• Title, Summary, Keyword: virulence genes

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Riboprint and Virulence Gene Patterns for Bacillus cereus and Related Species

  • Kim, Young-Rok;Batt, Carl A.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1146-1155
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    • 2008
  • A total of 72 Bacillus cereus strains and 5 Bacillus thuringiensis strains were analyzed for their EcoRI ribogroup by ribotyping and for the presence or absence of seven virulence-associated genes. From these 77 strains, 42 distinctive ribogroup were identified using EcoRI, but the two species could not be discriminated by their EcoRI ribogroup. The 77 strains were also examined by PCR for the presence of seven virulence-associated genes, cerAB, pi-plc, entFM, bceT, hblA, hblC, and hblD. All five Bacillus thuringiensis strains were positive for these genes. Although differences in the patterns of virulence genes were observed among the different B. cereus strains, within any given ribogroup the patterns of the seven virulence genes was the same. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis in combination with available chromosomal maps for a selected group of B. cereus strains revealed significant differences in their chromosome size and the placement of virulence genes. Evidence for significant rearrangements within the B. cereus chromosome suggests the mechanism through which the pattern of virulence-associated genes varies. The results suggest linkage between ribogroups and virulence gene patterns as well as no apparent containment of the latter within any particular species boundary.

Detection of Virulence-Associated Genes in Clinical Isolates of Bacillus anthracis by Multiplex PCR and DNA Probes

  • Kumar, Sanjay;Tuteja, Urmil
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1475-1481
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    • 2009
  • Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, and well recognized as a potential agent for bioterrorism. B. anthracis can be identified by detecting the virulence factors genes located on two plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of virulence genes in 27 isolates of B. anthracis isolated from clinical and environmental samples. For this purpose, multiplex PCR and DNA probes were designed to detect protective antigen (pag), edema factor (cya), lethal factor (lef), and capsule (cap) genes. Our results indicated that all the isolates contained all the above virulence genes, suggesting that the isolates were virulent. To the best our knowledge, this is the first study about the determination of virulence marker genes in clinical and environmental isolates of B. anthracis using multiplex PCR and DNA probes in India. We suggest that the above methods can be useful in specific identification of virulent B. anthracis in clinical and environmental samples.

Virulence Reduction and Differing Regulation of Virulence Genes in rpf Mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

  • Jeong, Kyu-Sik;Lee, Seung-Eun;Han, Jong-Woo;Yang, Seung-Up;Lee, Byoung-Moo;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Cha, Jae-Soon
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2008
  • To define the functions of the rpf genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which regulates pathogenicity factors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), marker-exchange mutants of each rpf gene were generated. When the mutants were inoculated on a susceptible cultivar, the lesion lengths caused by the rpfB, rpfC, rpfF, and rpfG mutants were significantly smaller than those caused by the wild type, whereas those caused by the rpfA, rpfD, and rpfI mutants were not. Several virulence determinants, including extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, xylanase production, and motility, were significantly decreased in the four mutants. However, the cellulase activity in the mutants was unchanged. Complementation of the rpfB and rpfC mutations restored the virulence and the expression of the virulence determinants. Expression analysis of 14 virulence genes revealed that the expression of genes related to EPS production (gumG and gumM), LPS (xanA, xanB, wxoD, and wxoC), phytase (phyA), xylanase (xynB), lipase (lipA), and motility (pitA) were reduced significantly in the mutants rpfB, rpfC, rpfF, and rpfG. In contrast, the expression of genes related to cellulase (eglxob, clsA), cellobiosidase (cbsA), and iron metabolism (fur) was unchanged. The results of this study clearly show that rpfB, rpfC, rpfF, and rpfG are important for the virulence of Xoo KACC10859, and that virulence genes are regulated differently by the Rpfs.

Virulence Phenotyping and Molecular Characterization of a New Virulence Type of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis the Causal Agent of Tan Spot

  • Benslimane, Hamida
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.139-142
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    • 2018
  • Pyrenophoratritici-repentis is the causal agent of tan spot. According to their ability to produce necrosis and/or chlorosis on a set of four differential bread wheats, the isolates of this fungus are currently grouped into eight races. When durum wheat genotypes were added to the differential set, a new virulence type was identified in Algeria. The isolates showing this virulence pattern are unable to attack bread wheat while they cause necrosis in durum genotypes. In this work, characterization of those isolates was based on pathological and molecular aspects. This included inoculation of bread and durum wheat, and virulence gene analysis using PCR and sequencing. The results showed that all isolates caused a resistance on all bread wheats of the differential set, while they produced necrosis in durum. ToxA and ToxB genes were amplified in all isolates, whereas toxb was absent. Sequence analysis for both genes showed no differences with those found in the two functional genes. The presence of two genes, ToxA and ToxB, despite the absence of symptoms usually caused by their products, suggests the existence of a new homologous for these two genes yet unknown. The presence of ToxA in the isolate unable to produce necrosis in Glenlea is reported for the first time.

Current Status on Molecular Genetic Study and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Virulence Related Genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (벼 흰잎마름병균(Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)의 병원성 유전자의 분자유전학적 연구현황 및 비교유전체 분석)

  • Kang, Hee-Wan;Park, Young-Jin;Lee, Byeong-Moo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2008
  • Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of bacterial blight on rice. In this paper, current status on molecular genetic study of major virulence genes, hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp), productions of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), extracellular enzymes and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), avr genes were reviewed. The IS elements with 611 copies including 133 ORF IS were inserted in various regions of the Xoo genome and in expecially regions franking virulence genes. Whole genome sequence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae KACC10331 were used for defining genetic organization of the virulence genes. Futhermore, the virulence genes in Xoo genome were compared to those of other Xanthomonas species in Blast GenBank data base.

Various Enterotoxin and Other Virulence Factor Genes Widespread Among Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Strains

  • Kim, Min-Ju;Han, Jae-Kwang;Park, Jong-Su;Lee, Jin-Sung;Lee, Soon-Ho;Cho, Joon-Il;Kim, Keun-Sung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.872-879
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    • 2015
  • Many strains of Bacillus cereus cause gastrointestinal diseases, and the closely related insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis has also been involved in outbreaks of diarrhea. The diarrheal diseases are attributed to enterotoxins. Sixteen reference strains of B. cereus and nine commercial and 12 reference strains of B. thuringiensis were screened by PCR for the presence of 10 enterotoxigenic genes (hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, bceT, entFM, and entS), one emetogenic gene (ces), seven hemolytic genes (hlyA, hlyII, hlyIII, plcA, cerA, cerB, and cerO), and a pleiotropic transcriptional activator gene (plcR). These genes encode various enterotoxins and other virulence factors thought to play a role in infections of mammals. Amplicons were successfully generated from the strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis for each of these sequences, except the ces gene. Intriguingly, the majority of these B. cereus enterotoxin genes and other virulence factor genes appeared to be widespread among B. thuringiensis strains as well as B. cereus strains.

Virulence, Resistance Genes, and Transformation Amongst Environmental Isolates of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter spp.

  • Doughari, Hamuel James;Ndakidemi, Patrick Alois;Human, Izanne Susan;Benade, Spinney
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 2012
  • The association of verotoxic E. coli and Acinetobacter spp. with various antibiotic-resistant, diarrhogenic, and nosocomial infections has been a cause for concern worldwide. E. coli and A. haemolyticus isolated on a number of selective media were screened for virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and transformation of resistance genes. Out of 69 E. coli isolates obtained, 25 (35.23%), 14 (20.30%), and 28 (40.58%) were positive for Vtx1&2, Vtx1, and Vtx2, respectively, 49 (71.015%) for extendedspectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), 34 (49.28%) for serum resistance, 57 (82.61%) for cell surface hydrophobicity, 48 (69.57%) for gelatinase production, and 37 (53.62%) for hemolysin production. For the 14 A. haemolyticus isolates, only 2 (14.29%) in each case from all the samples investigated were positive for Vtx1, Vtx2 and Vtx1&2 respectively, 8 (57.14%) for ESBLs, 7 (50.00%) for serum resistance, 11 (78.57%) for cell surface hydrophobicity, 4 (28.57%) for gelatinase production, and 8 (57.14%) for hemolysin production. Although transformation occurred among the E. coli and Acinetobacter isolates (transformation frequency: $13.3{\times}10^{-7}-53.4^{-7}$), there was poor curing of the plasmid genes, a confirmation of the presence of stable antibiotic-resistant genes (DNA concentration between 42.7 and 123.8 ${\mu}g$) and intragenetic transfer of multidrug-resistant genes among the isolates. The isolates were potentially virulent and contained potentially transferable antibiotic resistance genes. Detection of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes, and transformation among these isolates is a very significant outcome that will influence approaches to proactive preventive and control measures and future investigations. However, continued surveillance for drug resistance among these bacteria and further investigation of the mechanism of action of their virulence factors are a necessity.

Virulence genes of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries

  • You, Yong-Ouk
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2019
  • Streptococcus mutans is one of the important bacteria that forms dental biofilm and cause dental caries. Virulence genes in S. mutans can be classified into the genes involved in bacterial adhesion, extracellular polysaccharide formation, biofilm formation, sugar uptake and metabolism, acid tolerance, and regulation. The genes involved in bacterial adhesion are gbps (gbpA, gbpB, and gbpC) and spaP. The gbp genes encode glucan-binding protein (GBP) A, GBP B, and GBP C. The spaP gene encodes cell surface antigen, SpaP. The genes involved in extracellular polysaccharide formation are gtfs (gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD) and ftf, which encode glycosyltransferase (GTF) B, GTF C, and GTF D and fructosyltransferase, respectively. The genes involved in biofilm formation are smu630, relA, and comDE. The smu630 gene is important for biofilm formation. The relA and comDE genes contribute to quorumsensing and biofilm formation. The genes involved in sugar uptake and metabolism are eno, ldh, and relA. The eno gene encodes bacterial enolase, which catalyzes the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate. The ldh gene encodes lactic acid dehydrogenase. The relA gene contributes to the regulation of the glucose phosphotransferase system. The genes related to acid tolerance are atpD, aguD, brpA, and relA. The atpD gene encodes $F_1F_0$-ATPase, a proton pump that discharges $H^+$ from within the bacterium to the outside. The aguD gene encodes agmatine deiminase system and produces alkali to overcome acid stress. The genes involved in regulation are vicR, brpA, and relA.

Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes Presence in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Gomso Bay, Korea

  • Park, Kwon-Sam
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2013
  • In total, 131 Escherichia coli isolates from surface seawater of the Gomso Bay, of Korea, were analyzed for their susceptibility to 22 different antimicrobials and for genes associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence. According to the disk diffusion susceptibility test, the resistance to tetracycline was most prevalent (33.6%), followed by that to ampicillin (22.1%), ticarcillin (22.1%), and trimethoprim (16.8%). More than 46.6% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 22.9% were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials; these were consequently defined as multidrug resistant. We further found that 29 ampicillin-resistant isolates possessed genes encoding TEM-type (93.1%) and SHV-type (6.9%) ${\beta}$-lactamases. Among the 44 tetracycline-resistant isolates, tetA and tetC were found in 35 (79.5%) and 19 (43.2%), respectively, whereas tetB was detected in only three isolates (6.8%). With regard to virulence genes, merely 0.8% (n = 1) and 2.3% (n = 3) of the isolates were positive for the enteroaggregative E. coli-associated plasmid (pCVD432) gene and the enteropathogenic E. coli-specific attaching and effacing (eae) gene, respectively. Overall, these results not only provide novel insight into the necessity for seawater sanitation in Gomso Bay, but they help reduce the risk of contamination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

The Roles of Two hfq Genes in the Virulence and Stress Resistance of Burkholderia glumae

  • Kim, Jieun;Mannaa, Mohamed;Kim, Namgyu;Lee, Chaeyeong;Kim, Juyun;Park, Jungwook;Lee, Hyun-Hee;Seo, Young-Su
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.412-425
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    • 2018
  • The Hfq protein is a global small RNA chaperone that interacts with regulatory bacterial small RNAs (sRNA) and plays a role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The roles of Hfq in the virulence and pathogenicity of several infectious bacteria have been reported. This study was conducted to elucidate the functions of two hfq genes in Burkholderia glumae, a causal agent of rice grain rot. Therefore, mutant strains of the rice-pathogenic B. glumae BGR1, targeting each of the two hfq genes, as well as the double defective mutant were constructed and tested for several phenotypic characteristics. Bacterial swarming motility, toxoflavin production, virulence in rice, siderophore production, sensitivity to $H_2O_2$, and lipase production assays were conducted to compare the mutant strains with the wild-type B. glumae BGR1 and complementation strains. The hfq1 gene showed more influence on bacterial motility and toxoflavin production than the hfq2 gene. Both genes were involved in the full virulence of B. glumae in rice plants. Other biochemical characteristics such as siderophore production and sensitivity to $H_2O_2$ induced oxidative stress were also found to be regulated by the hfq1 gene. However, lipase activity was shown to be unassociated with both tested genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the functions of two hfq genes in B. glumae. Identification of virulence-related factors in B. glumae will facilitate the development of efficient control measures.