• Title, Summary, Keyword: vitamins

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Changes in Vitamins (BB1, B7, B12) and Specific Bacteria on the Growth Stages of Marine Diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana (해양 규조류 Cyclotella meneghiniana의 성장단계에 따른 비타민(B1, B7, B12) 및 특이적 미생물의 변동)

  • Choi, Won-Ji;Ki, Jang-Seu
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 2019
  • Diatom growth is affected by associated bacteria that probably provide useful substances like vitamins. In the present study, we analysed the variation of vitamins $B_1$, $B_7$ and $B_{12}$ on the growth stages of the marine diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana and assessed putative vitamin-producing bacteria (e.g., ${\alpha}$- and ${\gamma}$-proteobacteria). HPLC analysis showed that total amounts of vitamins $B_1$ and $B_{12}$ decreased with cell growth, whereas vitamin $B_7$ increased gradually on the growth stages. $B_1$ and $B_{12}$ measured 0.5% and 0.18% at the stationary phase, following 0.25% and 0.72% at the lag phase. They considerably increased to 0.75% and 0.77% at the death stage. 16S pyrosequencing showed relatively high ratios of ${\alpha}$- and ${\gamma}$-proteobacteria in all the growth stages of the C. meneghiniana. In addition, we detected previously-reported vitamin-producing bacteria, such as Marinobacter, in high numbers. The species was dorminant in the lag (relative abundance 72%) and exponetial (72%) stages, whareas it decreased in the stationary (49%) and death (48%) stages. These results suggest that vitamins $B_1$ or $B_{12}$ may be necesaary for diatom growth and that associated bacteria, including Marinobacter, may produce these substances for the cell growth of C. meneghiniana.

Preparation and Evaluation of Mutivitamin Emulsion (복합비타민 유제의 제조와 평가)

  • Lee, Moon-Seok;Cho, Hea-Young;Lee, Yong-Bok
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2002
  • Water-lipid soluble multivitamin formulations were widely used to reduce the disease and stress of animals as husbandry has made a remarkable progress in recent. But the efficiency of these formulations is far from satisfactory. So, this study was attempted to develop the physically and chemically stable and useful multivitamin o/w emulsion. Multivitamin o/w emulsion composed of water, soybean oil (10%, v/v), vitamin A, D, E, K, $B_2,\;B_6,\;B_{12}$ and panthenol. To make a stable o/w emulsion, the egg lecithin (2%, w/v) and glycerin (2.5%, w/v) were used for emulsifier and thickening agent, respectively. The oil in water emulsion system was manufactured by microfluidizer and the physicochemical stability of this emulsion was evaluated. The average particle size and interfacial tension were measured. From the result of interfacial tension tested, critical micelle concentration of the egg lecithin was 0.5% (w/v) and optimal concentration for the preparation of emulsion was 2% (w/v). The mean particle size was about $0.6\;{\mu}m$ which was suitable for injections. Short-term accelerated stability as physical stability study was tested by centrifuging and freeze-thawing the emulsion samples. The additions of vitamins resulted in the increment of particle size and reduction of physical stability of emulsion. But it is not an enormous problem for the stability of emulsion. Also, we have performed the long-period preservation stability test for the vitamins. All vitamins were analysed by HPLC. The result of storage under $4^{\circ}C$ and dark conditions demonstrated that all vitamins were maintained stable at least 16 weeks, except for vitamin $B_{12}$.

The Effect of Antioxidant Vitamins on Liver Function Enzymes and Hepatic Damage of Aflatoxin $B_1$ treated mice (Aflatoxin $B_1$ 투여 마우스의 간 기능 효소 및 간 손상에 미치는 항 산화비타민의 효과)

  • Park, Seon-Ja;Park, Jung-Hyun;Park, Jong-Sun;Seo, Sook-Jae;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 2000
  • Aflatoxin $B_1(AFB_1)$ is a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin in human beings. It is accumulated in animal tissues and injured cell through variable metabolic pathway. This study was conducted to determine the effect of antioxidant vitamins on liver function enzymes and hepatic damage of $AFB_1$ treated mice. The 6 weeks old male ICR mice were randomly separated 6 groups, vehicle solvent or vitamin C(10 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E(63.8 mg/kg/day) were administered by intraperitoneal(i.p.) injection and 1 hr later, vehicle solution(DMSO) or $AFB_1$(0.4 mg/kg) were injected. The results obtained as follow ; The levels of liver function enzymes such as GOT, GPT, LDH, and alkaline phosphatase, in sera of mice were remarkably elevated by treatment with $AFB_1$ only. However, those enzymes were significantly alleviated by co-treatment with antioxidant vitamins(p<0.01). Especially the levels of LDH and ALK phosphatase were similar to those of control groups(p<0.01). The transmission electron microscopy(TEM) image of intracellular microrganelles on the liver cell of mice was also degenerated extremely by treatment with $AFB_1$, but vitamin C and vitamin E gave good effects on cellular deformation. The intracellular microrganelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and nucleic membrane were nearly disappeared the cellular deformation by antioxidant vitamins co-administration. With above results, we could estimated that antioxidant vitamins blocked AFB1 induced hepatic cell damage.

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The Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins Via Comet and Mitogenic Assay in Mice Exposed to $AFB_1$ ($AFB_1$에 노출된 마우스에서 Comet Assay와 Mitogenic Assay에 의한 항산화 비타민의 효과)

  • Park, Seon-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.21-33
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effects of antioxidant vitamins on the cellular oxidant damage by observing the mitogenicity in the mouse spleen and the strand breaks of DNA in mouse blood induced by $AFB_2$. Intraperitoneal(i.p.) injections of vitamin C(VC) of 10 mg/kg and vitamin E(VE) of 63.8 mg/kg were repeatedly administered to male ICR mice of 6 weeks old at intervals of 4 times every 2 days. After one hour vitamin treatments, $AFB_1$ of 0.4 mg/kg was injected into the $AFB_2$ plus vitamin treated groups in the same way. On the other hands, into the $AFB_2$ only treated group, only $AFB_2$ was injected without vitamins in the same method as above. The results of the experiment are as follows ; as regard to comet assay, DNA strand breaks were clearly present and they formatted a typical comet tail in the mice blood of the $AFB_2$ only treated groups. However, comet tails apparently disappeared in $AFB_2$ plus antioxidant vitamins treated groups since oxidant damage was controlled in an almost similar level to the control group. Mitogenicity of the spleen also showed a similar tendency as before, and these differences were more remarkably observed in the reaction against Con-A, which is a T-cell mitogen. In these data, the statistical significance was p<0.01. The LDL and VLDL levels were 408.72, 504.47 mg/dl respectively in the $AFB_2$ only treated groups. Compared with the $AFB_1$ only treated groups, those of $AFB_2$ plus antioxidant vitamin treated groups decreased to 272.06(VC), 305.28 mg/dl(VE), respectively. On the other hand, HDL levels were diminished to 32.60, 29.60 mg/dl in $AFB_2$ only treated groups, compared to 42.23, 41.14 mg/dl in the $AFB_2$ plus antioxidant vitamins treated groups. But, blood glucose levels were not statistically significant.

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Correlation of the Nutritional Status of Antioxidant Vitamins and Serum Lipids and MDA Levels in Postmenopausal Women (폐경기 여성의 항산화 비타민 영양 상태와 혈중 지질 및 MDA 농도와의 관계)

  • Kim Sang-Yeon;Jung Kyung-Ah
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.145-155
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    • 2006
  • This study investigated the correlation of the nutritional status of antioxidant vitamins and serum lipids and MDA levels in postmenopausal women. Data about general characteristics, dietary intakes and biochemical parameters, including serum lipids, MDA and antioxidant vitamins levels, were collected from 85 postmenopausal women. The subjects were classified into three groups according to their serum total cholesterol level: normocholesterolemia group (NC, < 200 mg/dL), moderate hypercholesterolemia group (MC, $200{\sim}239mg/dL$) and hypercholesterolemia group(HC, ${\geq}240mg/dL$). The results are as follows. 1) General characteristics and serum MDA levels were not significantly different among the three groups. 2) Daily nutrients intakes adjusted to energy intake were not significantly different among the three groups, and were compatible with dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for Koreans. 3) Dietary Vt. A, ${\beta}-carotene$, Vt. C and Vt. E intake were not significantly different among the groups, while Vt. E intake was positively related with serum TC (r=0.288, p<0.05) and triglyceride (r=0.341, p<0.001) levels. 4) Serum Vt. A level standardized by serum TC level was significantly low and serum Vt. E level was significantly high in the HC group. Serum Vt. E level was positively related with serum TC level (r=0.389, p<0.001). 5) Dietary Vt. E intake was negatively correlated to serum MDA level (r=-0.242 p<0.05). Serum Vt. C and Vt. E levels were also negatively correlated to serum MDA level (r=-0.312, p<0.001 and r=-0.299, p<0.05). When the correlation was analyzed only in the group with hypercholesterolemia, correlation coefficients between the antioxidant vitamin and serum MDA level were higher. We concluded that intakes of antioxidant vitamins can contribute to decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease by decreasing the oxidative stress of body rather than by controlling serum lipid levels.

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A Study on Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Status in College Women Smokers -ll. Assessment of Nutritional Status for Antioxidant Vitamins- (흡연 여대생의 식이섭취실태 및 영양상태 평가에 관한 연구-ll. 항산화 비타민의 영양상태 평가-)

  • 김정희;문정숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 1997
  • This study was done to compare the nutritional status of antioxidant vitamins between college women smokers and nonsmokers. Dietary intakes and serum levels of antioxidant vitamins were determined in 33 smokers and 42 nonsmokers residing in the Seoul area. Dietary intakes of vitamin A and C were determined by a quick and convenient dietary intake method. Serum vitamin C level was measured by 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method and serum levels of vitamin A and E were measured by HPLC. The mean A intake of nonsmokers and smokers was 504.3$\mu$gR.E./day and 450. 4$\mu$gR.E./day and the mean vitamic C intake of nonsmokers and smokers was 51.6mg/day and 50.2mg/day, reapectively. There was no difference in the dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins between smokers and nonsmokers. The serum vitamin A level, 0.71mg/1 in nonsmokers was not significantly different from that of 0.74mg/1 in smokers. However, the serum vitamin C level, 7.94mg/1 in smokers was 15% lower(p$\ll$0.05) than that of 9.30mg/1 in nonsmokers. The serum vitamin E level, 18.15mg/1 in smoders was also 34% lower(p$\ll$0.05) than that of 27.58mg/1 in nonsmokers. There was no significant correlation between dietary intakes and serum levels of vitamin A and C for both smokers and nonsmokers. These results suggest that cigarette smokers need more dietary intakes of vitamin C and E than do nonsmokers to reach the same serum level.

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Enrichment of Vitamins $D_3$, K and Iron in Eggs of Laying Hens

  • Park, S.W.;Namkung, H.;Ahn, H.J.;Paik, I.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.226-229
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    • 2005
  • An experiment was conducted to produce eggs enriched with vitamins $D_3$, K and iron in eggs. Six hundred 97-wk-old ISA Brown force molted hens were allocated to completely randomized block arrangement of six dietary treatments: T1; control (C), T2; C+4,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+2.5 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe, T3; C+8,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+5.0 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe, T4; C+12,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+7.5 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe, T5; C+16,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+10.0 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe, T6; C+20,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+12.5 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe. Fe was supplemented with Fe-methionine. Each treatment consisted of five replicates of ten cages with two birds per cage. Egg production and egg weight were highest in T2 and incidence of soft and broken egg was highest in T6. Haugh unit was not different among treatments although it tended to be increased as dietary vitamins $D_3$ and K increased. Eggshell strength was not different among treatment. Concentrations of vitamin $D_3$ and K in egg yolk increased and plateaued approximately 20 days after feeding supplemented diets. The level of these vitamins peaked at 12,000 IU/kg vitamin $D_3$ and 7.5 mg/kg vitamin K supplementation and then decreased at the higher than these supplementation levels. The peak concentrations of vitamin $D_3$ and vitamin K were 4.6 times and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. Supplementary Fe also increased Fe content in egg yolk. It is concluded that vitamin $D_3$ and K in eggs can be effectively enriched by proper supplementation time and level of these vitamins.

Amelioration of lipid abnormalities by vitamin therapy in women using oral contraceptives

  • Torkzahrani, Shahnaz;Heidari, Afrooz;Mostafavi-pour, Zohreh;Ahmadi, Majid;Zal, Fatemeh
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2014
  • Objective: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have some adverse effects on the serum lipid profile. Because hyperlipidemia is one of the risk factors in cardiovascular diseases, lipid abnormalities should be evaluated in women consuming COCs. Vitamins E and C are known to have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of vitamins E and C on serum lipids in women using COCs. Methods: The study compared changes in lipid parameters with and without vitamin therapy in women consuming COCs compared to those of a control group (40 non-contraceptive users or NCU) for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels along with HDL/LDL ratios were measured for all participants. Results: COC users experienced significantly higher increases in the levels of triglycerides and LDL than non-users (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were noted in the total cholesterol and HDL levels. In the treated COC group receiving vitamins E and C, the HDL level and the HDL/LDL ratio increased and the LDL and triglycerides levels decreased significantly compared with those of the other groups. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins E and C restores a normal lipid profile in COC users.

Effects of Six Different Starter Cultures on Mutagenicity and Biogenic Amine Concentrations in Fermented Sausages Treated with Vitamins C and E

  • Kim, Hyeong Sang;Lee, Seung Yun;Kang, Hea Jin;Joo, Seon-Tea;Hur, Sun Jin
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.877-887
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    • 2019
  • This study was performed to determine changes in mutagenicity and biogenic amine concentrations in sausages fermented with six different starter cultures treated with vitamins C and E. Six different types of fermented sausages with different combination of starter cultures were manufactured. T1, Pediococcus acidilactici; T2, P. pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus; T3, S. carnosus, S. xylosus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Lactobacillus curvatus, and P. pentosaceus; T4, S. carnosus and L. sakei; T5, S. xylosus and L. plantarum; and T6, Penicillium nalgiovensis. After treatment with vitamins C and E in fermented sausages, changes in mutagenicity and biogenic amine concentrations were measured. The sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures showed the most effective antimutagenic activity (p<0.05). The mutagenicity was further decreased in the sausages treated with vitamins C and E (p<0.05), regardless of the starter cultures. The use of Pediococcus acidilactici, S. xylosus, L. plantarum, and Penicillium nalgiovensis as starter cultures was effective in decreasing biogenic amine concentrations (p<0.05). In addition, vitamin E was more effective in decreasing the biogenic amine concentrations than vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend the use of S. xylosus and L. plantarum as starter cultures, in addition to the use of vitamins C and E, to reduce the potential risk of meat mutagens in fermented sausages.

Study on Stability of B-Vitamins in Processing Methods of Ginseng (인삼(人蔘)의 가공방법(加工方法)에 따른 Vitamin B 군(群)의 안정성(安定性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Park, Kil-Dong;Sung, Hyun-Soon;Lee, Kwang-Sung;Oh, Sung-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 1982
  • B-vitamin contents in ginsengs ranged from 55.9 to 65.5 r/g and from 13.2 to 14.5 r/g for niacin and niacin amide, from 4.9 to 5.4 mr/g for cobalamine, and from 3.9 to 8.2 r/g and from 6.9 to 8.2 r/g for riboflavin and thiamine regardless processing. Especially, cobalamine was detected in ginseng. It is found that the contents of B-vitamins somewhat decreased according to processing methods, washing-dried and steaming-dried of fresh ginseng. Niacin, niacin amide and cobalamine decreased by $6{\sim}9%$. Therefore, it is approved that B-vitamins were stable in processing methods.

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