• Title, Summary, Keyword: viral hepatitis

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Clinical features of vaccination-associated thrombocytopenic purpura in children (예방접종과 관련된 소아 혈소판 감소 자반병의 임상적 특성)

  • Lee, Wan Soo;Yu, Seung Taek;Shin, Sae Ron;Young Du
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.610-615
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a relatively common hematological disease in children. It generally occurs after exposure to a common viral infection episode; however, it may occasionally follow immunization with measles, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), hepatitis B (HBV), influenza, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), or chickenpox vaccines. In this study, the incidence, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcome of vaccination-associated ITP were investigated and compared with non-vaccination-associated ITP. Methods : The admission records of 105 pediatric ITP patients between 0-14 years of age admitted to Department of Pediatrics, Wonkwang University Hospital from January 1994 to July 2007 were retrospecitively reviewed. Patients were grouped into a vaccination-associated group and a non-vaccination-associated group according to vaccination history within the previous 1 month, and various clinical features between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results : Thirteen patients (12%) had a preceding vaccination. Eight had received DTP vaccination, 2 had received hepatitis B, and 1 each had received influenza, MMR, and Japanese B encephalitis vaccination. However, none of the patients had a recurrent thrombocytopenia after subsequent vaccinations. In the vaccination-associated group, the age was significantly lower, anemia was more common, and the risk period with blood platelet count $<20{\times}10^9/L$ was significantly shorter than for the in non-vaccination-associated group. Also, wet purpura was less prominent and the remission within 1month was more frequently achieved in the vaccination-associated ITP group. Conclusion : Vaccination-associated ITP patients showed mild symptoms with a more benign and shorter lasting course than non-vaccination-associated ITP patients. Moreover, platelet count assessment at the time of the next immunization may not be necessary.

Serum Beta-2 Microglobulin: a Possible Marker for Disease Progression in Egyptian Patients with Chronic HCV Related Liver Diseases

  • Ouda, SM;Khairy, AM;Sorour, Ashraf E;Mikhail, Mikhail Nasr
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7825-7829
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    • 2015
  • Background: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV infection in the world (~14.7%). Around 10-15% of HCV-infected persons will advance to cirrhosis within the first 20 years. The incidence of HCC is expected to grow in the next two decades, largely due to HCV related cirrhosis, and detection of HCC at an early stage is critical for a favorable clinical outcome. No simple reliable non-invasive marker has been available till now. B2M, a non-glycosylated polypeptide composed of 99 amino acids, is one of the components of HLA class I molecules on the surfaces of all nucleated cells. It has been reported that the level of serum B2M is elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis C and HCV-related HCC when compared to HCV-negative patients or healthy donors. Determining the clinical utility of serum B2M as a marker for disease progression in Egyptian patients with HCV related chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma was the aim of the present study. Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross sectional study 92 participants were included in 4 equal groups: Group (1) non cirrhotic chronic HCV; Group (2) HCV related liver cirrhosis; Group (3) HCC on top of HCV,; and Group (4) healthy controls. History taking, clinical examination, routine labs and abdominal ultrasound were conducted for all patients, PCR and Metavir scores for group (1) patients, and triphasic CT abdomen and AFP for Group (3) patients. B2M levels were measured in serum with a fully-automated IMX system. Results: The mean serum B2M level of Group (1) was $4.25{\pm}1.48{\mu}g/ml$., Group (2) was $7.48{\pm}3.04$, Group (3) was $6.62{\pm}2.49$ and Group (4) was $1.62{\pm}0.63$. Serum B2M levels were significantly higher in diseased than control group (p<0.01) being significantly higher in cirrhosis ($7.48{\pm}3.04$) and HCC groups ($6.62{\pm}2.49$) than the HCV group ($4.25{\pm}1.48$) (p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between B2M Level and ALK, total and direct bilirubin and INR (p<0.05), and a significant inverse correlation between B2M level and albumin, total proteins, HB andWBCS values (p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between B2M level and viral load or Metavir score, largest tumour size or AFP (p>0.05). The best B2M cut-off for HCV diagnosis was 2.6 with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 97% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. The best B2M cut-off for HCC diagnosis was 4.55 which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive values of 74%, 62%, 39.5, 87.8% respectively (p-value <0.01) while best cut-off for cirrhosis was 4.9, with sensitivity 74 % and specificity 74%.The sensitivity for HCC diagnosis increased upon B2M and AFP combined estimation to 91%, specificity to 79%, NPV to 95% and accuracy to 83%. Conclusions: Serum B2M level is elevated in HCV related chronic liver diseases and may be used as a marker for HCV disease progression towards cirrhosis and carcinoma.

Hepatitis B Virus-Induced TNF-a Expression in Hepa-lc1c7 Mouse Hepatoma Cell Line (마우스 Hepa-1c1c7 세포주에서 B형 간염 바이러스에 의한 tumor necrosis factor-a의 발현 유도)

  • Yea Sung Su;Jang Won Hee;Yang Young-Il;Lee Youn Jae;Kim Mi Seong;Seog Dae-Hyun;Park Yeong-Hong;Paik Kye-Hyung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2005
  • Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health problem worldwide. Although a tremendous amount has been known about HBV, there have been obstacles in the study of HBV due to the narrow host range of HBV limited to humans and primates. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility to HBV infection of mouse hepatoma cell line, Hepa-1c1c7. In addition, based on that human hepatocytes infected by HBV increase the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-a, the inducibility of TNF-a expression by HBV in the cells was determined. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion was measured by the microparticle enzyme immunoassay and steady state mRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative competitive RT-PCR. Transient transfection of Hepa-1c1c7 cells with HBV expression vector resulted in a dose-dependent induction of TNF-a expression. Infection of Hepa-1c1c7 cells with the serum of HBV carrier also increased TNF-a mRNA expression. Both in the transfected and infected cells, HBV mRNA was expressed and significant HBsAg secretion was detected. There was no significant variation in $\beta-actin$ mRNA expression by HBV. These results demonstrate that HBV is infectious to Hepa-lc1c7 in vitro and the viral infection induces TNF-a expression, which suggests that Hepa-lc1c7, a mouse hepatoma cell line, may be a possible model system for analysis of various molecular aspects of HBV infection.

Detection of HCV-RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Biotinylated and Radioiodinated Primers (역전사 중합효소 연쇄반응(RT-PCR)에 의한 HCV-RNA의 검출 : Biotin 및 방사성옥소 표지 Primer로 구성된 Kit의 이용)

  • Ryu, Jin-Sook;Moon, Dae-Hyuk;Cheon, Jun-Hong;Chung, Yoon-Young;Park, Hung-Dong;Chung, Young-Hwa;Lee, Young-Sang
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.220-226
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR ) kit of HCV-RNA using biotinylated and radioiodinated primers. Study subjects were 118 patients with positive anti-HCV. HCV-RNA in patient's serum was extracted by guanidium thiocyanate method. After first amplification, the product was reamplified by primers labelled with biotin and I-125. The final amplification product was defected by counting the radioactivity after incubation in avidin coated tubes. In 51 samples, the test was repeated for evaluation of reproducibility. This new method was also compared with conventional RT-PCR methods in 34 samples from patients with chronic liver disease. The results were as follows ; 1) HCV-RNA was positive in 85(97%)of 88 patients with chronic liver disease, and in 23 (73%) of 30 patients with normal liver function. 2) In comparison with conventional method, HCV-RNA was detected in 32(94%) of 34 patients with new method, whereas in 27(79%) of the same group with conventional method. 3) Repeated test with new method in 52 samples demonstrated 82% of concordant result. In conclusion, new method with biotinylated and radioiodinated primers was more sensitive than conventional method. However, great care must be taken for quality control because there were considerable interassay variation and possiblity of false positivity and false negativity.

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Clinical characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus infection detected by polymerase chain reaction in children less than 15 years old (15세 이하의 어린이에서 중합효소 연쇄반응으로 검출된 Epstein-Barr 바이러스 감염의 임상적 특성)

  • Na, Jong-In;Kim, Ok Lan;Seoung, Do-kyoung;Yoo, Seung-Taek;Lee, Chang Woo;Choi, Doo-Young;Oh, Yeon-Kyun;Cho, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Jong-Duck
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.11
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    • pp.1191-1197
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Previously, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was diagnosed by serological examination; currently, many EBV antigen detection methods have been developed and applied clinically for diagnosing EBV infection. To delineate the clinical characteristics of EBV infection, clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated for patients who tested positive in EBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods : EBV PCR was conducted in 352 patients admitted to the pediatric ward from January 2004 to December 2006, with more than 2 clinical signs such as fever (${\geq}37.5^{\circ}C$), exudative throat infection, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis of unknown etiology, and splenomegaly. The EBV viral gene was detected by PCR in 115 patients (32%), and the clinical characteristics of these patients were evaluated. Laboratory findings such as leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, atypical lymphocyte, and alteration in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in peripheral blood were examined. The EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibody (EBV-IgM Ab) was also tested. Results : Most of the children were younger than 8 years (89%), and the male to female ratio was 1.3:1. Exudative throat infection and fever (${\geq}37.5^{\circ}C$) were observed in all patients. Cervical lymph node enlargement was seen in 36 patients (31 %); leukocytosis ($WBC{\geq}10,000/mm^3$), in 54 patients (47%); and atypical lymphocyte (${\geq}20%$), in 28 patients (24%). EBV-IgM Ab was positive in 33 patients (29%). The younger patients had higher ALT levels and higher incidence of positive EBV-IgM Ab than the older patients. Conclusion : The cumulative number of patients diagnosed to have EBV infection by PCR increased markedly for those under 8 years. ALT was higher and EBV-IgM Ab was detected more in younger patients with EBV infection.

Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Clathrin-Associated Adaptor Protein 3-δ Subunit 2 (AP3S2) in Chicken

  • Oh, Jae-Don;Bigirwa, Godfrey;Lee, Seokhyun;Song, Ki-Duk
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2019
  • A chicken clathrin-associated adaptor protein $3-{\delta}$ subunit 2 (AP3S2) is a subunit of AP3, which is involved in cargo protein trafficking to target membrane with clathrin-coated vesicles. AP3S2 may play a role in virus entry into host cells through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. AP3S2 is also known to participate in metabolic disease developments of progressions, such as liver fibrosis with hepatitis C virus infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chicken AP3S2 (chAP3S2) gene was originally identified as one of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in chicken kidney which was fed with different calcium doses. This study aims to characterize the molecular characteristics, gene expression patterns, and transcriptional regulation of chAP3S2 in response to the stimulation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) to understand the involvement of chAP3S2 in metabolic disease in chicken. As a result, the structure prediction of chAP3S2 gene revealed that the gene is highly conserved among AP3S2 orthologs from other species. Evolutionarily, it was suggested that chAP3S2 is relatively closely related to zebrafish, and fairly far from mammal AP3S2. The transcriptional profile revealed that chAP3S2 gene was highly expressed in chicken lung and spleen tissues, and under the stimulation of poly (I:C), the chAP3S2 expression was down-regulated in DF-1 cells (P<0.05). However, the presence of the transcriptional inhibitors, BAY 11-7085 (Bay) as an inhibitor for nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ ($NF{\kappa}B$) or Tanshinone IIA (Tan-II) as an inhibitor for activated protein 1 (AP-1), did not affect the expressional level of chAP3S2, suggesting that these transcription factors might be dispensable for TLR3 mediated repression. These results suggest that chAP3S2 gene may play a significant role against viral infection and be involved in TLR3 signaling pathway. Further study about the transcriptional regulation of chAP3S2 in TLR3 pathways and the mechanism of chAP3S2 upon virus entry shall be needed.