present study, we compared and investigated the nutritional compositions of Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus baby-leaves cultivated in Korea. Baby-leaves of two amaranthes consisted of more than 92% moisture, and A. cruentus contained a higher amount of moisture than A. hypochondriacus. Meanwhile, A. hypochondriacus contained higher levels of crude ash, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber than A. cruentus. The major free sugars of the two amaranth baby-leaves were fructose and glucose. Fructose content of A. hypochondriacus was higher than that of A. cruentus, and glucose content of A. cruentus was higher than that of A. hypochondriacus. Acetic acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid were detected in two amaranth leaves, but succinic acid was not detected. Two amaranth leaves contained 17 amino acids except for methionine, proline, and tyrosine, and leaves contained the highest glutamic acid contents. In addition, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus leaves contained high contents of taurine and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid and showed various biological activities. The major mineral and fatty acid of the two amaranth leaves were potassium and linolenic acid (C18:3), respectively. The ${\beta}$-carotene contents of A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus leaves were $478.72{\mu}g/100g$ and $474.12{\mu}g/100g$, respectively. In vitamin B complex, $B_2$, $B_3$, and $B_5$ were detected in the two amaranth leaves whereas vitamins $B_1$, $B_6$, and $B_{12}$ were not detected. A. hypochondriacus contained higher amounts of vitamin C and E than those of A. cruentus. Overall, amaranth leaves contained high amounts of nutritional components. Therefore, amaranth leaves are expected to be useful for the development of a functional food. Moreover, these results will provide fundamental data for advancing sitological value, breeding new cultivars, and promoting leafy vegetable usage.

Study on Differences in Dietary Habits, and Nutrients Status of Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian University Students (남자 대학생을 대상으로 한 Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian과 Non-Vegetarian의 식습관 및 영양상태에 관한 연구)

  • Je, Haejong;Shin, Kyung-Ok
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.269-280
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary habits, health status, and nutrients status of male college students in Seoul according to vegetarian habits. The heights of lacto-ovo vegetarian and non-vegetarian students were not significantly different. However, body weight was significantly higher in the non-vegetarians. The lacto-ovo-vegetarians were vegetarians for religious reasons, and indicated 86.0% satisfaction with their meals. However, the lacto-ovo vegetarian and non-vegetarians showed concerns about low nutrient intakes. Lacto-ovo vegetarians displayed a higher proportion of meal regularity and daily breakfast as compared to non-vegetarians. In addition, their favorite food when eating out was Korean food. Lacto-ovo vegetarians showed higher intakes of milk or other dairy products (yogurt, etc.), vegetables, and fruit, as well as more regular eating habits. In contrast, the non-vegetarians showed higher intakes of high-protein foods (eggs, beans, tofu, etc.) and fatty foods. Lacto-ovo vegetarians showed lower intakes of total energy, as well as vitamins $B_2$, $B_6$, and niacin. Non-vegetarians showed in sufficient dietary fiber intake. In conclusion, lacto-ovo-vegetarians need a meal plan to consider the intake of other nutrients, while non-vegetarians should try to prevent the occurrence of health problems due to excessive intake of nutrients.

Comparison of Micronutrients and Flavor Compounds in Breast Meat of Native Chicken Strains and Baeksemi for Samgyetang (삼계용 토종닭과 백세미 가슴살의 미량영양소 및 풍미물질 비교)

  • Lee, Seong-Yun;Park, Ji-Young;Nam, Ki-Chang
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2019
  • The micronutrients and flavor compounds of three new native chicken strains (A, C, and D) being developed in a breeding program (Golden Seed Project) were compared with a commercial native chicken strain (H) and the Baeksemi (W, white semi broiler). After 100 male chicks in each strains were reared for 5 weeks, the breast muscles from randomly selected 40 birds were analyzed at 8 replications. Native chicken strain A had greater amounts of α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol compared with strain W. Native chicken strains showed higher contents of vitamin B12 than Stain W. Stain H strain had the highest values of cholesterol content and strain D did the lowest. There was no different content of most minerals between native chickens (A, C, D, and H) and W, but Cu were more contained in native chicken strains compared with W. In terms of nucleotide-related flavor compounds, Stain A had the lowest content of hypoxanthine and strain D had highest inosine monophosphate. Native chicken strains had higher contents of umami-related free amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) than W. Among native chickens, strain A had more amounts in the contents of taurine, tasty flavor compounds, and certain vitamins, despite of the relatively low growth productivity. This result will provide information to select a strain with characteristic meat quality in a chicken breeding program.

A Study on the Economical Nutrition Supplement of Cereal Food for Improvement in our National Eating Habits (국민식생활(國民食生活) 향상(向上)을 위(爲)한 곡류제품(穀類製品)의 경제적( 經濟的) 영향강화(營養强化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Ju, Jin-Soon;Yu, Jong-Yull;Kim, Sook-He;Lee, Ki-Yull;Han, In-Kyu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1973
  • I. Subject of the Study: Studies on the economical nutrition supplement of cereal foods for the improvement in our notional eating habits. II. Purpose and Importance of the Study: 1. Our nation is confronted with the situation that the rice, a principal food, short of some essential amino acids, lysine and threonine, leads to imbalanced meals insufficient in the nutrient of protein, to bring many difficulties in the elevation of our national physique. 2. The shortage of even the rice imperfect in the nutrient of protein makes the import of lots of foreign rice inevitable. It is considered that the protein supplement and decrease in the consumption amount, of rice, is a serious key to the solution of our food difficulty, and then a way of the proetin supplement of rice through the addition of essential amino acid is to be rarely applied in the view of the our present finance and situation. 3. In the present experiment, therefore, it aims to the suggestion of an aspect of the improvement in our national eating habits guiding in the nutrition elevation which our nation can afford economically through the development of first, a way of the protein supplement by the mixture of cereals producted plentifully in our country, and second, a way of the decrease in the consumption amount and the improvement in the nutrition of rice through the substitution of the other cereals for rice. III. Contents of Scope of the Study: 1. Objects of the study: Objects of the study are the following three items; a) The nutrition supplement of rice through the mixture of cereals. Our nation makes mainly rice as a principal food, but practically many kinds of cereal are produced in our country. They contain different levels and qualities of each nutrient and they are different from one another in the kinds of essential amino acid consisting protein. For that reason, the mutual complement efficeincy of insufficient nutrients is observed through the mixture of cereals. b) The nutrition supplement of rice through the addition of superior protein sources to rice, a principal food. The development of rice as superior foods in the sense of nutrition is conducted through the risement in protein quality by the addition of protein sources in good quality, for example, fish flour (anchovy flour), egg powder, milk powder, and so on, and through the supplement of vitamins and minerals. c) The decrease in the consumption amount of rice through the substitution of the other cereals for rice, as a principal food. The compensation for the short amount of rice is made by the reduction in the consumption of rice through the discovery of a way of substitution of the other cereals for rice, as a principal food and of the settlement of problems in nutrition and finance subsequent to this. 2. Contents of the study: a) An ideal mixture-ratio of cereals is established for rats by feeding mixed foods(rice-barely or rice-wheat) containing 5%, 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% level of either barely or wheat. b) The nutritive value is determined in the whole subsititution of other foods for rice, and then, a way of the complement of over and under nutrients is devised. c) The ideal combination is investigated for rats through feeding mixed foods of main food, rice and supplement foods of protein sources, soy bean, fish flour, egg powder and milk Powder. d) According to results from the above three experiments, the concise functional test for men and the examination of economical property are made. 3. Scope of the study: a) The observation of the effect of each diet on the growth rate for rats. The growth rate of rats was observed for 15 groups of mixed foods of a main food, rice, and wheat flour, barley powder or soy bean powder, respectively, and 12 groups of wheat flour diets supplemented with $1{\sim}3%$ milk powder, and rice or wheat flour diets supplemented with 5% of milk powder, egg powder, fish flour or soy bean powder, respectively. b) The determination of food consumption. The food consumption was determined at weekly intervals for 27 kinds of diet described in a) item. c) The determination of food efficiency rate. The food efficiency rate for each diet was determined by calculation from the gained body weight and the food consumption amount at the same intervals described in b) item. d) The determination of protein efficiency rate. The protein efficiency rate for each diet was determined by calculation form gained body weight and the protein amount of the food consumption amount at the same intervals described c) item. e) The determination of the body component. The hematocrite and hemoglobin levels in the blood, total nitrogen in the serum, blood sugar, and lipids and glycogen in the liver were determined. f) The observation of nitrogen balance. As a means of the observation of nitrogen balance, the total nitrogen in the urine was determined. g) The analysis of economical property. The economical property was analyzed as the gained body weight to the amount equivalent to one won through the conversion of the food consumption amount into money. h) The functional test for men. The concise functional test for men was made in order to establish if the best diet for experimental animals can be applied to men. IV. Results of the Study: The national food product plan, nationwide nutritive enlightment and the improvement activities in our country eating habits, especially, mixed and powder food problems are to be significantly referred, and the following results must be applied. a) In the mixed foods of cereals, the mixed food of the rice-barley containing $5{\sim}15%$ level of barley is best in terms of nutrition. b) The addition of superior protein sources, egg, Bilk, soy bean, or fish, respectively to either rice or wheat flour makes a great risement in the nutritive value. c) The animal protein is more effective in the elevation of nutritive value of cereals. d) Rice takes the most nutritive operation and has the highest preference, among rice, wheat flour and barley. e) Wheat flour is more economical than rice in evaluation of the gained body weight to the regular money, and the addition of fish or soy bean is more economical than that of any other supplement food. But the above results are true of the range of nutrition and economical property. f) The study on the nutrition composition and barley will lead to the improvement in our national eating habits as mixed food of the rice-barley containing $5{\sim}15%$ level of barley is more nutritive. g) This study on the nutrition only for the growing animal can not be considered as a perfect and entire evaluation. Consequently, the perfect data for our national nutrition can be obtained from the experiment similar to this for the much longer period examining, in details, the growth rate, change of physical strength, mental and bodily change, average life span, and resistance ability to infectious diseases.

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A survey on the nutrient intake and food consumption of the students at the dormitories, College of Agriculture, Seoul National University (서울대학교(大學校) 농과대학(農科大學) 남녀(男女) 기숙사생(寄宿舍生)의 영양섭취(營養攝取) 조사(調査))

  • Mo, Su-Mi;Han, In-Kyu;Kim, Ze-Uook;Lee, Chun-Yung;Kim, Ho-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.7
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    • pp.92-104
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    • 1966
  • For the purpose of the better dietary management and to empahsize of importance in nutrition education for 552 students at the dormitories, College of Agriculture, Seoul National University, the dietary survey was conducted for each consecutive seven days, from March 7th to 13th at the boy's dormitory, from March 14th to 20th at the girl's dormitory, respectively. In comparison the average caloric and nutrient intake per caput per day at the both, girl's and boy's dormitory with the recommended dietary allowances for age of 25, the intake of calories and all nutrients except riboflavin were over the allowances for the boy, while the caloric intake by the girl was considerablly below the allowance. But it is meant that only 150 calories was actually deficient in comparison with the figure of the average energy consumption determined for the girls at the dormitory of the Sook-myung Woman's University, whose pattern of living was quite similar to those of the girls at this college. Except iron and ascorbic acid, all other nutrients were deficient for the girls. The calories in the form of protein of a diet taken by the boy was 12.9% and that by the girl was 12.8%. Protein quality of the diet taken by boy scored 70 while that by the girl scored 79. NDp Cal% of the diet taken by the boy was 7 and that by the girl was figured out to be 8. Therefore, calculated reference protein taken by the boy was 55.8 grams and that by the girl was 36.9%. Though it is generally recommended that at least 1/3 of the protein should come from animal sources, it was apparent by this survey that providing 1/5 of the protein from animal sources with remaining part of high quality vegetable protein foods in the adequate mixed diet would give satisfactory results for both girl and boy students. This was clearly demonstrated by the recommended reference protein and NDp Cal% met. Significant difference between boys and girls in the average consumption of seasonings was found. In consumption per day of seasonings, boy used 1.5 grams of red pepper powder which means they used 15 times more of red pepper than girls did. Kochujang was used 13 grams by boy-students which was as high as 21 times of that of the girl. Total salt intake by the boy was 34 grams while the girl consummed 23 grams. It is obviously recognized that boys prefer more peppery and salty flavor than girls do. To reduce the amount of protein consummed and to improve the quality of protein food, increase of riboflavin rich food and increase of fat intake in place of grain intake are recommendable to the boy. For the girl's diet, consumption of grains, particularly more intake of barley mal· be recommendable to meet the B group of vitamins allowances as well as the caloric allowance. The use of more servings of yellow green vegetables is needed to the girl.

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Study on the Dietary Habit, Nutrient Intake, and Health Status According to Their Majors Among College Women in Sahmyook University (삼육대학교 여대생의 전공에 따른 식습관, 영양소섭취상태 및 건강습관에 관한 비교)

  • Chung, Keun-Hee;Shin, Kyung-Ok;Jung, Tae-Hwan;Choi, Kyung-Soon;Jeon, Woo-Min;Chung, Dong-Keun;Lee, Dong-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.826-836
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to compare the dietary habits, nutrient intake and health status of female college students at Sahmyook University according to their majors. Specifically, women majoring in literature and science (77), food and nutrition (103) and sport (73) were evaluated. College women in the sports department were more likely to have a part-time job and had greater expenses than women in the other departments. The average height of college women in the sports department (164.3${\pm}$4.6 cm) was 2.04 cm taller than that of women with other majors (162.3${\pm}$4.7 cm). College women in the department of literature and science were more likely to have an unbalanced diet, even though they commonly ate small amounts of fruit as snacks. They were more prone to take nutrient tablets and vitamins when compared to women in the other departments. College women in the department of sport were more likely to have unbalanced meals (31.5%) and to overeat. Students in the department of food and nutrition ate more fruit, vitamin C and E but less cholesterol containing foods (p<0.05), less fast food and fried food than students in the other departments. The subjects in the department of sport ate less bread, sweet potatoes, fast foods and fried foods but more calories, fat, vitamin A, vitamin B, niacin, Ca, P and cholesterol than students in the other departments (p<0.05). They were also more likely to exercise for more than two hours a day. The most common problems among college women were going without meals, eating an unbalanced diet, overeating, intake of ill-balanced nutrients and lack of exercise. It was found that college women in the department of sport had a better intake of nutrients and maintained healthier life styles.

Analysis of Dietary Habits by MDA(Mini Dietary Assessment) Scores and Physical Development and Blood Parameters in Female College Students in Seoul Area (서울 지역 여대생의 식생활 평가에 따른 식습관, 신체 발달 및 혈액 인자 비교 연구)

  • Choi, Kyung-Soon;Shin, Kyung-Ok;Huh, Seon-Min;Chung, Keun-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.856-868
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate causes for health problems among college women by analyzing factors related to their dietary habits, physical development, health habits, and blood parameters. The subjects were ages 20 to 24 years, lived in the Seoul area and were randomly selected during March, 2008 to August, 2009. The average height and weight of the overall subjects were $162.02{\pm}4.89\;cm$ and $53.96{\pm}7.00\;kg$, respectively. According to a 3-point assessment scale for the subjects' dietary habits, the average point value was 21.2. The percentage of subjects that ate breakfast daily was only 30.5%, and they omitted regular meals at least once a week. Approximately 83.5% of the subjects reported eating out often or frequently, and preferred Korean foods when they ate out. The subjects had interim meals (snacks) one or two times daily, and 40.4% of them preferred unbalanced meals. As their interim meals, among the 'good' group, ate breaded potatoes (39.3%), carbonated beverages, and ice cream (36.8%), whereas the 'poor' group, drank milk and ate dairy products (38.0%) as well as fast food and fried food (22.8%). Intakes of energy, fat, vitamins $B_2$ and $B_6$, niacin, folic acid, calcium, iron, zinc, and phosphorus were higher in the 'poor' group. The average hemoglobin level ($13.77{\pm}1.00\;g/dL$) among the subjects was within normal range; while 2.7% of subjects had hemoglobin levels under 11.1 g/dL (standard value) and were examined as anemic. The degree of interest in health was 24.5% higher among the subjects who had poor dietary habits. In contrast, among those who had good dietary habits, 49.6% reported they had no interest in regular exercise. The subjects reported that regular meals, nutrient intake, sufficient rest, and sleep as necessary to maintain health. The average amount of sleep obtained by the subjects was 6~8 hours. Among the 'poor' group, 36.2% reported that they exercised regularly, whereas 18.5% of the subjects in the 'good' group reported regular exercise (p<0.05). In conclusion, it appears necessary to provide nutrition education through teaching and to promote nutrition and health to college women so they can control their individual health status and create practicable dietary plans.

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Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism in Gastric Cancer (위암에서 Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T의 유전자 다형성)

  • Seo Won;Park Won Cheol;Lee Jeong Kyun;Kim Jeong Jung
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.10-15
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Recently the role of vitamins, folate in particular, has been emphasized in the maintenance of health. Folate deficiency is known to give rise to developmental delay, immature vascular disease, neural tube defect, acute leukemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, delivery defects, breast cancer, and particularly gastrointestinal neoplasia. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an essential enzyme in folate metaboism, and influences DNA synthesis and DNA methylation. Generally, folate deficiency is associated with gastrointestinal neoplasms. The amino-acid- changing and enzyme-activity-reducing nucleotide polymorphism (766C$\rightarrow$T/ Ala222Val) has been described in the MTHFR polymorphism and leads to low enzyme activity that may reduce the capacity of DNA methylation and possibly uracil mis-incorporation into DNA. These processes may be critical in the oncogenic transformation of human cells, especially in colorectal carcinomas. We investigated the relationship between the MTHFR polymorphism in gastric cancer and the tumor site, the smoking history, and the alcoholic history. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six (96) individuals with gastric cancer and 287 healthy persons were analyzed. Blood sampling was performed, PCR-RFLP was analyzed, and MTHFR polymorphism genotypes of C/C, C/T, and T/T were obtained and analyzed statistically for their correlation. Results: In the gastric cancer group there were 69 ($72\%$) males and 27 ($28\%$) females. There were also 58 cases ($60\%$) involving the gastric lower body, 20 cases ($21\%$) the gastric mid-body, and 18 cases ($19\%$) the gastric upper body. In the control group there were 169 ($59\%$) males and 118 ($41\%$) females. Among the gastric cancer, 56 ($61\%$) smoking patients, 40 ($39\%$) non-smoking patients, 45($47\%$) alcoholic patients, 51 ($53\%$) non-alcoholic patients. In the gastric cancer group, MTHER polymorphisms were C/C in 18 ($19\%$) cases, C/T in 59 ($61\%$) cases, T/T in 19 ($20\%$) cases. In the control group polymorphisms were C/C 116 ($40\%$) cases, C/T 103 ($36\%$) cases, and T/T 68 ($24\%$) cases (P=0.045). In cases of lower gastric body cancer, polymorphisms were C/C in 16 ($24\%$) C/C in 16 ($24\%$) cases and C/T or T/T in 42 ($72\%$) cases. In cases of upper and mid-body cancer, polymorphisms were C/C in 2 ($5\%$) cases and C/T or T/T 36 ($95\%$) cases (P=0.006). In the non-smoking patient group, polymorphisms were C/C in 5 (12%) cases and C/T or T/T in 35 ($88\%$) cases. In the smoking patient group, C/C in 13 ($23\%$) cases and C/T or T/T in 43 ($77\%$) cases (P=0.189). In the non-alcoholic patient group, polymorphisms were C/C in 6 ($12\%$) cases and C/T or T/T in 45 ($88\%$) cases. In the alcoholic patient group, polymorphisms were C/C in 12 ($26\%$) cases and C/T or T/T in 33 ($74\%$) cases (P=0.063) Conclusion: MTHFR polymorphisms are associated with gastric cancer and tumor site, but not with smoking and alcohol drinking.

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