• Title, Summary, Keyword: vaccines

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Polymeric Microspheres As Antigen Delivery Systems

  • Oh, Yu-Kyoung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 1996
  • Vaccination has been considered to be the most effective way to control infectious diseases. Currently, many vaccines used in humans are live-attenuated or killed microorganisms. Polio, mumps, and measles vaccines are live-attenuated. Killed vaccines include cholera and pertussis vaccines, These conventional vaccines, however, suffer from some problems. In the case of live-attenuated vaccines, reversion to virulence is observed in a small but significant number of clinical cases each year. In killed vaccines, due to the possible hazard to employees working with live pathogens, the cost of preparation is high. Killed vaccines also need to be given in multiple doses, Furthermore, both live-attenuated and killed vaccines have possible presence of cellular materials leading to side effects. Moreover, there are diseases such as malaria and hepatitis for which conventional attenuated and killed vaccines are not available because the pathogens cannot be grown in sufficient amounts to allow the classical methods to be used.

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Toxicity of lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) in chicks and its immunoadjuvant activity on Newcastle disease virus vaccines (한국산 겨우살이(Viscum album coloratum)로부터 추출된 lectin의 닭에 대한 독성 및 뉴캐슬병 백신의 특이면역 증강 효과)

  • Yeo, Sang-Geon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.215-224
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    • 2006
  • In order to search the availability of the lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) as an adjuvant for the avian vaccines, attempts were made to determine toxicity of the lectin in chicks and its immunostimulating activity on the inactivated vaccines against Newcastle disease virus(NDV). For the determination of toxicity, the lectin was injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks(Charles River) of 1-week-old and observed hematologically and pathologically. For the determination of immunostimulating effects, lectin-adjuvanted, inactivated NDV vaccines were injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks in the same age group. Sera of the chicks were examined for the hemagglutination-inhibition(HI) antibodies induced, their HI titers and reaction to the NDV antigens. The data were further compared with those from aluminum hydroxide [$Al(OH)_3$]-adjuvanted vaccines and vaccines without adjuvant, and the results are as follows. There were no significant changes observed in the values of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine and total proteins in the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, which means the lectin has no effects on blood values and functions of liver and kidney. In histopathologic observation, no lesions were observed in the brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, thymus and bursa of Fabricius of the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight. There were inflammatory lesions, such as congestion, hemorrhage, edema, infiltration of macrophages and coagulation necrosis observed in the thigh muscle of chicks administered with lectin of $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, whereas no changes were observed in 1.1 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ lectin administered chicks. In chicks immunized with lectin($4.4{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight)-adjuvanted B1, LaSota and Ulster 2C vaccines, HI titers in reciprocal values for $log_2$ were 1.8-2.2 at 1 week after vaccination, which was similar with those of 1.5-2.9 by $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to 3.9-5.3 at 4 weeks, whereas those by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines were more high as 7.3-9.3. Meanwhile, the immunostimulating effects of the lectin were recognized while compared to the HI titers with 2.4-3.7 in chicks immunized with vaccines without adjuvants at 4 weeks after vaccination. The chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines were enough to resist challenges by Kyojeongwon strain, a very virulent NDV at 4 weeks after vaccination as well as chicks immunized with $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to high level as 8.7-10.3 as those with 8.2-9.6 by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines at 6 weeks after vaccination, which may be the booster effects by the challenge virus. Antibodies specific to the HN and F antigens of NDV were observed in the sera of both chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines and $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines.

Current Approaches in Development of Immunotherapeutic Vaccines for Breast Cancer

  • Allahverdiyev, Adil;Tari, Gamze;Bagirova, Melahat;Abamor, Emrah Sefik
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.343-353
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    • 2018
  • Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. In developed as well as developing countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer found among women. Currently, treatment of breast cancer consists mainly of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiotherapy. In recent years, because of increased understanding of the therapeutic potential of immunotherapy in cancer prevention, cancer vaccines have gained importance. Here, we review various immunotherapeutic breast cancer vaccines including peptide-based vaccines, whole tumor cell vaccines, gene-based vaccines, and dendritic cell vaccines. We also discuss novel nanotechnology-based approaches to improving breast cancer vaccine efficiency.

Effects of Trehalose, Glucose and Lactose on the Stability of Hantaan Virus Vaccine (트리할로스, 포도당 및 유당이 한탄바이러스 백신의 안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Eun-Joo;Seong, In-Wha
    • The Journal of Korean Society of Virology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.211-219
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    • 1999
  • Most of the currently licensed viral and bacterial vaccines produced in the world are in state of antigen suspension and the immunogenicity of vaccines could be maintained for one or two years only by keeping in the refrigerator, but without refrigeration vaccines would easily lose their immunogenicites. In this study, as a step to develope the method of increasing the stability of vaccines and maintaining the immunogenicity of vaccines for a long time at room temperature or higher temperature, trehalose, glucose and lactose at different concentration were added into the Hantaan virus vaccines and then kept at $37^{\circ}C$ for 12, 24, 48 hours and at room temperature for seven days respectively. Treated vaccines were then inoculated respectively into ICR mice and the titers of antibody against the antigen of Hantaan virus from the mice sera were evaluated. Vaccine without sugar lost immunogenicity completely in 24 hour at $37^{\circ}C$, but the vaccines containing trehalose could maintain some of the immunogenicity even after exposure at $37^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours and the best concentration of trehalose for maintaining the immunogenicities of vaccines was $7.5{\sim}10$ percent. The results suggest that addition of trehalose could increase the stability of Hantaan virus vaccine.

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Recent Advances of Vaccine Adjuvants for Infectious Diseases

  • Lee, Sujin;Nguyen, Minh Trang
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2015
  • Vaccines are the most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing diseases caused by infectious pathogens. Despite the great success of vaccines, development of safe and strong vaccines is still required for emerging new pathogens, re-emerging old pathogens, and in order to improve the inadequate protection conferred by existing vaccines. One of the most important strategies for the development of effective new vaccines is the selection and usage of a suitable adjuvant. Immunologic adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improvement of the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. Thus, formulation of vaccines with appropriate adjuvants is an attractive approach towards eliciting protective and long-lasting immunity in humans. However, only a limited number of adjuvants is licensed for human vaccines due to concerns about safety and toxicity. We summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of adjuvants, the characteristics of adjuvants and the mechanisms of adjuvants in human vaccines. Adjuvants have diverse modes of action and should be selected for use on the basis of the type of immune response that is desired for a particular vaccine. Better understanding of current adjuvants will help exploring new adjuvant formulations and facilitate rational design of vaccines against infectious diseases.

Effects of Addition of Sugars on the Stability of Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine (당첨가가 B형 간염 바이러스 백신의 안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seong, In-Wha
    • The Journal of Korean Society of Virology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 1997
  • Most of the current licenced hepatitis B vaccines are being produced by recombinant DNA technology in large fermentation cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae of yeast cells which carry the gene coded for hepatitis B virus surface antigen. These vaccines are proved very effective clinically and the immunogenicity of vaccines could be maintained for a long time under refrigeration. To develope the stabilizer that could increase the stability of hepatitis B virus vaccine which could be stored for a long period at room temperature or higher conditions, glucose, lactose and sucrose solutions in phosphate buffered saline were added into hepatitis B vaccine respectively to make 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% final concentration in vaccines. These sugar-vaccine mixtures were stored at room temperature for one month, two months and three months respectively and then inoculated into ICR mice intramuscularly. On the fourteenth day after inoculation, mice were bled and sera were tested for the evaluation of efficacies of vaccines. The results showed that 5% glucose, 7.5% lactose and sucrose increased the stability of vaccines in some degree and this method could be applied for the production of other viral vaccines and bacterial vaccines.

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Efficacy and effectiveness of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

  • Lee, Hyunju;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 2014
  • The 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been shown to be highly efficacious against invasive pneumococcal diseases and effective against pneumonia and in reducing otitis media. The introduction of PCV7 has resulted in major changes in the epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases. However, pneumococcal vaccines induce serotype-specific immunity, and a relative increase in non-vaccine serotypes has been reported following the widespread use of PCV7, leading to a need for extended serotype coverage for protection. PCV10 and PCV13 have been licensed on the basis of noninferiority of immunogenicity compared to a licensed conjugate vaccine. In this article, we aimed to review important data regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of the extended-coverage PCVs published or reported thus far and to discuss future implications for pneumococcal vaccines in Korea. After the introduction of PCV10 and PCV13, within a short period of time, evidence of protection conferred by these vaccines against invasive and mucosal infections caused by most of the serotypes included in the vaccines is accumulating. The choice of vaccine should be based on the changes in the dynamics of pneumococcal serotype distribution and diseases in the region where the vaccines are to be used. Continuous surveillance is essential for the appropriate use of pneumococcal vaccines and evaluation of the impact of PCVs on pneumococcal diseases.

Recent Progress in Development of Vaccines against Avian Coccidiosis (조류 콕시듐증의 백신개발에 대한 최근의 진보)

  • Lillehoj, Hyun S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.149-170
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    • 1999
  • Protozoa of the genus Eimeria are the etiologic agents of avian coccidiosis, the most economically important Parasitic disease for the poultry industry. Coccidia multiply in intestinal epithelial cells of a wide range of hosts, including livestock in addition to poultry. Chemotherapy is extensively used to control coccidiosis. However, development of drug resistance by Eimeria parasites, the intensive cost and labor involved in the identification of new anticoccidial compounds and public awareness of drug residues in foods warrant alternative methods to prevent coccidiocic in the fast growing poultry industry. For these reasons, there is a great interest in developing vaccines against avian coccidiosis. Live Eimeria vaccines confer protective immunity, however a significant disadvantage of using these types of vaccines is their pathogenicity. Live parasites with attenuated pathogenicity also usually produce immunity but may revert back to a pathogenic form and may be contaminated with other pathogenic organisms. Killed Eimeria vaccines are safer but, unlike live attenuated vaccines, are not able to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Recombinant vaccines are biochemically purified proteins produced by genetic engineering that consist of particular epitopes or metabolites of Eimeria. Unlike live attenuated organisms, recombinant vaccines do not possess as much risk and generally are able to induce both humoral and cell mediated immunity. DNA vaccines consist of genes encoding immunogenic proteins of pathogens that are directly administered into the host in a manner that the gene is expressed and the resulting protein generates a protective immune response. Although all of these different types of vaccines have been applied to coccidiosis, this disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the poultry industry. Future development of an effective vaccine against coccidiosis will depend on further investigation of protective immunity to Eimeria infection and identification of important immundgenic parasite molecules.

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Safety and efficacy of modified-live infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines (닭 전염성 후두기관염 생독백신의 안전성과 효능)

  • Han, Myung-Guk;Lee, O-Soo;Kim, Jea-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.241-251
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    • 2002
  • Modified-live (ML) infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccines have been widely used as a preventive measure in Korea since the first outbreak of ITL. Recently, it has been observed that chickens vaccinated with the commercially available ML ILT vaccine have sometimes exhibited adverse clinical signs. In this study, we evaluated the quality of the vaccines by comparing titer of each vaccine batch and testing the stability of ILT virus (ILTV) in vaccine diluents and compared the safety and efficacy of vaccines in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. The ratio of maximum titer to minimum titer of vaccine produced by most manufacturers was 2 to 15. However, 2 out of 11 manufacturers produced vaccines of which the ratio was 74 to 478. Most vaccines examined were maintained vaccine titers suitable for national regulations within expiry date. However, some vaccines did not keep the titer required for the national regulations. In the test for stability of ILTV in various diluents, ILTV was highly stable in lactose-phosphate-glutamine-gelatin solution, sucrose-phophate-glutamine-albumin solution and some vaccine diluents produced by manufacturers. The safety of ML ILT vaccines was assessed in 10-day-old SPF chicks. Mortality in SPF chicks inoculated intratracheally with one dose of vaccine varied depending on vaccines and some vaccines produced 50-85% mortality. Seven-week-old SPF chickens were vaccinated intraocularly with ML ILT vaccines and then challenged intratracheally with ILT challenge virus 14 days after vaccination. The protection rate was assessed by clinical signs and reisolation of the ILT challenge virus from tracheas taken at day 4 after challenge. There were slight respiratory reactions in some vaccinated chickens after vaccination but these reactions disappeared within 5 days after vaccination. No further clinical signs and death were observed. Protection rate determined by clinical signs and mortality was 100% in all vaccinated groups. However, the challenge virus was isolated from all tracheas of chickens vaccinated with vaccine B or control groups. The challenge virus was also isolated in the trachea of one in five chickens vaccinated with either vaccine F or K, but not in tracheas of chickens vaccinated with other vaccines. In the present study, the stability of vaccine diluents, pathogenicity and protection rate based on reisolation test of the challenge virus were different depending on vaccines produced by eleven manufacturers.

Production of Recombinant Anti-Cancer Vaccines in Plants

  • Lee, Jeong Hwan;Ko, Kisung
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.345-353
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    • 2017
  • Plant expression systems have been developed to produce anti-cancer vaccines. Plants have several advantages as bioreactors for the production of subunit vaccines: they are considered safe, and may be used to produce recombinant proteins at low production cost. However, several technical issues hinder large-scale production of anti-cancer vaccines in plants. The present review covers design strategies to enhance the immunogenicity and therapeutic potency of anti-cancer vaccines, methods to increase vaccine-expressing plant biomass, and challenges facing the production of anti-cancer vaccines in plants. Specifically, the issues such as low expression levels and plant-specific glycosylation are described, along with their potential solutions.