• Title, Summary, Keyword: viral hepatitis

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Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis Viruses and Hepatitis B Genotypes of Female Marriage Immigrants in Korea

  • Kwon, Jae-Cheol;Chang, Hye Young;Kwon, Oh Young;Park, Ji Hoon;Oh, In Soo;Kim, Hyung Joon;Lee, Jun Hyung;Roh, Ha-Jung;Lee, Hyun Woong
    • Yonsei Medical Journal
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    • v.59 no.9
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    • pp.1072-1078
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The Korean society has moved rapidly toward becoming a multicultural society. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis viruses and investigate hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypic diversity in female marriage immigrants. Materials and Methods: Screening program was conducted at support centers for multicultural families in 21 administrative districts in Korea between July 2011 and January 2017. A total of 963 female marriage immigrants were included in this study. Blood samples were tested for hepatitis viral markers and HBV genotype. Results: Subjects' median age was 33 years (20-40 years), and they originated from nine countries including Vietnam (n=422, 43.8%), China (n=311, 32.3%), the Philippines (n=85, 8.8%), Cambodia (n=58, 6.0%), and Japan (n=39, 4.0%). About 30% (n=288) of subjects required hepatitis A vaccination. HBsAg positive rate was 5.4% (n=52). Positive HBsAg results were the highest in subjects from Southeast Asia (6.6%, n=38). Anti-HBs positive rate was 60.4% (n=582). About 34% (n=329) of subjects who were negative for anti-HBs and HBsAg required HBV vaccinations. Genotypes B and C were found in 54.6% (n=12) and 45.4% (n=10) of the 22 subjects with HBV, in whom genotypes were tested. Eight (0.8%) subjects were positive for anti-HCV. Positive anti-HCV results were the highest in subjects from Central Asia (7.9%, n=3). Conclusion: Testing for hepatitis viral marker (hepatitis A virus IgG and HBsAg/anti-HBs) is needed for female marriage immigrants. Especially, HBV genotype B is different from genotype C of Koreans. Therefore, interest and attention to vaccination programs for female marriage immigrants are necessary for both clinicians and public health institutes.

Concurrent Occurrence of Duck Viral Hepatitis and Salmonellosis in Ducklings (오리에서 발생한 바이러스성 간염과 살모넬라균증의 혼합감염)

  • Koh, Ba-Ra-Da;Kim, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Gye-Yeop
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2001
  • Ducklings collected from three farms, having history of rapid onset and spread of nerve signs including kick spasmodically with legs and opisthotonos, were pathologically, barteriologically, virologically examined. Grossly, multiple petechial to ecchymotic hemorrhages were detected in the swollen liver. Histopathologically, diffuse coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes was characteristic in acute cases. Chronic cases revealed marked bile duct hyperplasia rather than hepatocyte necrosis. Some of these cases exhibited multiple granulomas consisting of macrophages, heterophil, fibrin and necrotic cell debri. Filtered homogenate of livers sampled from ducklings caused embryo death with marked hemorrhage and swollen of liver after inoculation into chorioallantoic membrane. Three strains of Salmonella app.,S montevideo, S hadar, and S give, which were biochemically and serologically identified, weir isolated from ducklings of three farms, respectively. From these results, these ducklings were concurrently infected with duck hepatitis virus and Salmonella spp.

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Identification of a Cellular Protein Interacting with RNA Polymerase of Hepatitis C Virus

  • Park, Kyu-Jin;Choi, Soo-Ho;Koh, Moon-Soo;Kim, Sung-Wan;Hwang, Soon-Bong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.59-62
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    • 2000
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 5B (NS5B) protein is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). To determine whether it can contribute to viral replication by interaction with cellular proteins, the yeast two-hybrid screening system was employed to screen a human liver cDNA library. Using the HCV NS5B as a bait, we have isolated positive clones encoding a cellular protein. The NS5B interacting protein, 5BIP, is a novel cellular protein of 170 amino acids. Interaction of the HCV NS5B protein with 5BIP was confirmed by a protein-protein blotting assay. Recently, we have demonstrated that NS5B possesses an RdRp activity and thus it is possible that 5BIP, in association with NS5B, plays a role in HCV replication.

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Characterization of a Positive Regulatory cis-Element and Transacting Factors for the Hepatitis B Viral Pregenomic Promoter

  • Choi, Cheol-Yong;Park, Geon-Tae;Rho, Hyune-Mo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.156-162
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    • 1996
  • Transcription of hepatitis B viral pregenomic promoter is known to be regulated mainly by the combined interaction of enhancers I, II and the intervening regulatory sequences between the two enhancers. A positive regulatory element was identified by serial deletion and measuring the linked chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activities, which overlapped with the 5' region of the X open reading frame. When the positive regulatory element was inserted upstream of the SV40 early promoter, it elevated SV40 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. Two cellular proteins of 110 (p110) and 33 (p33) kDa interacted with the positive element and both of them were present in the nucleus, but p110 also existed in the cytoplasm in phosphorylated form. Dephosphorylation of p110 by acid phosphatase enhanced the DNA-binding activity of p110. The p33 could bind to single-strand DNA specifically as well as to double-strand DNA.

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Two Cases of Hepatitis Treated with Gagamsaenggan-tang (가감생간탕 투여후 호전된 급성 간염 2예)

  • Park, Shin-Myung;Han, Chang-Woo;Kim, Young-Chul;Lee, Jang-Hoon;Woo, Hong-Jung;Seung, Hyun-Suk
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.228-237
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    • 2002
  • Acute hepatitis is caused by virus, alcohol. toxins and drugs. Clinical symptoms of acute hepatitis are severe fatigue, jaundice, nausea, hepatomely, lymphadenopathy. We encountered two cases of acute hepatitis, one C type viral hepatitis and the other hepatitis by overuse of medicine. The symptoms of the latter are severe fatigue, petechia and heartburning. The symptoms of the latter are severe fatigue, nausea, dyspepsia, yellow urine and skin. We recognized that total bilirubin. direct bilirubin, serum transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase were elevated. We treated both patients with herb medicine(Gagamsaenggan-tang). Gagamsaenggan-tang has been used to hepatic diseases and have been known to have beneficial effects. The patients' symptoms began to improve after about two weeks of treatment. After 3 weeks on medication, the clinical symptoms and liver function of two patients were improved.

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Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis in Korea (한국(韓國)에 만연(蔓延)하고 있는 만성간염(慢性肝炎)의 자연병력(自然病歷))

  • Chung, Whan-Kook
    • Journal of Korean Life Insurance Medical Association
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.34-36
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    • 1985
  • Korea is an endemic area of chronic hepatitis in the world. Liver cirrhosis and liver cell carcinoma, presumed to be related to such chronic hepatitis, are the major causes of death in this country. The purpose of this study is disclosing the sources of chronic hepatitis in Korea establishing its histologic characteristics, disclosing the patterns of progression in chronic hepatitis, delineating its prognosis and finally speculating its etiology. The study group was composed of 183 patients with biopsy-proven acute icteric viral hepaticis, 32 patients with biopsy- proven anicteric hepatitis and 260 patients with biopsy- proven chronic hepatitis. These patients submitted to long-term follow-up by means of liver needle biopsy and/or clinicolaboratory evaluation. The period of follow-up ranged from two months to 18 years. The histological features of the initial biopsy specimens of chronic hepatitis permitted a division of the cases cases into the following five types: Type I. Persisting portal hepatitis : so called persisting hepatitis 43 Type II. Chronic inactive hepatitis with incomplete strand septal fibrosis. This type has thin fibrotic septation in addition to Type I with portal sclerosis 38 Type III. Chronic active periportal hepatitis(CAPH) : so called aggressive hepatitis, characterized by marked piecemeal necrosis. This type has been subdivided further into three groups: AB and C on the basis of histologic features. A CAPH without cirrhosis 15 B CAPH with cirrhosis 99 C CAPH with diffuse acinus type parenchymal nodules; characterized by rosette-forming micronodules 21 Type IV. Subacute hepatic necrosis; characterized by multilobular and/or bridging necrosis. 14 Type V. Persisting lobular hepatitis; characterized by spotty necrosis, which looks very similar to acute viral hepatitis. Such histologic changes should be persisted for more than six months 30 In Korea the main source of chronic hepatitis is the anicteric type. Of the chronic hepatitis observed in the hospital, Type IIIb was the most frequent in its incidence and occasionally exhibited development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the mortality was highest in Type IIIc during the period of follow-up. Histologic characteristics of these five types suggest a spectrum of chronic hepatitis in Korea from an early and mild stage to advanced and fatal cirrhosis, which is occasionally associated with primary hepatic cell carcinoma. It seems that Type IV can be followed by flare-up of various stages of acute and chronic hepatitis with HBsAg and that many cases of liver cirrhosis prevalent in Korea occur through such an active process of Type IV. The etiology is not established, but in Korea it is mainly related to HBsAg.

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Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Children: Updated Review

  • El-Guindi, Mohamed A.
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.83-95
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    • 2016
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children. Acute and chronic HCV infection is diagnosed through the recognition of HCV RNA. The main objective for treatment of chronic HCV is to convert detected HCV viremia to below the detection limit. Children with chronic HCV infection are usually asymptomatic and rarely develop severe liver damage. Therefore, the benefits from current therapies, pegylated-Interferon plus ribavirin, must be weighed against their adverse effects. This combined treatment offers a 50-90% chance of clearing HCV infection according to several studies and on different HCV genotype. Recent direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs which are well established for adults have not yet been approved for children and young adults below 18 years. The most important field for the prevention of HCV infection in children would be the prevention of perinatal and parenteral transmission. There are areas of focus for new lines of research in pediatric HCV-related disease that can be addressed in the near future.

A Study on the Positive Rates of HBsAg and Anti-HBs from Old People's Home and Casual Ward in Daegu, Korea

  • Shin, Hyun Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.145-149
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    • 2011
  • Serum hepatitis is still recognized as a major public health problem in many countries. The most common etiologies are acute viral hepatitis A and B, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) was known as the pathogen of serum hepatitis. since the HBV causes chronic hepatitis. HBV infection is hyperendemic in Korea. It is known that 8% and 1% of the Korean population is chronic carriers of HBV. The total number of 487 serum specimen (old people's home 190, causal ward-Daegu hope village 297) were collected at the laboratory of Department of Clinical Pathology of Daegu medical center. The laboratory tested the specimen to detect for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs using reverse passive hemag-glutination (RPHA) and passive hemagglutination (PHA) method between April, 2011 and June, 2011. In one-step test, HBsAg and anti-HBs of Humasis were used. The positive rate for HBsAg was 6.80% (33/487), and the rate in male was 6.93% (19/274) higher than that of female 6.57% (14/213). In the positive rate of HBsAg by age group, the highest positive rate group was in the group of 40-49 years in male (12.0%), and 50-59 years in female (17.65 %). The overall positive rate for anti-HBs was 42.70% (208/487), showing the higher positive rate of 43.80% in male (120/274) than that of 41.30% (88/213) in female. The highest positive rate of anti-HBs in age group was the 40-49 years group in male (52.00%) and the group of under 29 in female (66.67%).

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