• Title, Summary, Keyword: viral hepatitis

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Host Innate Immunity against Hepatitis E Virus and Viral Evasion Mechanisms

  • Kang, Sangmin;Myoung, Jinjong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1727-1735
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    • 2017
  • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections cause epidemic or sporadic acute hepatitis, which are mostly self-limiting. However, viral infection in immunocompromised patients and pregnant women may result in serious consequences, such as chronic hepatitis and liver damage, mortality of the latter of which reaches up to 20-30%. Type I interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral immunity is known to be the first-line defense against virus infection. Upon HEV infection in the cell, the virus genome is recognized by pathogen recognition receptors, leading to rapid activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Expression of type I IFN triggers induction of a barrage of IFN-stimulated genes, helping the cells cope with viral infection. Interestingly, some of the HEV-encoded genes seem to be involved in disrupting signaling cascades for antiviral immune responses, and thus crippling cytokine/chemokine production. Antagonistic mechanisms of type I IFN responses by HEV have only recently begun to emerge, and in this review, we summarize known HEV evasion strategies and compare them with those of other hepatitis viruses.

A Clinical Report of Adult Acute Viral Hepatitis Type A Treated with Herbal Prescriptions

  • Son, Chang-Gue
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2007
  • Owing to improvement of socioeconomic status during recent decades in Korea, incidence of hepatitis A has rapidly decreased, especially among children. However, this status has paradoxically caused a steady increase of adult patients with HAV infection, causing new medical issues associated with aggravated clinical symptoms. The present study reports an adult case of acute viral hepatitis type A treated with oriental medicine. The elevated biochemical findings(AST, ALT, gamma-GTP, bilirubin), physical symptoms (general weakness, nausea, right flank pain, itching sign), and serological makers (anti-HAV IgM and anti-HAV IgG) were normalized within four weeks. Also, sonographic examination showed a normal pattern on an enlarged liver image. This study informed us about the clinical capacity of oriental medicine for adult patients with acute viral hepatitis type A.

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Studies on the rabbit viral hepatitis II. Electron microscopic observation of the spleen in experimentally infected rabbit (토끼의 바이러스성 간염(肝炎)에 관한 연구(硏究) II. 실험적(實驗的) 오염(汚染) 토끼 비장(脾臟)의 전자현미경적(電子顯微鏡的) 관찰(觀察))

  • Lee, Cha-soo;Kwon, Young-ran;Jyeong, Jong-sik;Shin, Tae-kyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.125-129
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    • 1993
  • An acute fatal infectious disease in rabbits has been outbroken in Korea since 1985. This disease has been characterized as an acute hepatitis caused by viruses. However, viral pathogenesis in rabbit viral hepatitis leading to sudden death remain unclear. This report dealt with the electron microscopic findings on the spleen of experimentally infected rabbits, because spleen is one of the affected organs which have high titer of virus by a haemagglutination test. A typical crystalline array of virus was not found in the splenic cells of infected rabbits with acute hepatitis. Virus-like particles were seen within the phagosome of macrophages of the spleen. Ultrastructural changes in the spleen were severe with the lapse of time after inoculation. From these results, virus-like particles in the spleen were supposed to be phagocytosed by macrophage during viremia, while active replication of virus occurred in the liver. It was concluded that sudden death in this viral disease was caused by hepatic coma and/or circulatory disturbance.

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The Effects of Injinsugunomija Extract on Liver Function Test of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Viral Hepatitis Patients (인진수근오미자(茵蔯水芹五味子) extract가 알콜성 간질환과 바이러스성 간염환자의 LFT에 미치는 영향)

  • Won, Jin-Hee;Kim, Tae-Gyun;Bae, Nam-Gyu;Ryu, Su-Taek;Kim, Yo-Han;Lee, Jae-Ik;Kim, Kyung-Soo;Park, Yong-Hyun;Lee, Jong-Duck;Cheon, Young-Sae
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : This study was conducted to evaluate the effects that Injinsugunomija Extract affected Liver function test of Alcoholic liver disease and Viral hepatitis patients. Methods: We adminstered eighty packets of Injinsugunomija Extract to some kinds of liver disease patients for one month. And we investigated the changes of their liver function test. Results: The results from this study were summarized as followed. In the 10 patients of Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD), 3 cases improve prominent and 4 cases improve effective and 3 cases are ineffective. Then 70% 01 ALD patients has improved by Injinsugunomija Extract In the 9 patients of Viral hepatitis, 1 case improves prominent and 4 cases improve effective and 1 case become worse and 1 case become worst and 2 cases are ineffective. Then 55.6% of Viral hepatitis patients has improved by Injinsugunomija Extract. Conclusions: From these results, Injinsugunomija Extract showed the meaningful effects on improving liver function test of ALD patients and Viral hepatitis patients.

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The unique role of domain 2A of the hepatitis A virus precursor polypeptide P1-2A in viral morphogenesis

  • Morace, Graziella;Kusov, Yuri;Dzagurov, Georgy;Beneduce, Francesca;Gauss-Muller, Verena
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.678-683
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    • 2008
  • The initial step during assembly of the hepatitis A virus particle is driven by domain 2A of P1-2A, which is the precursor of the structural proteins. The proteolytic removal of 2A from particulate VP1-2A by an as yet unknown host enzyme presumably terminates viral morphogenesis. Using a genetic approach, we show that a basic amino acid residue at the C-terminus of VP1 is required for efficient particle assembly and that host proteases trypsin and cathepsin L remove 2A from hepatitis A virus particles in vitro. Analyses of insertion mutants in the C-terminus of 2A reveal that this part of 2A is important for liberation of P1-2A from the polyprotein. The data provide the first evidence that the VP1/2A junction is involved in both viral particle assembly and maturation and, therefore, seems to coordinate the first and last steps in viral morphogenesis.

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Cholestatic Hepatitis

  • Kang, Seok-Jin;Yoon, Ka-Hyun;Hwang, Jin-Bok
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.61-64
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    • 2013
  • Infection-induced acute hepatitis complicated with acute pancreatitis is associated with hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis E virus. Although rare, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection should be considered also in the differential diagnosis if the patient has acute hepatitis combined with pancreatitis. We report a case of EBV infection with cholestatic hepatitis and pancreatitis with review of literature. An 11-year-old female was admitted due to 1-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting without any clinical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis. Diagnosis of reactivated EBV infection was made by the positive result of viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM, VCA IgG, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen and heterophile antibody test. We performed serologic tests and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography to exclude other viral or bacterial infection, autoimmune disorder, and structural problems. The patient's symptoms recovered rapidly and blood chemistry returned to normal with conservative treatment similar to previously reported cases.

Hepatic Steatosis: Prevalence and Host/Viral Risk Factors in Iranian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

  • Poortahmasebi, Vahdat;Alavian, Seyed Moayed;Keyvani, Hossein;Norouzi, Mehdi;Mahmoodi, Mahmood;Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.3879-3884
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    • 2014
  • Background: In chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the presence of hepatic steatosis (HS) seems to be associated with known host and viral factors which may influence the long-term prognosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), probably leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Different from chronic hepatitis C (CHC), factors associated with HS in CHB are not clearly explored. Materials and Methods: 160 CHB patients were divided into two groups depending on the results of liver biopsy. Group I consisted of 71 patients with confirmed steatosis. Group II comprised 89 patients without steatosis. The groups were compared in terms of basal characteristics, body mass index (BMI), liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), serum fasting blood sugar (FBS) and lipids, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), viral load, and histological findings. Results: In terms of host factors, male gender, older age, BMI, high serum FBS and lipid levels were associated with HS. On the other hand, ALT levels, the HAI scores of necroinflammation and stage of fibrosis did not associate with HS. On multivariate analysis, parameters of sex, BMI, cholesterol and FBS levels were independently associated with HS. Regarding viral factors, HBeAg negativity was significantly associated with HS (81.7%, p value 0.006), but not HBV DNA level (p value 0.520). Conclusions: HS in CHB appears to be unrelated to the status of HBV replication. However, fibrosis progression in CHB is related to variable host factors. HS may be enhanced through these factors in HBV chronic patients.

Clinical Features of Non-A, B, C Viral Hepatitis in Children (소아에서 발생한 비-A, B, C형 바이러스성 간염의 임상 고찰)

  • Son, Seung Kook;Park, Jae Hong
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Non-A, B, C viral hepatitis is the name given to the disease with clinical viral hepatitis, but in which serologic evidence of A, B, C hepatitis has not been found. Little is known about the etiology and clinical features of non-A, B, C viral hepatitis in children. Methods: A clinical analysis of 45 cases with non-A, B, C viral hepatitis who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Hospital, from January 2001 to June 2004 was carried out retrospectively. Patients who were positive for HBsAg, anti-HAV and anti-HCV and had toxic, metabolic, autoimmune, or neonatal hepatitis were excluded in this study. Results: Among 45 cases of non-A, B, C viral hepatitis, the etiology was unknown in 26 (57.8%), CMV (cytomegalovirus) in 14 (31.1%), EBV (Epstein Barr virus) in 2 (4.4%), HSV (herpes simplex virus) in 2 (4.4%) and RV (rubella virus) in 1 (2.2%). Twenty seven out of 45 (60.0%) patients were under 1 year of age. Sixteen (33.3%) patients had no specific clinical symptoms and were diagnosed incidentally. On physical examination, twenty seven out of 45 patients (60.0%) had no abnormal findings. Forty three out of 45 patients (95.6%) showed classic clinical course of acute viral hepatitis, whereas fulminant hepatitis developed in two patients. Mean serum ALT (alanine aminotransferase) level was $448.7{\pm}771.9IU/L$. Serum ALT level was normalized in 31 out of 45 patients (81.6%) within 6 months and all patients within 18 months. Aplastic anemia was complicated in a case. Conclusion: Although most patients with non-A, B, C viral hepatitis showed a good prognosis, a careful follow-up would be necessary because some of them had a clinical course of chronic hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis and severe complication such as aplastic anemia.

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Why is Hepatocellular Carcinoma Less Attributable to Viral Hepatitis in Yemen?

  • Saeed, Nadeem Mohammed;Bawazir, Amen Ahmed;Al-Zuraiqi, Masuod;Al-Negri, Fadhel;Yunus, Faisel
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3663-3667
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    • 2012
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are still public health problems in Yemen, with older individuals having much higher prevalence than younger generations. However, research on the prevalence of viral hepatitis in association with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) has not yet been undertaken in Yemen. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HCC patients and to estimate the risk of these infections being associated with the development of HCC. A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients attending oncology outpatient in Sana'a, Yemen, through the period 2008-mid 2010 with confirmed diagnosis of HCC. A total of 88 cases were studied thoroughly with different investigations such as CT-scan, ultrasound, tumour marker, alpha-feto-protein and histopathological biopsy. A structured questionnaire was also applied and physical examination done to assess the general condition of the patients. Statistical package (SPSS version 16) was used for analysis of the data. The mean age of the cases was 61.2 years (${\pm}12.6$) with half over 60 years. There were fewer male patients (36%) compared to females and most (97%) only had basic /no formal education. Seventy nine (89%) were diagnosed as HCC cases with histopathological biopsy while the rest were diagnosed by ultrasound, CT scan, tumour marker, and alpha-feto-protein. Around one-third of the subjects were positive for HBsAg and HCV antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed infection with HCV and use of smoking was associated with HCC diagnosis. Although an association was observed between the occurrence of HCC and viral hepatitis (either HBV or HCV) and cigarette smoking, but the rate of viral infection was lower than what has been reported elsewhere.

Overview of hepatitis B and C infection (B형 및 C형 간염의 이해)

  • Kim, Ji-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Life Insurance Medical Association
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2011
  • Both the enterically transmitted forms of viral hepatitis, hepatitis A and E are self-limited and do not cause chroni chepatitis. Chronic hepatitis occurs in patients with hepatitis B and C as well as in patients with chronic hepatitis D superimposed on chronic hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis such as hepatitis B or C is important in terms of insurance underwriting and claims. General review of hepatitis B and C was performed in this article.

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