• Title, Summary, Keyword: viral hepatitis

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A Study on the Positive Rates of HBsAg and Anti-HBs from Old People's Home and Casual Ward in Daegu, Korea

  • Shin, Hyun Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.145-149
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    • 2011
  • Serum hepatitis is still recognized as a major public health problem in many countries. The most common etiologies are acute viral hepatitis A and B, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) was known as the pathogen of serum hepatitis. since the HBV causes chronic hepatitis. HBV infection is hyperendemic in Korea. It is known that 8% and 1% of the Korean population is chronic carriers of HBV. The total number of 487 serum specimen (old people's home 190, causal ward-Daegu hope village 297) were collected at the laboratory of Department of Clinical Pathology of Daegu medical center. The laboratory tested the specimen to detect for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs using reverse passive hemag-glutination (RPHA) and passive hemagglutination (PHA) method between April, 2011 and June, 2011. In one-step test, HBsAg and anti-HBs of Humasis were used. The positive rate for HBsAg was 6.80% (33/487), and the rate in male was 6.93% (19/274) higher than that of female 6.57% (14/213). In the positive rate of HBsAg by age group, the highest positive rate group was in the group of 40-49 years in male (12.0%), and 50-59 years in female (17.65 %). The overall positive rate for anti-HBs was 42.70% (208/487), showing the higher positive rate of 43.80% in male (120/274) than that of 41.30% (88/213) in female. The highest positive rate of anti-HBs in age group was the 40-49 years group in male (52.00%) and the group of under 29 in female (66.67%).

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Optimization and Validation of a Virus Filtration Process for Efficient Removal of Viruses from Urokinase Solution Prepared from Human Urine

  • Kim, In-Seop;Choi, Yong-Woon;Lee, Sung-Rae
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2004
  • Urokinase is an enzyme with fibrinolytic activity (plasminogen activator) isolated from fresh urine of healthy men. Viral safety is an important prerequisite for clinical preparation of the protein from urine. In order to increase the viral safety of a high purity urokinase in regard to non-enveloped viruses, a virus removal process using a novel polyvinylidene fluoride membrane filter (Viresolve NFP) has been optimized. Urokinase was able to pass through the filter with recoveries of 95% in the production scale process. No substantial changes were observed in physical and biochemical characteristics of the filtered urokinase in comparison with those of the enzyme before filtration. A 47-mm disk membrane filter was used to simulate the process performance of the production scale cartridges and tested if it could remove several experimental model viruses for human pathogenic viruses, including porcine parvovirus (PPV), human hepatitis A virus (HAV), murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and bovine herpes virus (BHV). Non-enveloped viruses (PPV, HAV, and EMCV) as well as enveloped viruses (BVDV and BHV) were completely removed during filtration. The log reduction factors achieved were $\geq$4.86 for PPV, $\geq$4.60 for HAV, $\geq$6.87 for EMCV, $\geq$4.60 for BVDV, and $\geq$5.44 for BHV. These results indicate that the virus filtration process successfully improved the viral safety of the final products.

Common viral infections in kidney transplant recipients

  • Vanichanan, Jakapat;Udomkarnjananun, Suwasin;Avihingsanon, Yingyos;Jutivorakool, Kamonwan
    • Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.323-337
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    • 2018
  • Infectious complications have been considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation, especially in the Asian population. Therefore, prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of such infections are crucial in kidney transplant recipients. Among all infectious complications, viruses are considered to be the most common agents because of their abundance, infectivity, and latency ability. Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, BK polyomavirus, and adenovirus are well-known etiologic agents of viral infections in kidney transplant patients worldwide because of their wide range of distribution. As DNA viruses, they are able to reactivate after affected patients receive immunosuppressive agents. These DNA viruses can cause systemic diseases or allograft dysfunction, especially in the first six months after transplantation. Pretransplant evaluation and immunization as well as appropriate prophylaxis and preemptive approaches after transplant have been established in the guidelines and are used effectively to reduce the incidence of these viral infections. This review will describe the etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of viral infections that commonly affect kidney transplant recipients.

Secondary Fish-Odor Syndrome Can be Acquired by Nitric Oxide-mediated Impairment of Flavin-containing Monooxygenase in Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients

  • Yi, Hyeon-Gyu;Lee, Jung-Nam;Ryu, Seung-Duk;Kang, Ju-Hee;Cha, Young-Nam;Park, Chang-Shin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2004
  • Primary fish-odor syndrome (FOS) is a genetic disorder caused by defective flavin-containing mono-oxygenase 3 gene (FMO3) with deficient N-oxidation of trimethylamine (TMA), causing trimethylaminuria (TMAU). By contrast, secondary FOS can be acquired by decreased FMO activities in patients with chronic liver diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we examined plasma NOx concentrations and viral DNA contents as well as in vivo FMO activities and their correlations in chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) patients. Plasma concentration of NOx was significantly increased by 2.1 fold $(56.2{\pm}26.5\;vs.\;26.6{\pm}5.4\;{\mu}M,\;p<0.01)$, and it was positively correlated with plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA contents $(r^2=0.2838,\;p=0.0107)$. Furthermore, the elevated plasma NOx values were inversely and significantly correlated with in vivo FMO activities detected by ranitidine-challenged test $(8.3%\;vs.\;20.0%,\;r^2=0.2109,\;p=\0.0315)$. TMA N-oxidation activities determined in CVH patients without challenge test were also significantly low (73.6% vs. 95.7%, p< 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested that secondary FOS could be acquired by the endogenously elevated NO in patients with CVH.

A Case of Interstitial Pneumonitis and Pancytopenia Following the Combination Therapy of Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin (페그-인터페론과 리바비린 병합치료 중 발생한 간질성 폐렴 및 범혈구 감소증 1예)

  • Suh, Ji-Hyun;Hahn, Sung-Hwahn;Lee, Ji-Eun;Han, Jin-Hyung;Kim, Kyung-Mook;Kim, Doh-Hyung;Kim, Yon-Seop;Park, Jae-Suk;Jee, Young-Koo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.70 no.1
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2011
  • The combination therapy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the mainstay of treatment for chronic hepatitis C patients. Anti-viral therapy is commonly associated with side effects such as headache, fever, myalgia, and arthralgia. However, anti-viral therapy can continue because these side effects are mostly mild and can be improved with supportive management. Anti-viral therapy should be stopped promptly if serious side effects, such as interstitial pneumonitis or hemolytic anemia occur, although those serious side effects are rare. There were a few case reports of interferon-related interstitial pneumonitis worldwide. In Korea, one atypical case report of interstitial pneumonitis has been reported, which followed the combination therapy of interferon-alpha and ribavirin in a patient with chronic hepatitis C. We present a case of interstitial pneumonitis and pancytopenia following the combination therapy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin in a patient with chronic hepatitis C.

Simultaneous Detection of Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, and Parvovirus by a Multiplex PCR (다중 중합효소 연쇄반응을 이용한 DNA 바이러스의 동시검출)

  • Sung, Hye-Ran;Joo, Jin-Young;Lee, Chong-Kil;Chung, Yeon-Bok;Song, Suk-Gil
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2007
  • We describe a multiplex PCR method that can detect and differentiate simultaneously four different kinds of DNA viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and parvovirus B19 (B19). Primers for the multiplex PCR reaction were designed to amplify specific regions of the EBV (pol), CMV (pol), HBV (pol) and B19 (ns) viral genomes and used to simultaneously detect individual viruses. In order to achieve optimal sensitivity and specificity for multiplex PCR, the thermo-cycling parameters, primer sequences, and concentration of each reaction components were optimized systematically. The sensitivity of the detection method ranged between 5 and 10 copies of viral genome with a mixture of multiple primer pairs. Furthermore, this highly sensitive test showed no cross-reactivity among the four viruses. Thus, the results obtained in this study provide evidence that the assay system is a good tool for supporting the diagnosis of viral infection and contamination.

Comparison of the QIAGEN artus HBV QS-RGQ Assay With the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Assay for Quantifying Viral DNA in Sera of Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

  • Han, Mi-Soon;Park, Yongjung;Nah, Hyunjin;Kim, Hyon-Suk
    • Annals of Laboratory Medicine
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.248-253
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    • 2017
  • Background: Hepatitis B virus DNA quantification is essential for managing chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We compared the performance of artus HBV QS-RGQ (QIAGEN GmbH, Germany) and CAP/CTM v2.0 HBV assays (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, USA) in CHB patients. Methods: A comparative evaluation between two assays was performed with 508 clinical serum samples. Precision, linearity, and the limit of detection (LOD) of QS-RGQ assay was evaluated by using the WHO standard 97/750 and clinical samples. Results: Detection rates and viral loads as determined QS-RGQ assay were significantly lower than those from the CAP/CTM v2.0 assay (52.8% vs 60.6%; $3.55{\pm}1.77IU/mL$ vs $4.18{\pm}1.89IU/mL$, P <0.0001). The kappa coefficient between qualitative results was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.85). Bland-Altman plot found a mean difference of (QS-RGQ - CAP/CTM v2.0)=$-0.63log_{10}\;IU/mL$ (95% limit of agreement, -1.48 to 0.22). Repeatability and total imprecision (% CV) of the QS-RGQ assay were 1.0% and 1.1% at 2,000 IU/mL, and 0.7% and 1.4% at 20,000 IU/mL, respectively. Linearity of this assay ranged from 31.6 to $1.0{\pm}10^7IU/mL$, and the LOD was 2.95 IU/mL. Conclusions: The artus HBV QS-RGQ assay showed good performance but significantly decreased detection rate and viral load compared with CAP/CTM v2.0 assays. This assay recommends using plasma; however, we used stored serum because of the retrospective study design. Usually HBV DNA quantification is performed in plasma or serum, but sample type and clinical relevance of quantitative values should be considered when determining the clinical application of this reagent.

Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Hepatitis B Virus PreS1d Protein in EBV-Transformed B-Cell line

  • Park, Jung-Hyun;Cho, Eun-Wie;Lee, Dong-Gun;Park, Jung-Min;Lee, Yun-Jung;Choi, Eun-A;Kim, Kill-Lyong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.844-850
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    • 2000
  • The specific binding and internalization of viral particles is an essential step for the successful infection of viral pathogens. In the case of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), virions bind to the host cell via the preS domain of the viral surface antigen and are subsequently internalized by endocytosis. HBV-preS specific receptors are primarily expressed on hepatocytes, however, viral DNA and proteins have also been detected in extrahepatic sites, suggsting that celluar recepators for HBV may also exist on extrahepatic cells. Recently, an EBV-transformed B-cell line was identified onto which the preS region binds in a receptor-ligand specific manner. In this study, this specific interaction was further characterized, and the binding region within the preS protein was locaized. Also the internalization after host cell attachment was visualized and analyzed by fluorescence-labeled HBV-preS1 proteins using confocal microscopy. Energy depletion by sodium azide treatment effectively inhibited the internalization of the membrane-bound preS1 ligands, thereby indicating an energy-dependent receptor-mediated endocytotic pathway. Accordingly, the interaction of HBV-pres! with this specific B-cell line may serve as an effective model for an infection pathway in extrahepatic cells.

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Detection and genetic analysis of zoonotic hepatitis E virus, rotavirus, and sapovirus in pigs

  • Lyoo, Eu Lim;Park, Byung-Joo;Ahn, Hee-Seop;Han, Sang-Hoon;Go, Hyeon-Jeong;Kim, Dong-Hwi;Lee, Joong-Bok;Park, Seung-Yong;Song, Chang-Seon;Lee, Sang-Won;Choi, In-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2020
  • The zoonotic transmission of viral diseases to humans is a serious public health concern. Pigs are frequently a major reservoir for several zoonotic viral diseases. Therefore, periodic surveillance is needed to determine the infection rates of zoonotic diseases in domestic pigs. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus, sapovirus (SaV), and norovirus (NoV) are potential zoonotic viruses. In this study, 296 fecal samples were collected from weaned piglets and growing pigs in 13 swine farms, and the viral RNA was extracted. Partial viral genomes were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or nested-PCR using virus-specific primer sets under different PCR conditions. HEV-3, rotavirus A, and SaV genogoup 3 were detected from 11.5, 2.7, and 3.0% of the samples, respectively. On the other hand, NoV was not detected in any of the samples. Genetic analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequences of swine HEV-3 and rotavirus A detected in this study were closely related to those of human isolates. However, swine SaV was distant from the human strains. These results suggest that HEV-3 and rotavirus A can be transmitted from pigs to humans. Therefore, strict preventive measures should be implemented by workers in the swine industry to prevent infections with HEV-3 and rotavirus A excreted from pigs.

The rapid recovery of serum aminotransferase in a case of chronic active hepatitis type B treated with Sengangeonbi-tang (만성 활동성 B형 간염에서 생간건비탕(生肝健脾湯)으로 혈청 aminotransferase 수치가 저하된 1례)

  • Park, Jung-Mi;Jung, Woo-Sang
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.337-339
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    • 2000
  • Indigestion is one of the most frequent symptom in chronic hepatitis. We treated a 20 year-old female patient of chronic active hepatitis type B with Sengangeonbi-tang. The patient complained indigestion and constipation. The serum aminotransferase were higher and viral marker showed hepatitis was in active phase. 1 week later, the symptom had been changed from severe to mild and aminotransferase decreased. We continued to prescribe the medicine 2 weeks more and could observe that the symptom disappeared and the aminotransferase fell down under normal value with no side effect. Sengangeonbi-tang showed desirable effect on indigestion and more rapid recovery of aminotransferase than previous reports about treating hepatitis.

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