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Classification of Vegetable Commodities by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (코덱스의 식품 분류: 채소류)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2019
  • Revision work on the Codex Classification of Foods and Animal Feeds was undertaken in 2007 and presently, revisions for most food groups have been completed. For vegetables, the work was conducted during 2014-2017, and the final draft revision was adopted by the $40^{th}$ Codex Alimentarius Commission (2017). Here, the revised classification of vegetable commodities is introduced in order to be utilized in various food-related fields, in particular, food safety regulation. The revised classification is briefly summarized as follows: Codex classified vegetables into 10 groups (Group 009-018): bulb vegetables (Group 009), Brassica vegetables (except Brassica leafy vegetables) (Group 010), fruiting vegetables, Cucurbits (Group 011), fruiting vegetables, other than Cucurbits (Group 012), leafy vegetables (including Brassica leafy vegetables) (Group 013), legume vegetables (Group 014), pulses (Group 015), root and tuber vegetables (Group 016), stalk and stem vegetables (Group 017) and edible fungi (Group 018). The groups are further divided into a total of 33 subgroups. In the Classification, 430 different commodity codes are assigned to vegetable commodities. Meanwhile, Korea's Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) does not include potatoes, beans and mushrooms within a vegetable group. In addition, the MFDS divides one vegetable group into six subgroups including flowerhead Brassicas, leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables, root and tuber vegetables, fruiting vegetables, Cucurbits, and fruiting vegetables other than Cucurbits. Therefore, care is needed in using the Codex Classification.

Influences of Socio-demographic Factors, Health-related Recognitions and Dietary Behaviors on Use and Purchasing of Vegetables among Adult Women (일부지역 성인여성의 사회경제적요인, 건강관련의식구조 및 식생활태도와 채소류 소비에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Hae-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.481-495
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of socio-demographic and health-related perceptions and twenty dietary behaviors on the superiority and preference, convenient use of and purchase motives of vegetables among 370 women(mean age 43.9) in Seoul and metropolitan and Gangwon area. Data was collected using a questionnaire developed in advanced studies. Almost all subjects rated vegetables more predominantly than grains or meats on the basis of health, diversity, and convenience to purchase. Recognition of healthly funcions of diet, purpose of diet and some dietary behaviors had influence on preference for vegetables. Those who recognized that diet had the function of disease control and prevention, knew the healthy options vegetables provide us, such as, preventing us from geriatric diseases, good sources of vitamins and minerals and considered other motives aside from health issues. From Pearsons's correlation analysis, it was revealed that sufficient time for meal preparation and pleasant eating and desirable life style and dietary attitudes, and a better understanding of nutrition were positively correlated with consumption of more vegetables and convenient use of vegetables. The subjects who recognized the ability of food to help prevent diseases, had a preference for vegetables and attitude to use nutritional knowledge and also considered the nutrition values of vegetables and environment friendliness. Everyday use of vegetables such as consuming a variety of different vegetables, a families favorite vegetables and variation of cooking methods had correlated positively with purchase motives. Therefore to encourage consumption of vegetables, it is important to notice three points continuously; first, practical information of nutritive values of vegetables, the contribution of vegetables in current animal protein foods centered diet and healthful functionalities. Second, the importance of regular diet and steadfast attitude and lifestyle. Finally, the quality of the market where the products are bought such as, quality control of freshness, sanitation, expression of producer and a pleasant environment to shop in.

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The Microbiological Quality of Environmentally Friendly and Ordinary Agricultural Vegetables Used in a School Foodservices (학교 급식용 친환경 및 일반농법 채소류의 미생물적 품질 비교)

  • Kim, Yang-Sook;Moon, Hye-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.49-61
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to determine basic information on the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly vegetables used in school foodservices. Comparisons were made on the microbiological quality of eight different kinds of vegetables grown by environmentally friendly agricultural methods and ordinary agricultural methods to determine if there were significant differences. In the raw materials, aerobic plate counts were as follows: lettuce 4.58~7.43 log CFU/g, winter plowing chinese cabbage 5.61~7.36 log CFU/g, Korean leek 5.81 log CFU/g to TNTC (too numerous to Count), cabbage 5.93~6.43 log CFU/g, sesame leaves 3.15~5.23 log CFU/g, cucumber 5.00~5.79 log CFU/g, cherry tomato 2.96~5.40 log CFU/g, paprika 1.30~3.52 log CFU/g. In the comparison of the microbiological quality between environmentally friendly and ordinary agricultural vegetables, their acceptable ratio was the same (81.3%) and the mean aerobic plate counts was not significantly different. In the comparison of the microbiological quality between the leafy vegetables and the fruity vegetables, the fruity vegetables had a 100% acceptable ratio regardless of the agricultural method used to grow them, while the leafy vegetables had an acceptable ratio of 70%. In terms of the aerobic plate counts, the leafy vegetables had significantly higher counts; the leafy vegetables 5.87${\pm}$1.18 log CFU/g, the fruity vegetables 4.12${\pm}$1.54 log CFU/g.

Comparisons of Consumption Attitude toward Vegetables and Fragrance Vegetables Preference among Primary School to University Students in Gyeongbuk Area (경북지역 초.중.고.대학생의 채소류 섭취태도와 향신채소 기호도 비교)

  • Lee, Yun Kyeong;Kim, Youngnam
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide the preliminary data for dietary education to increase students' vegetables intake. Methods: The attitude of vegetables consumption (5-Likert scale), preference score (7-Likert scale) and eating frequency (5-Likert scale) of 9 fragrance vegetables were investigated by survey questionnaire. A total of 370 students enrolled in primary, middle, high schools, and university participated in the study and data were analyzed by the SPSS WIN (ver 12.0). Results: About 40% of those surveyed answered that they do not eat some kinds of foods and 16% of students do not eat vegetables, the most unfavorable foods. The students in all groups (primary $2^{nd}$ and $2^{th}$, middle and high school, university students) answered that they liked vegetables with the highest score in university students, and they did not often eat fragrance vegetables. Lower age student group, especially primary school $2^{nd}$ showed more positive attitudes of eating challenge toward no experience, bad taste, and dislike but nutritious vegetable foods. The most important factor of vegetable preference was taste, the biggest reason of both like and dislike. Only 4 students designated nutrition as for vegetable dislike reason, means that all students knew about the nutritional importance of vegetables. It was shown that the color and flavor of the vegetables act as dislikable reason rather than likable reason. The significant correlations between preference score and intake frequency of fragrance vegetables were confirmed, and the younger the students the greater the correlation coefficient. Conclusions: Thus providing more chance to experience vegetables, such as fragrance vegetables and education about the importance of balanced diet will be an effective way of increasing vegetables intake, and the younger the students the greater the education effect.

The Kimi theory on Vegetables Focused on of [Jeongjoji] in ${\ulcorner}$Limwonsibyukji${\lrcorner}$ and [Tangaekpyeon] in ${\ulcorner}$Donguibogam${\lrcorner}$ (채소류의 기미론(氣味論) 연구 - "임원십육지" 중 [정조지] 중 <식감촬요>와 "동의보감" [탕액편]를 중심으로-)

  • Song, Yun-Jin;Lee, Hyo-Gee;Cha, Gyung-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.690-701
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    • 2006
  • Classifying vegetables recorded in Sikgamchalyo of Jeongjoji of Limwonsibyukji and Tangaekpyeon of Donguibogam and comparing the types features, efficacy and side effects based on Kimi Theory(氣味), we found forty one leafy vegetables, six root vegetables, nine fruit vegetables, nine mushrooms, seven seaweeds and two other vegetables in Limwonsibyukji and thirty five leafy vegetables, eight root vegetables, eight fruit vegetables, one mushroom, two seaweeds and one another vegetable in Donguibogam. According to the literature, vegetables are classified by five conditions(五氣) and five tastes(五味) and many are cold with sweet and bitter taste or warm with hot taste. They are efficacious in protecting the five viscera, building up energy, controlling heat, calming febrile diseases, promoting urination and excretion, calming cholera morbus, improving skin condition, calming the stomach, neutralizing poisonous effects and improving eyesight. To help prevent and cure diseases, those with cold physical constitution must take warm vegetables to vitalize their physiology and those with hot physical constitution cold vegetables for balance. To improve their physical health, our ancestors tried to control their bio rhythm with food and medicinal material and promoted health and prevented diseases by taking such food. We therefore expect that we can have a healthy dietary life by taking advantage of the five conditions and five tastes of vegetables and continuing the spirit of Yacksikdongwon(藥食同源).

A Study on the harmful trace elements in food (야채중에 함유된 유해 미량금속에 관한 연구)

  • 문인순;고영수;홍순영
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 1986
  • In order to investigate the harmful trace elements in Korean common vegetable, the contents of Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc and Manganese are studied in this paper. As shown in the Table 1, the following vegetable samples collected from the agriculture-marine products market I Seoul were used; root vegetables-potato, sweet potato, carrot, radish, onion and garlic, fruit vegetables-cucumber, pumpkin, green pepper, egg plant, tomato and melon. The contents of the harmful trace elements were determinded by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These elements were extracted from the vegetables with the DDTC-MIBK extraction method. The results were as follows; 1. The average contents of the harmful trace elements in the vegetables were as follows; Root vegetables-Lead, 0.387 ppm; Cadmium, 0.030 ppm; Copper, 1.267 ppm; Zinc, 7.395 ppm; Manganese, 5.380 ppm. Fruit vegetables-Lead, 0.259 ppm; Cadmium, 0.028 ppm; Copper, 1.155 ppm; Zinc, 3.732 ppm; Manganese, 3.532 ppm. 2. The contents of harmful trace elements in vegetables were significantly low compared with foreign standards. This means that vegetables contamination with those harmful trace elements is not significant at present.

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Effect of Blanching Time on Changes in Vitamin and Mineral Contents in Leafy Vegetables Treated by Pesticides (데치는 시간에 따른 침투성 및 비침투성 농약 처리 엽채류의 비타민 및 무기질의 함량 변화)

  • Chun Hye-Kyung;Ahn Taehyun;Hong Jeong-Jin
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 2005
  • The present study was conducted to investigate effect of blanching time on changes in vitamin and mineral contents in leafy vegetables treated by different pesticides. Vitamin A content of fresh leafy vegetables was high whorled mallow > chard > spinach in order and vitamin C content of those was high spinach > whorled mallow > chard in order. Vitamin A and C contents of leafy vegetables treated by non-systemic pesticide were higher than those of leafy vegetables treated by systemic pesticide. Changes in vitamin A and C contents of leafy vegetables treated by systemic pesticide and non-systemic pesticide showed a similar trend. Vitamin A content significantly increased, while vitamin C content significantly decreased by conventional blanching. Changes in mineral contents in leafy vegetables treated by systemic pesticide and non-systemic pesticide showed a similar trend. Upon conventional blanching, Mg in spinach, Mg and Ca in chard and whorled mallow slightly increased, while K in all leafy vegetables remarkably decreased, and Se in spinach slightly decreased and Se in other vegetables remarkably decreased. On the other hand, Na, P, Fe, Cu and Zn in all leafy vegetables slightly decreased or did not show any change.

A Qualitative Study on Purchasing Organic Vegetables for Housewives with Elementary School Children: Focusing on Construct in the Theory of Planned Behavior (초등학생 자녀를 둔 주부의 유기농채소 구매행동에 관한 질적 연구: 계획적 행동이론의 구성요소를 중심으로)

  • Park, Dong-Yean
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.547-559
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the perception about the construct in the Theory of Planned Behavior using In-depth interview for 24 housewives with elementary school children. Most housewives did not have an intention to buy organic vegetables more in the future than in the present. They showed positive attitudes toward organic vegetables in terms of non-use of pesticides and fertilizers, taste, nutrient content, freshness, mental health, and protection of the environment. They showed negative attitudes toward organic vegetables in aspect of price, credibility of organic vegetables, differences in nutrients, appearance, size, perishability, and accessibility. Children, especially those with diseases, were the most influential persons to their mothers for buying organic vegetables. Housewives' negative attitudes toward organic vegetables were barriers for buying more organic vegetables and they were not willing to overcome these barriers actively. Therefore, government policy and nutrition education to change attitudes is needed to increase consumption of organic vegetables.

Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables Intake for Prevention of Chronic Disease in Korean Adults Aged 30 Years and Over: Using the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III), 2005 (만성질병 예방 측면에서 본 30세 이상 한국 성인의 과일과 채소 섭취 평가: 2005년 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Kwon, Jung-Hyun;Shim, Jae-Eun;Park, Min-Kyung;Paik, Hee-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.146-157
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    • 2009
  • Korean diet is high in plant foods but also high in salted vegetables. World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) recommends consumption of fruits and vegetables excluding salted vegetables for prevention cancer. This study aimed to analyze relations between intakes of salted and non-salted vegetables and socioeconomic factors, providing a data for targeted groups in promotion of fruits and vegetables consumption. Dietary and socioeconomic status data of the 5,400 subjects over 30 years of age from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANESIII) were used. Dietary intake data from KNHANESIII was obtained by one day 24-hour recall method. Mean daily intakes of salted vegetables, non-salted vegetables and fruits of subjects were 151 g, 237 g, and 71 g respectively. Mean daily intake of salted vegetables was significantly higher in men than women for daily amount (173 g vs. 133 g) as well as percentage of total food intake (9.9% vs. 9.6%). Subjects living in rural area consumed more salted vegetables. Salted vegetables as percent of total food were lower in subjects with higher education levels (p < 0.001). Intakes of non-salted vegetables were significantly affected by age and gender. Intake levels of fruit were significantly higher in younger groups, in females, and subjects with higher income and education levels (p < 0.05). Average intake of fruits and non-salted vegetables was 307 g, lower than WCRF recommended level of 400 g for personal guideline. Intake of salted vegetables was positively correlated with sodium intake (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.43) but less so with potassium (r = 0.16) and other micronutrients intake (r < 0.1). On the other hand, non-salted vegetables had higher correlations with potassium (r = 0.45), carotene (r = 0.38), vitamin A (r = 0.37), iron (r = 0.34) and low for sodium (r = 0.13). Fruits intake was highly correlated with vitamin C intake (r = 0.46). Proportion of subjects satisfying WCRF personal guideline of fruits and non-salted vegetables was 25.7%. Results of this study indicate that intake of salted vegetable is considerably high among Koreans, and it is highly correlated with sodium intake and less so with other micronutrients.