• Title/Summary/Keyword: vertical distribution

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Vertical Distribution of Seismic Load for Earthquake Resistnat Design of base Isolated Building Structures (면진건축물의 내진설계를 위한 지진하중 분배식 제안)

  • 이동근
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.212-219
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    • 1999
  • In this paper we investigated an applicability of earthquake regulations for seismic-isolated building structures which has been used currently and propose an efficient method for vertical distribution of seismic loads. The distribution of force is revised in UBC-94 as vertical distribution of force of UBC(Uniform Building Code)-91 is not sufficient safety but its distribution is inefficient expensive because of similar expression to fixed-based structures. In order to overcome this difficulties improved vertical distribution to fixed-based structures. In order to overcome this difficulties improved vertical distribution of seismic load is proposed using two degrees-of-freedom isolated structures and mode shape of fixed-based structures. Efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are verified through analysis of an example structures with moment resisting frame and shear walls so this study approximate to dynamic analysis results in each case.

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Diel Vertical Distribution of Phytoflagellates in a Small Artificial Pond

  • Kim, Han-Soon;Takamura, Noriko
    • ALGAE
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2002
  • Diel vertical distribution of phytoflagellates and interactions between the phytoplankton components and environmental and biological factors were studied in a small artificial pond for three days on the December 18, 1998 and April 9 to 10, 1999. The phytoplankton population was dominated by Mallomonas akrokomos of chrysophytes and Cryptomonas marssonii and Chroomonas sp. of cryptophytes. The vertical distribution of these phytoflagellates taxa exhibited clear diel migration pattern. Moreover their migration patterns are showed differential fluctuation between M. akrokomos, C. marssonii and Chroomonas sp. The later two species upward migrated in the evening as well as night, whereas the former species migrated downward. Their distinctive migration pattern was found during the night but was not observed in the morning. During daytime C. marssonii and Chroomonas sp. showed maximum density above 2 m depth but M. akrokomos below 2 m depth. The diel vertical distribution of the dominant phytoflagellates did not show significant correlation between physical, chemical and biotic factors.

Occurrence, Seasonal Changes and Vertical Distribution of Silica-scaled Chrysophytes in a Small Fish-free Pond in Japan

  • Kim, Han-Soon;Noriko Takamura
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.117-126
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    • 2001
  • Occurence, seasonal changes and vertical distribution of the silica-scaled chrysophytes in a small fish-free pond were studied using electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM) from October 1998 to July 1999. The phytoplankton community was characterized by Chrysophyta and Cryptophyta. Ten species of the silica-scaled chrysophytes of genera Mallomonas, Synura, Chrysosphaerella and Spiniferomonas were identified by EM, and the most abundant species were Mallomonas akrokomos and M. portae-ferreae. The maximum population density of M. akrokomos was observed in December and several peaks appeared periodically at about one to two month intervals, whereas M. portae-ferreae developed the maximum density in March. The diurnal vertical distribution of M. akrokomos exhibited clear downward migration at night and slightly upward migration in the morning. A complex interaction among physico-chemical and biological factors seemed to affect the vertical distribution of M. akrokomos. However, the seasonal changes of M. akrokomos did not show significant corre1ations with the physico-chemical and some biologica1 factors. Although M. akrokomos was evenly distributed throughout the water column during some experimental periods, the diurnal patterns found in the two diurnal cycles showed consistency in that it clearly avoided the surface water during the day. This suggested that M. akrokomos may be a shade plankton with maximum densities below surface layer.

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Algal Communities and Useful Seaweed Distribution at Gangnung and It's Vicinity in East Coast of Korea (강릉 연안의 해조군락과 유용 해조자원 분포)

  • Sohn, Chul-Hyun;Choi, Chang-Geun;Kim, Hyung-Geun
    • ALGAE
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2007
  • An intertidal marine benthic algal vegetation and vertical distribution at Kangnung and it’s vicinity, the eastern coast of Korea was investigated to clarify the community structure and vertical distribution by quadrat method. Marine algae identified from the area were 116 species; 15 green, 31 brown and 70 red algae. The dominant species were Ulva pertusa, Codium fragile, Undaria pinnatifida, Dictyota dichotoma, Gelidium amansii, Corallina pilulifera, Carpopeltis affinis, Grateloupia filicina, Pachymeniopsis elliptica and Chondrus ocellatus at study sites. The vertical distribution of intertidal marine algae was divided into three distinct zones. They were characterized by Porphyra tenera at the upper, Enteromorpha spp. and Ulva pertusa at the middle, and Sargassum thunbergii, Hizikia fusiformis and Pachymeniopsis elliptica at the lower zones, respectively. The vertical distribution of subtidal zone algae were characterized by Laminaria spp. at 15m depth and Kjellmaniella crassifolia at 15 to 25 m depths, whereas Agarum cribrosum was dominant at the lower zone than 25 m depth.

Estimation Model and Vertical Distribution of Leaf Biomass in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Plantations

  • Liu, Zhaogang;Jin, Guangze;Kim, Ji Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.5
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 2009
  • Based on the stem analysis and biomass measurement of 36 trees and 1,576 branches in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Mongolian pine) plantations of Northeast China, this study was conducted to develop estimation model equation for leaf biomass of a single tree and branch, to examine the vertical distribution of leaf biomass in the crown, and to evaluate the proportional ratios of biomass by tree parts, stem, branch, and leaf. The results indicated that DBH and crown length were quite appropriate to estimate leaf biomass. The biomass of single branch was highly correlated with branch collar diameter and relative height of branch in the crown, but not much with stand density, site quality, and tree height. Weibull distribution function would have been appropriate to express vertical distribution of leaf biomass. The shape parameters from 29 sample trees out of 36 were less than 3.6, indicating that vertical distribution of leaf biomass in the crown was displayed by bell-shaped curve, a little inclined toward positive side. Apparent correlationship was obtained between leaf biomass and branch biomass having resulted in linear function equation. The stem biomass occupied around 80% and branch and leaf made up about 20% of total biomass in a single tree. As the level of tree class was increased from class I to class V, the proportion of the stem biomass to total biomass was gradually increased, but that of branch and leaf became decreased.

Community Structure and Vertical Distribution of Macrobenthos in the Mussel Bed on the Goijeong Rocky Shore in Jinhae (진해 괴정 암반 조간대 담치대의 대형저서동물 군집구조 및 수직분포)

  • PAIK Sang-Gyu;YUN Sung Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.500-508
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    • 2003
  • The fauna associated with mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) beds and vertical distribution of macrobenthos were studied on the Goijeong rocky shore in Jinhae Bay, Korea. Sampling was conducted seasonally using a quadrate from January to October, 1998. In the first experiment, to reveal the community structure of macrobenthos in mussel bed, a total of 62 species $(10,690ind./m^2,\;3,802.1\;g/m^2)$ were identified, which included polychaetes $(32\;spp.,\;52.6\%),$ molluscs (16 spp.), crustaceans (10 spp.), and others. The density-dominant species were Pseudopolydora antennata, Nereis heterocirrata, Littorina brevicula and Balanus kondakovi. And the density of associated fauna was correlated with that of mussel (r=0.951, p=0.049). In the second experiment, to reveal the vertical distribution of macrobenthos on the rocky shore, ANOVA showed highly significant differences between the density of top 5 dominant species (Chthamalus challengeri, Littorina brevicula, Balanus kondakovi, Septifer virgatus and Granulilittorina exigua) and tidal levels (P=0.000). Vertical distribution of macrobnethos was characterized by Ghthamalus belt and Balanus-Septifer belt in the mussel bed.

Vertical Distribution of Temperature and Tropopause Height Changes in Future Projections using HadGEM2-AO Climate Model (HadGEM2-AO를 이용한 연직기온 분포와 대류권계면 높이 변화 미래전망)

  • Lee, Jaeho;Baek, Hee-Jeong;Cho, Chunho
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2013
  • We present here the future changes in vertical distribution of temperature and tropopause height using the HadGEM2-AO climate model forced with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. Projected changes during the 21st century are shown as differences from the baseline period (1971~2000) for global vertical distribution of temperature and tropopause height. All RCP scenarios show warming throughout the troposphere and cooling in the stratosphere with amplified warming over the lower troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. Upper troposphere warming reaches a maximum in the tropics at the 300 hPa level associated with lapse-rate feedback. Also, the cooling in the stratosphere and the warming in the troposphere raises the height of the tropopause.

Vertical Distribution and Feeding Ecology of the Mirror Dory Zenopsis nebulosa in the Southern Sea of Korea (우리나라 남해안에 서식하는 민달고기(Zenopsis nebulosa)의 수직분포와 식성)

  • Kim, Hye Rim;Kim, Jung Yun;Kim, Hee Yong;Choi, Gwang Ho;Choi, Jung Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.973-976
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    • 2013
  • We observed the vertical distribution and feeding ecology of the Mirror dory, Zenopsis nebulosa, in the Southern Sea of Korea from 2009 to 2013 using an otter trawl. The total length of captured individuals ranged from 11 to 48 cm. Individuals captured at greater depths were significantly larger than those from shallower sites. Fish abundance was significantly related to depth and temperature. We found that 89% of the total catch was obtained at depths between 80 and 140 meters. Prey organisms, including fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods, were found in Z. nebulosa stomachs. Fishes were the main prey items for all size groups. Cephalopods were consumed by individuals > 25 cm in length. Our findings suggested that the vertical distribution of Z. nebulosa varied with depth and temperature, and that the fish are carnivores.

Vertical Distribution of Tiger Worm (Oligochaeta : Eisenia fetida) Population in the Rearing Bed (지렁이 사육상에서 줄지렁이(Eisenia fetida) 개체군의 수직분포)

  • Park, Kwang-Il;Kim, Byung-Woo;Bae, Yoon-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2007
  • Vertical distribution of tiger worm(Eisenia fetida) population in the earthworm rearing bed was investigated with feeding paper mill sludge. More than 50% of larva and adult population of Eisenia fetida lived within the depth of 5 cm from the surface of rearing bed. And more than 96% of the population of larva, adult and cocoon lived within the depth of 20 cm. Percental vertical distribution of Eisenia fetida population in the rearing bed was not much influenced by the changes in the height of rearing bed or density of earthworm population.

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A Study on the Community Structure of Intertidal Benthic Marine Algae in Youngil Bay, Eastern Coast of Korea (동해 연안 영일만 조간대 해조류의 군집구조)

  • Park, Gyu-Jin;Choi, Chang-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.664-673
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    • 2009
  • An intertidal marine benthic algal vegetation and vertical distribution at Youngil Bay, the eastern coast of Korea was investigated to clarify the community structure and vertical distribution by quadrat method from February 2003 to January 2009. Marine algae identified from the area were 152 species; 25 green, 38 brown and 89 red algae. The dominant species were Ulva spp., Ulva pertusa, Chaetomorpha moniligera, Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum horneri, S. miyabei, S. thunbergii, Gelidium amansii, Corallina pilulifera, Grateloupia elliptica, G. filicina, Prionitis cornea, Chondrus ocellatus, Chondracanthus intermedia, Acrosorium polyneurum, Chondria crassicaulis, Polysiphonia morrowii and Symphyocladia latiuscula at study sites. The vertical distribution of intertidal marine algae was divided into three distinct zones. They were characterized by Porphyra spp. and Ulva spp. at the upper, Ulva spp. and Ulva pertusa at the middle, and Sargassum spp., Gelidium amansii, Grateloupia spp., Chondrus ocellatus and Chondria crassicaulis at the lower zones, respectively. Functional form group analysis showed that coarsely branched forms comprised 44.7% of the algal community, whereas thick leathery forms, sheet forms and filamentous forms comprised 6.6-25.7%. R/P, C/P and (R+C)/P values were 2.34, 0.66 and 3.00, respectively.