• Title, Summary, Keyword: vertical distribution

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Vertical Distribution of Seismic Load for Earthquake Resistnat Design of base Isolated Building Structures (면진건축물의 내진설계를 위한 지진하중 분배식 제안)

  • 이동근
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.212-219
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    • 1999
  • In this paper we investigated an applicability of earthquake regulations for seismic-isolated building structures which has been used currently and propose an efficient method for vertical distribution of seismic loads. The distribution of force is revised in UBC-94 as vertical distribution of force of UBC(Uniform Building Code)-91 is not sufficient safety but its distribution is inefficient expensive because of similar expression to fixed-based structures. In order to overcome this difficulties improved vertical distribution to fixed-based structures. In order to overcome this difficulties improved vertical distribution of seismic load is proposed using two degrees-of-freedom isolated structures and mode shape of fixed-based structures. Efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are verified through analysis of an example structures with moment resisting frame and shear walls so this study approximate to dynamic analysis results in each case.

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A study on the Development of Vertical Air Temperature Distribution Model in Atrium (아트리움의 수직온도 분포해석 프로그램의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Y.I.;Cho, K.H.;Kim, K.W.
    • Solar Energy
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.3-11
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    • 1997
  • Recently the construction of atrium buildings has increased but along with it many problems in thermal environment have arised. since the exterior wall of glass, indoor temperature is greatly influenced by weather conditions and since the space volume is very large, the vertical air temperature is not uniform. So, in this study, a Vertical Temperature Distribution Model was developed to predict the vertical air temperature of an atrium and evaluate the effects of the design parameters on the air temperature distribution of an atrium. To consider the characteristics of the vertical air temperature distribution in an atrium, the Satosh Togari's Macroscopic Model was used basically for the calculation of the vertical air temperature distribution in large space and the solar radiation analysis model and natural ventilation analysis model in atrium. And to calculate the unsteady-state inside wall surface temperature(boundary condition), the finite difference method was used. For the verification of the developed temperature distribution program, numerical evaluation of air flow by the ${\kappa}-{\varepsilon}$ turbulence model and in-situ test was conducted in parallel. The results of this study, the developed temperature distribution program was seen to predict the thermal condition of the atrium very accurately.

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Vertical Aerosol Distribution and Flux Measurement in the Planetary Boundary Layer Using Drone (드론을 이용한 안면도 상공 대기경계층내의 미세먼지 연직분포 및 Flux 측정)

  • Kim, Heesang;Park, Yonghe;Kim, Wooyoung;Eun, Heeram;Ahn, Kang-Ho
    • Particle and aerosol research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2018
  • Vertical particle size distribution, total particle concentration, wind velocity, temperature and humidity measurement was performed with a drone. The drone was equipped with a wind sensor, house-made optical particle count(Hy-OPC), condensation particle counter(Hy-CPC), GPS, Temperature, Relative Humidity, Pressure and communication system. Base on the wind velocity and the particle size vertical distribution measurement with drone, the particle mass flux was calculated. The vertical particle distribution showed that the particle number concentration was very strongly correlated with the relative humidity.

Diel Vertical Distribution of Phytoflagellates in a Small Artificial Pond

  • Kim, Han-Soon;Takamura, Noriko
    • ALGAE
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2002
  • Diel vertical distribution of phytoflagellates and interactions between the phytoplankton components and environmental and biological factors were studied in a small artificial pond for three days on the December 18, 1998 and April 9 to 10, 1999. The phytoplankton population was dominated by Mallomonas akrokomos of chrysophytes and Cryptomonas marssonii and Chroomonas sp. of cryptophytes. The vertical distribution of these phytoflagellates taxa exhibited clear diel migration pattern. Moreover their migration patterns are showed differential fluctuation between M. akrokomos, C. marssonii and Chroomonas sp. The later two species upward migrated in the evening as well as night, whereas the former species migrated downward. Their distinctive migration pattern was found during the night but was not observed in the morning. During daytime C. marssonii and Chroomonas sp. showed maximum density above 2 m depth but M. akrokomos below 2 m depth. The diel vertical distribution of the dominant phytoflagellates did not show significant correlation between physical, chemical and biotic factors.

A Study on the Vertical Distributions of the Concentration in Suspended Sedimentations (부유유사의 연직농도분포에 관한 연구)

  • 유시창;김희종
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.80-91
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    • 1982
  • To precict the suspended sediments which are 80% of total sediments in a flood disch- arge, an equation representing vertical distribution of sediment concentration was derived based upon the diffusion theory and the logalithmic velocity distribution function in the tubulent flow mechanism. The hypothesis that the uniform mass transfer is occurred at upper part along the center line of water depth, was established as a preconition to solve the problem. The theorecal and the observed values were compared. And the theoretical equation was modified to be fit the theoretical values the observed values. Observed results are as follow; 1) Equation 12) is the theoretical equation representing the vertical concentration distri- bution of suspended sedimenta 2) Rous&exonential type vertical concentration distribution equation shows signification errors near the water surface. But the equation 12) shows substation cocentration values near the water surface. 3) Equation 15) is the modified theoretical equation which is possible to predict the vertical concentration distribution of suspended sediments.

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Vertical Earth Pressure Distribution on Cantilever Retaining Wall (역 T 형 옹벽에 작용하는 연직토압분포)

  • Yoo, Nam-Jae;Lee, Myeung-Woog
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.16
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 1996
  • Centrifuge model tests of cantilever retaining wall were performed to investigate the vertical stress distribution due to selfweight of backfill material. Model tests were carried out to find the effect of arching action on vertical stress distribution by changing the roughness of rigid boundary slope and the distance between retaining wall and boudary slope. A reduced scale model of cantilever retaining wall was made with concrete and Jumunjin Standary Sand with 80 % of relative density was used as foundation and backfill material. Centrifuge tests were performed by increasing g-level up to 40 g with measuring vertical stress induced by selfweight of backfill material. Test results on vertical stress distribution were analyzed and compared with results of Silo theory.

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Characteristics of Ozone Advection in Vertical Observation Analysis Around Complex Coastal Area (연직관측자료를 통한 복잡 연안지역의 오존 이류특성)

  • Lee, Hwa-Woon;Park, Soon-Young;Lee, Soon-Hwan;Leem, Heon-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.57-74
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    • 2009
  • In order to clarify the vertical ozone distribution in planetary boundary layer of coastal area with complex terrain, an observation campaign was carried out around Gwangyang Bay with dense pollutant emission sources during two days from June, 4 2007. For this observation are Radiosonde, SODAR(SOnic Detection And Ranging) and Tethered ozone sonde were employed. The surface meteorological and photochemical observation data provided by AWS (Automatic Weather System) and AQMS (Air Quality Monitoring System) were also applied for analysis. Synoptic condition is strongly associated with lower level ozone distribution in complex terrain coastal area. Since mesoscale circulation induced by difference of characteristics of land and sea and orographic forcing is predominant under calm synoptic condition, vertical distribution of ozone is complicate and vertical ozone concentration greatly fluctuated. However in second day when synoptic influence become strong, ozone concentration in lower levels is vertically uniform regardless of observation level. This results in vertical observation indicates that vertical ozone distribution is often determined by synoptic condition and also affects surface ozone concentration.

Estimation Model and Vertical Distribution of Leaf Biomass in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Plantations

  • Liu, Zhaogang;Jin, Guangze;Kim, Ji Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.5
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 2009
  • Based on the stem analysis and biomass measurement of 36 trees and 1,576 branches in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Mongolian pine) plantations of Northeast China, this study was conducted to develop estimation model equation for leaf biomass of a single tree and branch, to examine the vertical distribution of leaf biomass in the crown, and to evaluate the proportional ratios of biomass by tree parts, stem, branch, and leaf. The results indicated that DBH and crown length were quite appropriate to estimate leaf biomass. The biomass of single branch was highly correlated with branch collar diameter and relative height of branch in the crown, but not much with stand density, site quality, and tree height. Weibull distribution function would have been appropriate to express vertical distribution of leaf biomass. The shape parameters from 29 sample trees out of 36 were less than 3.6, indicating that vertical distribution of leaf biomass in the crown was displayed by bell-shaped curve, a little inclined toward positive side. Apparent correlationship was obtained between leaf biomass and branch biomass having resulted in linear function equation. The stem biomass occupied around 80% and branch and leaf made up about 20% of total biomass in a single tree. As the level of tree class was increased from class I to class V, the proportion of the stem biomass to total biomass was gradually increased, but that of branch and leaf became decreased.

Algal Communities and Useful Seaweed Distribution at Gangnung and It's Vicinity in East Coast of Korea (강릉 연안의 해조군락과 유용 해조자원 분포)

  • Sohn, Chul-Hyun;Choi, Chang-Geun;Kim, Hyung-Geun
    • ALGAE
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2007
  • An intertidal marine benthic algal vegetation and vertical distribution at Kangnung and it’s vicinity, the eastern coast of Korea was investigated to clarify the community structure and vertical distribution by quadrat method. Marine algae identified from the area were 116 species; 15 green, 31 brown and 70 red algae. The dominant species were Ulva pertusa, Codium fragile, Undaria pinnatifida, Dictyota dichotoma, Gelidium amansii, Corallina pilulifera, Carpopeltis affinis, Grateloupia filicina, Pachymeniopsis elliptica and Chondrus ocellatus at study sites. The vertical distribution of intertidal marine algae was divided into three distinct zones. They were characterized by Porphyra tenera at the upper, Enteromorpha spp. and Ulva pertusa at the middle, and Sargassum thunbergii, Hizikia fusiformis and Pachymeniopsis elliptica at the lower zones, respectively. The vertical distribution of subtidal zone algae were characterized by Laminaria spp. at 15m depth and Kjellmaniella crassifolia at 15 to 25 m depths, whereas Agarum cribrosum was dominant at the lower zone than 25 m depth.

Community Dynamics of Benthic Marine Algae in the Intertidal and Subtidal Rocky Shore of Samyang, Jejudo Island

  • Yoo,Jong-Su
    • ALGAE
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.301-309
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    • 2003
  • Community structure and vertical distribution of benthic marine algae were investigated in the intertidal and subtidal rocky shore of Samyang, Jejudo Island. The total number of 62 algal species composed of 6 Cyanophyta, 6 Chlorophyta, 19 Phaeophyta, and 31 Rhodophyta were observed. The dominant species were melobesioidean algae, Sargassum thunbergii, Hizikia fusiformis, and Ulva pertusa in the intertidal zone and melobesioidean algae, Ulva pertusa, Corallina spp., and Undaria pinnatifida in the subtidal zone. The vertical algal distribution was represented by the melobesioidean algae in the whole rocky shore, Caulacanthus ustulatus in the upper intertidal zone, Sargassum thunbergii and Hizikia fusiformis in the middle and lower zone, Ulva pertusa in the lower zone and Ulva pertusa, Corallina spp., and Undaria prinnatifida in the subtidal zone. The composition of dominant species and pattern of the vertical distribution of algae in the present study were significantly different from the previous reports. Especially, distribution of crustose coralline algae was significantly extended.