• Title, Summary, Keyword: vitamins

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The Hepatotoxicity and Testicular Toxicity Induced by Arecoline in Mice and Protective Effects of Vitamins C and E

  • Zhou, Jianhong;Sun, Qi;Yang, Zhirong;Zhang, Jie
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2014
  • Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nuts which are widely chewed by southeast Asian and it manifests various toxic effects in different organs of human and animals. In this work, mature mice were treated by vitamins C plus E, arecoline, or both daily for four weeks. The results showed that arecoline significantly increased the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and significantly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissues. Additionally, the body weight, testis weight, sperm counts, motility and normal sperms also were significantly decreased. The supplement of vitamins C and E can bring the activities of ALP and GPT to normal levels and partially restore the sperm counts compared to the arecoline-treated group but have no other positive effects. In conclusion, the vitamins C and E partially attenuated the arecoline-induced hepatotoxiciy but basically had on protective effects against the arecoline-induced testicular toxicity.

Migration of Water-Soluble Vitamins into Gelatin Layer of Soft Capsules (연질캅셀제중 수용성 비타민의 젤라틴층 이행에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Sea-Jong;Park, Won-Hee;Yun, Kwang-Jai;Yoon, Won-Yong
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.25-28
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    • 1994
  • The previous vitamin assays in soft capsules have been performed only with capsule contents. Since some vitamins, however, could migrate into gelatin layer of the soft capsules, each vitamin of multivitamin soft capsules in the market was analyzed simultaneously in both capsule content and gelatin layer. The results showed that migrations of nicotinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride into gelatin layer were pronounced, while those of other vitamins were negligible.

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Case studies: Statistical analysis of contributions of vitamins and phytochemicals to antioxidant activities in plant-based multivitamins through generalized partially double-index model

  • Yoo, Jae Keun;Kwon, Oran
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 2016
  • It is important to verify the identity of plant-based multivitamins prepared with a natural-concept and popular for daily consumption because they are easily purchased in markets with imperfect information. For this study, a generalized partially double-index model (GPDIM) was employed as a main statistical method to identify the contribution of vitamins and phytochemicals to antioxidant potentials using data on antioxidant capacities and chemical fingerprinting. A bootstrapping approach via sufficient dimension reduction is adopted to estimate the two unknown coefficient vectors in the GPDIM. Fifth order polynomial regressions are fitted to measure the contributions of vitamins and phytochemicals after estimating the coefficient vectors with the two double indices.

The Quantitative Determination of Reversible and Irreversible Oxidative Damages Induced by Smoking Cessation and Supplementation of Antioxidative Vitamins in Korean Male Smokers (한국 남자 흡연자의 금연과 항산화제 보충에 따른 체내 가역적.비가역적인 산화 손상도 변화의 정량적 측정 연구)

  • 김미경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.167-178
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    • 2000
  • The effect of oral vitamin e (800IU/day) and C (500mg/day) supplementation for 10 days and/or smoking cessation for 5 days on oxidative damage to the red blood cells (RBC) of male smokers (22.2$\pm$0.2 years old) was studied. RBC were tested for their ability to protect against smoking-induced oxidative damage by measuring heme proteins (carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, methemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin), hemolysis and thiobarbiturinc acid reactive substances (TBARS). Plasma levels of vitamin c, A, E, $\beta$-catotene, total cholesterol, glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT) were also analyzed. In experiment one, a comparison was made of heme proteins and lipid damage to RBC, plasma antioxidant status (indexed by plasma levels of vitamin C, E, A and $\beta$-carotene) between smokers(n=56) and non-smokers (n=16). No differences were found in plasma antioxidant status, heme protein damage and TBARS concentration of RBC. In experiment two, 46 fasting male smokers from experiment one were divided into 4 groups. The groups were smoking with placebo group(SP, n=14), smoking cessation with vitamins supplementatin group (SV, n=13), smoking cessation with placebo group (NSP, n=9) and smoking cessation with vitamins supplementation group (NSV, n=10). After supplementing antioxidant vitamins, significant increases were seen in plasma vitamins supplementation group (NSV, n=10). After supplementing antioxidant vitamins, significant increases were seen plasma vitamin C (p<0.05) and vitamin E levels (p<0.05). The plasma vitamin E level was highest in the NSV group. Vitmain E and C supplementation provided some protection against heme proteins and lipid damage by lowering methemoglobin, hemolysis and TBARS concentration of RBC. Smoking cessation significantly decreased TBARS of RBC and plasma total cholesterol concentration. Supplementing vitamin E and C with smoking cessation considerably lowered plasma total cholesterol. These results point to a special association among smoking, oxidative damage and plasma antioxidant vitamin status. They indicate that increases in plasma antioxidant status can be detected after the supplementation of vitamin C and E and that smoking cessation had an additional effect on plasma vitamin E level. The present data suggest that improved antioxidant status induced by antioxidant supplementation or smoking cessation may help prevent oxidative damage in smokers.

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Exposure Assessment of Vitamins and Minerals from Various Sources of Koreans (다양한 급원을 통한 우리나라 사람들의 비타민 및 무기질 노출량 평가)

  • Kim, Sun-Hyo;Lee, Seon-Huei;Hwang, Yu-Jin;Kim, Wha-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.539-548
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    • 2006
  • In recent years a concern of excessive intakes of vitamins and minerals from various sources is increasing, since there has been a marked increase in production and consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements and fortified foods. The purpose of this study was to assess the maximum exposure of vitamins and minerals from various sources including diet, fortified foods, and health functional foods among Koreans. As a result, the highest exposure group of most vitamins and minerals from diet was adults (30 - 49 years of age) according to 2001 Korean National Nutrition and Health Survey Report. Maximum dietary intakes of vitamin A, $B_1,\;B_2$, C, nicotinamide, calcium, phosphorus and iron were 0.5 - 7 times of the RDA for Koreans, 7th ed. Maximum intakes of vitamins and minerals from fortified foods by adults (20 - 59 years of age) were 8 - 760% of the Korean RDA. In addition, maximum exposure of vitamins and minerals from vitamin mineral health functional foods by middle aged people was 35 - 140% of the upper limits (UL: DRI for Koreans). As a consequence, maximum combined intakes of vitamin $B_6$, vitamin C, calcium, iron and zinc from the above sources including diet, fortified foods and vitamin mineral health functional foods were greater than the UL. These results would be applied for determining the safe upper limits of vitamin and mineral of health functional foods.

Estimation of Safe Maximum Levels of Vitamins and Minerals to Foods (비타민 무기질 임의영양강화 최대허용수준 추정)

  • Chung, Hae-Rang;Oh, Se-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.692-698
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    • 2006
  • The voluntary addition of vitamins and minerals to the appropriate foods may help reduce the risks associated with low intakes of these micronutrients, yet the potential of excessive intake, particularly for persons consuming very large amount of foods needs to be addressed. Using the Flynn's model to estimate the level of each vitamins and minerals that can be added safely to foods, maximum levels of fortification to conventional foods per 100 kcal portion were estimated. Critical factors in the Flynn's model included tolerable upper intake level (UL), each micronutrient intake at the $95^{th}$ percentile, the proportion of fortified foods in the diets of individuals, the proportion of foods to which micronutrients could be practically added, and a range of estimates for fractions of foods which might be actually fortified in each nutrient. Food vehicles included all foods except for fresh foods and alcoholic beverages, in general. With fortification of 50% of all potentially fortifiable foods, micrornutrients could be added safely to foods at levels per 100 kcal 1) > 100% Recommended Intake (RI) for vitamin $B_12$, 2) 1,200% RI for vitamin $B_1$ and niacin, 3) 1,000% $B_1$ for vitamins $B_2$ and $B_6$, 4) 400% RI for vitamin E, 5) 30% RI for calcium, 6) 20% RI for folic acid, iron and zinc, 7) 10% RI for manganese, 8) no fortification for magnesium, phosphorous and vitamin A, and 8) further consideration of vitamin D, copper and selenium due to insufficient evidence. Results of this study suggests a wide range of vitamins and minerals that can be added safely to foods in current diets of Koreans.

The Relationship between the Life Style and the Status of Serum Lipis and Antioxidant Vitamins in University Students (대학생들의 생활습관과 혈청 항산화비타민 및 지질상태의 관련성에 관한 연구)

  • 권정숙;한은화;윤수홍;장현숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 1999
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the life style and the nutritional status of serum antioxidant vitamins and lipids in university male and female students. 48 male and 49 female students attending Andong university, aged between 18 and 25 years, were selected. Questions about the life styles including dietary intakes, food habits, smoking, drinking alcohol, exercise, stress were answered. And serum levels of antioxidant vitamins and lipids were determined. Average serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL C, HDL C, and triglyceride in male and female subjects were 158.6$\pm$32.7, 177.3$\pm$33.8; 86.4$\pm$26.0, 109.0$\pm$31.2; 46.0$\pm$10.7, 49.9$\pm$12.4; 131.2$\pm$22.5, 91.7$\pm$ 38.6mg/dl respectively. Average serum levels of antioxidant vitamin A, E and C in male and female subjects were 42.6$\pm$12.3, 31.4$\pm$9.8 g/dl, 1.11$\pm$0.38, 1.15$\pm$0.29mg/dl and 164.66 $\pm$65.01, 220.06$\pm$80.11 g/dl respectively. There was no significant difference between smoking habits and either serum lipids or antioxidant vitamins level. The serum vitamin C level of drinkers was significantly lower(p=0.038), but serum lipids(total cholesterol, LDL C, and triglyceride) were higher than non alcoholic subjects. The subjects with severe stress had lower in HDL C and higher in atherogenic index than others. This result indicates that oxidative stress may be increased in stressful environment from undesirable life styles and influence the status of serum lipid and antioxidant vitamins.

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The Nutritional Status of Antioxidant Vitamins in Relation to Serum MDA Level in Postmenopausal Women (폐경기 여성의 혈청 과산화지질 농도에 따른 항산화비타민의 영양상태)

  • 정경아;김상연;최윤정;우정익;장유경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.330-337
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of antioxidant vitamins in relation to serum malondialdehye(MDA) level in postmenopausal women with common occurance of cardiovascular disease(CVD). Data about general characteristics including smoking, drinking and exercise status, dietary intake and serum level of antioxidant vitamins, and serum MDA level were collected from eighty-five postmenopausal women. Mean serum MDA level was 1.62$\pm$0.03nmol/ml, and general characteristics and serum lipid profiles were not significantly different among the three group: low MDA(<1.45nmol/ml), midium MDA(1.45-1.74nmol/ml) and high MDA($\geq$1.74nmol/ml). Total mean vitamin A intake was 472.8$\pm$37.7RE, 68% of RDA, vitamin C intake was 134.3$\pm$8.7mg, 192% of RDA and vitamin E intake was 8.6$\pm$0.5mg, 86% of RDA for Korean. In takes of antioxidant vitamins from the diet were not significantly different among the three groups. However significant negative correlation(r=-0.242, p<0.05) was observed between vitamin E intake and serum MDA level in total subjects. Total mean serum vitamin A, $\beta$-carotene and vitamin C level were 0.59$\pm$0.01$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, 0.25$\pm$0.01$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and 9.02$\pm$0.28$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, respectively. Total mean serum vitamin E and vitamin E/total cholesterol level were 9.15$\pm$0.42$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and 4.09$\pm$0.17$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, respectively. Serum antioxidant vitamins levels were not significantly different among the three groups. However serum vitamin C and E level were negatively correlated to serum MDA level. We can conclude that it will be helpful for postmenopausal women with common occurance of CVD to improve nutritional status of antioxidant vitamins by increasing intakes of antioxidant vitamins, especially vitamin C and E. (Korean J Nutrition 34(3) : 330~337, 2001)

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Effects of Vitamins C and E on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Function in Nypoxia/Reoxygenation (저산소 및 산소재도입시 vitamin C와 E가 간장 약물대사 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤기욱;이상호;이선미
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2000
  • Liver isolated from 18 hours fasted rats was subjected to $N_2$hypoxia (for 45 min) followed by reoxygenation (for 30 min). The perfusion medium used was Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4, $37^{\circ}C$). Vitamin C (0.5 mM) and trolox C (0.5 mM), soluble vitamin E analog, were added to perfusate. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total glutathione, oxidized glutathione, lipid peroxide and drug-metabolizing enzymes were measured. After hypoxia LDH significantly increased but this increase was attenuated by vitamin C and combination of vitamin C and E. Total glutathione and oxidized glutathione in perfusate markedly increased during hypoxia and this increase was inhibited by vitamins C, E and its combination. Similarly; oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxide in liver tissue increased after hypoxia and reoxygenation and this increase was inhibited by vitamin I and combination of vitamin C and E. Hepatic drug metabolizing function (phase I, II) were suppressed during hypoxia but improved during reoxygenation. While vitamins C and E only increased glucuronidation, the combination of vitamin C and E increased the oxidation, glucuronidation and sulfation. Our findings suggest that vitamins C and E synergistically ameliorates hepatocellular damage as indicated by abnormalities in drug metabolizing function during hypoxia/reoxygenation and that this protection is in major part, caused by decreased oxidative stress.

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