• Title, Summary, Keyword: unreliability

Search Result 62, Processing Time 0.03 seconds

Status of Tuberculosis Control in Rural Area (일부 농촌지역 결핵환자들의 관리 양상)

  • Park, Chan-Byoung;Chun, Byung-Yeol;Yeh, Min-Hae
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.141-151
    • /
    • 1993
  • This study was done about 371 tuberculosis(TB) patients composed 195 newly registered at Kyungju Gun Health Center from May 1989 to April 1990 (Group A) and 176 being treated at hospitals or private clinics from January 1988 to November 1989(Group B). When Group A patients visited and newly registered at Health Center, data was obtained by interviewing with a prepared questionnaire paper. And well trained inquirer visited Group B patients and obtained data by the same method from February 1990 to April 1990. The results are as follows ; Group A was generally lower than Group B in socioeconomic status and in family history of TB, the rate of Group A was 24.1% and higher than 11.9% in Group B(p<0.05). Knowledge about TB was improved more than past, but those who answered that TB is 'a communicable disease' were 59.5% in Group A and 51.7% in Group B(p<0.05). Those answered that TB is 'a inherited disease' were 9.2% and 11.4% each. And 1.7% of Group B answered that TB is 'a incurable disease'. Knowledge about TB treatment also was improved more than past, but in the rate of those who answered that TB is a curable disease provided by well treatment Group B(77.8%) was worse than Group A(91.3%). The rate of those who answered that TB were been able to cure by regularly anti-TB medication were 98.0% in Group A and 89.8% in Group B. Its difference was statistically significant. The rate that patients took the first diagnosis and wanted to receive treatments at the same organ were 34.9% of Group A at Health Center and 72.2% of Group B at hospitals or private clinics. And its difference was statistically significant. In the reasons that Group B knew Health Center treated pulmonary TB but they was treated at hospitals or private clinics, unreliability to Health Center was 48.1%. The reasons that Group A was treated at Health Center were 'because of trust' 63.1%, 'because of low cost' 50.3%, 'because of low cost except trust' 9.3%, 'no specific reasons' 27.7%. In the courses of knowing that TB was controlled at Health Center, 'by neighborhood, health worker and doctors' were 84.9% in Group A and 69.0% in Group B. But 'by TV or radio' were 8.2% in Group A and 14.7% in Group B, 'by school education' 2.5% in Group A and 6.2% in Group B. Conclusively, Group A patients were lower than Group B in socioeconomic status, but better than in knowledge about TB. Its reasons was suggested that Health Center had controlled TB patients better than hospitals and private clinics. But considering, that difference in the rate of the same organ for the first diagnosis and treatment, that the only 63.0% of Group A have treated due to 'reliability to Health Center', and that 48.1% of Group B knew that Health Center treated pulmonary TB but didn't visit it due to 'unreliability to Health Center', that public relations(PR) about use Health Center for pulmonary TB and health education for TB was thought to have to strengthened.

  • PDF

Digitalization of the Nuclear Steam Generator Level Control System (증기발생기 수위조절 시스템의 디지탈화)

  • Lee, Yoon-Joon;Lee, Un-Chul
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
    • /
    • v.25 no.1
    • /
    • pp.125-135
    • /
    • 1993
  • The safe and efficient operation of nuclear plants is recognized to be accomplished through the application of plant automation using digital technology, which is one of main targets of the next generation nuclear plants. For plant level automation, it is first required that each major subsystem be digitalized, and the steam generator water level control system is discussed in this study. The transfer functions between inputs and the level are derived by employing the thermal hydraulic model of the steam generator and are applied to the analysis of the current three-element control system. Since the control scheme in this study includes the steam generator itself as a process plant, the system order is high and the numerical instability arises in digitalizing. Together with this, the unreliability of the feedwater feedback signal at low power level leads to the proposal of a two-element control system with a proper digital controller. The digital PI controller developed for this system has the initial power adaptive gain and integration time constant. And it makes the overall system response satisfy the stability and other necessary control specifications simultaneously. Since the two-element control system using this controller depends on the initial power only, it is simple to define and it shows a similar level response behavior to that of its corresponding analog system.

  • PDF

The Effects of Repurchase Intention by Social Commerce Traits and Consumer's Traits in China (중국에서의 소셜 커머스 특성과 소비자 특성이 재구매의도에 미치는 영향)

  • Wu, Runze;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of Distribution Science
    • /
    • v.14 no.5
    • /
    • pp.97-106
    • /
    • 2016
  • Purpose - Social commerce is a certain way of how people buy some products together with others through the internet sites with mutual interactions among customers with the benefits of SNS when buying some products. At present, China market has some problems due to its rapid growing. However, empirical research or academic approach to social commerce has not been made enough. So, it is important for Chinese social market to develop and enlarge the customers with stability under the reliability and satisfaction. Also it is important for them to have repurchase intention. Nowadays, it is necessary to find the factors on customer satisfaction and trust, whereas consumers' dissatisfaction and unreliability are increasing on social commerce recently. In addition, researches on social commerce have been actively pursued by a variety of domestic and foreign scholars. However, researches on social commerce and Chinese market are short of, and they have some limitations because of the rapid growth of the market even though it is the early stage. The current situation requires researches on consumers' repurchase intention for continuing growth in the future according to the growth of Chinese social commerce. Research design, data, and methodology - The literature and the empirical studies are combined in order to achieve the purpose of the study. Deriving social commerce features and consumer properties as factors affecting the repurchase intention through the literature, and these factors have modeled a series of assumptions about the impact on satisfaction and trust, and have established hypotheses to verify them. The survey which is conducted to test the hypothesis and questionnaires are derived based on the variables discussed in the previous study. Appropriate measures were developed and tested on 227 respondents in China with a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The path relationships of the research model were analyzed by SPSS 23.0 and Amos 23.0. Results - Research results about social commerce characteristics and factors affecting the repurchase intention are presented to Chinese market companies that adopt business models and consumer characteristics. In addition, this study focuses on the characteristics of social commerce, from two-dimensional characteristics of the consumer satisfaction, trust and the impact on the repurchase. Therefore, social commerce features and consumer properties based on the results of this study may lead the strategic implications that may increase the repurchase intention. Conclusions - The classification reviewing the previous findings related to social commerce and social commerce features affects social commerce repurchase (price discount, interactivity) and consumer characteristics (impulsivity, innovation, collectivism). It affects repurchase on factors and analyzes empirically. The empirical results identify major characteristics (social commerce characteristics, attributes) that affect the repurchase intention, and give the practical implications as well as the business strategies that are able to enhance social commerce repurchase consumers. Social commerce is a certain way of how people buy some products together with others through the internet sites with mutual interactions among customers with the benefits of SNS when buying some products.

A review of analytical method for volatile fatty acids as designated offensive odorants in Korea (악취성 유기지방산 성분의 분석기술)

  • Ahn, Ji-Won;Kim, Yong-Hyun;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Song, Hee-Nam
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.91-101
    • /
    • 2012
  • A list of volatile fatty acids (VFA) including propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, etc. is well known for offensive odorants. The analysis of odorant VFA is a highly delicate task due to high reactivity and unstable recovery rate. At present, analytical methods of VFA are recommended to include alkali impregnation filter method and alkali absorption method by the malodor prevention law of the Korea Ministry of Environment (KMOE). In this review, a survey has been made to explore various approaches available for the analysis of VFA to include both official methods of the KMOE and others. In light of the unreliability of those established analytical methods, it is highly desirable to develop some substituting methods for VFA. Among such options, one may consider such option as sorbent tube (ST) sampling and cryogenic trapping-thermal desorption technique. Moreover, procedures used for standard preparation, sampling steps, and instrumental detection stage are also evaluated. Application of container sampling (like Tedlar bag) is however not recommendable due to significant (sorptive) loss in sampling and in storage stage. In the detection stage, the use of GC/MS is recommendable to replace GC/FID due to the presence of diverse interfering substances. Thus, it is essential to properly establish the basic quality assurance (QA) for VFA analysis in air.

Study on Aged Men's Utilization Status and Satisfaction of Removable Dentures (일부 노인들의 가철성 틀니 사용 실태 및 만족도 조사)

  • Park, Jong-Hee;Park, Ji-Won
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.291-302
    • /
    • 2012
  • Purpose: It is to survey old men's utilization status of dental clinic and temporary-binding dentures and then to provide basic data to make a program for manufacturing old men's dentures and their teeth health education. Methods: Random selection was made on old men living in Daejeon and Chungnam, and a survey was conducted from April 15 to May 20, 2011. 500 questionnaires were distributed and 420 questionnaires were collected. Using spss 18.0 program, final analysis was made on 363 questionnaires except for 57 questionnaires which had missing value or showed some doubts about the unreliability. Results: 1. With respect to number of natural teeth as per the age, the upper/lower jaws had meaningful differences (P<.001), which means that the older the person is, the smaller number of natural teeth is. In the meantime, there was no meaningful difference according to sex. 2. With respect to kind of prosthetics installed in a mouth as per the age, there was meaningful difference in the upper jaws (P<.05) but there was no meaningful difference in the lower jaws. It was found out that the older the persons are, the more they use removable dentures while the younger the persons are, the more they use fixed partial dentures. 3. With respect to mouth health condition recognized by oneself, it showed bad (44.4%) and good (10.3%),which means recognition as bad is greater, and the age when prosthetics were first used is dispersed variously from below 40 to over 70. 4. Dental care institutions which they mainly used are hospital and clinics (91.5%), and 66.4% of them visited dental clinics lately. Preferential treatment if they go to dentists is as follows in the order of prosthetics (33.9%), gum treatment (24.2%) and pain treatment (14.9%). 5. 68.4% of them revisited dentists after installation of dentures and the reason for revisit is as follows in the order of poorly fitted dentures (35.1%), painful gum 25.9%, regular check-up 25.4% and difficult chewing 9.6%. Conclusion: As our country enters into an aging society, mouth health problem of old men has come to a serious issue, and therefore, a survey was conducted on some old men with respect to their utilization status of dental clinic and removable dentures in order to provide basic data for improvement of quality of their life, maintenance and enhancement of their mouth health. The study result shows that the older they are, the higher the loss rate of teeth as well as needs for prosthetics are, and thus it is thought the study will help to develop mouth health education program which may improve quality of old men's life by recovery of mouth functions declined due to loss of teeth and by regular check-up, education for mouth health control and following-up control of dentures.

Comparisons of the Performance with Bayes Estimator and MLE for Control Charts Based on Geometric Distribution (기하분포에 기초한 관리도에서 베이즈추정량과 최대우도추정량 사용의 성능 비교)

  • Hong, Hwiju;Lee, Jaeheon
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
    • /
    • v.28 no.5
    • /
    • pp.907-920
    • /
    • 2015
  • Charts based on geometric distribution are effective to monitor the proportion of nonconforming items in high-quality processes where the in-control proportion nonconforming is low. The implementation of this chart is often based on the assumption that in-control proportion nonconforming is known or accurately estimated. However, accurate parameter estimation is very difficult and may require a larger sample size than that available in practice for high-quality process where the proportion of nonconforming items is very small. An inaccurate estimate of the parameter can result in estimated control limits that cause unreliability in the monitoring process. The maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is often used to estimate in-control proportion nonconforming. In this paper, we recommend a Bayes estimator for the in-control proportion nonconforming to incorporate practitioner knowledge and avoid estimation issues when no nonconforming items are observed in the Phase I sample. The effects of parameter estimation on the geometric chart and the geometric CUSUM chart are considered when the MLE and the Bayes estimator are used. The results show that chart performance with estimated control limits based on the Bayes estimator is generally better than that based on the MLE.

Electrical Fire Disaster Prevention Device of Double Protection using a High Precision Current Sensor in Low Voltage Distribution System (고정밀 전류센서를 이용한 저압배전계통 이중 보호용 전기화재 방재장치)

  • Kwak, Dong-Kurl;Jung, Do-Young
    • Fire Science and Engineering
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.40-47
    • /
    • 2009
  • Nowadays the diversity and large-capacity of electric appliances are strong effect on electrical fires augment in an alarming way. But, as the inactive response characteristics of the existing RCD (Residual Current protective Device) used on low voltage power distribution system, so control of overload and electric short circuit faults, major causes of electrical fires, are not enough. Therefore, this paper is confirmed the unreliability of the existing RCD by electrical fault simulator and is proposed a Electrical Fire Disaster Prevention Device (EFDPD) by using a high precision current sensor (namely, reed switch) for the prevention of electrical disasters in low voltage power distribution system caused by overload or electric short circuit faults. The sensitive reed switch in the proposed EFDPD exactly detects the increased magnetic flux with the overload or the short current caused by a number of electrical faults, and the following, the EFDPD has double protection function which operates self circuit breaker or rapidly cuts off the existing RCD. The proposed EFDPD is confirmed the excellent characteristics in response velocity and accuracy in comparison with the conventional circuit breaker through various operation performance analysis. The proposed EFDPD can also prevent electrical disaster, like as electrical fires, which resulted from the malfunction and inactive response characteristics of the existing RCD.

Knowledge and Attitudes of Bangkok Metropolitan Women towards HPV and Self-Sampled HPV Testing

  • Kittisiam, Thannaporn;Tangjitgamol, Siriwan;Chaowawanit, Woraphot;Khunnarong, Jakkapan;Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok;Thavaramara, Thaowalai;Pataradool, Kamol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.5
    • /
    • pp.2445-2451
    • /
    • 2016
  • Background: To evaluate knowledge of Bangkok women regarding HPV and self-sampled HPV testing, and their attitudes towards testing. Materials and Methods: Thai women who had lived in Bangkok for more than 5 years, aged 25-to-65 years old, were invited to join the study. Participating women were asked to a complete self-questionnaire (Thai language), with literate assistance as needed. The questionnaire was divided into 3 parts: (I) demographic data, (II) knowledge and (III) attitudes towards self-sampled HPV testing. Before proceeding to Part III of the questionnaire, a 15-minute educational video of self-sampled HPV testing was presented to all participants. Results: Among 2,810 women who answered the questionnaires, 33.7% reported that they did not know about HPV. The characteristic features of these women were older age (> 50 years), lower income (< 600 USD/month), unemployed status, and non-attendees at cervical cancer screening. Only small numbers of women (4.6%) responded that they had heard about self-sampled HPV testing. After having information, 59.6% would not use the self-sampled HPV testing as a method of cervical cancer screening (non-acceptance). Factors significantly associated with the non-acceptance were older age, lower income, having no knowledge about HPV or self-collected HPV testing, a perception that the testing was unreliable and a concern that they might not be able to perform it correctly. Conclusions: Nearly half and almost all Bangkok women did not know about HPV and self-sampled HPV testing, respectively. Approximately 60% of Bangkok women refused to do the self-sampled HPV testing. Significant negative attitudes were concerns that the testing would be unreliable and a lack of confidence to perform the procedure correctly. Education about HPV and self-sampled HPV testing, ease of the procedure, or the testing models may increase rate of acceptability or positive attitudes.

Designing fuzzy systems for optimal parameters of TMDs to reduce seismic response of tall buildings

  • Ramezani, Meysam;Bathaei, Akbar;Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi
    • Smart Structures and Systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.61-74
    • /
    • 2017
  • One of the most reliable and simplest tools for structural vibration control in civil engineering is Tuned Mass Damper, TMD. Provided that the frequency and damping parameters of these dampers are tuned appropriately, they can reduce the vibrations of the structure through their generated inertia forces, as they vibrate continuously. To achieve the optimal parameters of TMD, many different methods have been provided so far. In old approaches, some formulas have been offered based on simplifying models and their applied loadings while novel procedures need to model structures completely in order to obtain TMD parameters. In this paper, with regard to the nonlinear decision-making of fuzzy systems and their enough ability to cope with different unreliability, a method is proposed. Furthermore, by taking advantage of both old and new methods a fuzzy system is designed to be operational and reduce uncertainties related to models and applied loads. To design fuzzy system, it is required to gain data on structures and optimum parameters of TMDs corresponding to these structures. This information is obtained through modeling MDOF systems with various numbers of stories subjected to far and near field earthquakes. The design of the fuzzy systems is performed by three methods: look-up table, the data space grid-partitioning, and clustering. After that, rule weights of Mamdani fuzzy system using the look-up table are optimized through genetic algorithm and rule weights of Sugeno fuzzy system designed based on grid-partitioning methods and clustering data are optimized through ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System). By comparing these methods, it is observed that the fuzzy system technique based on data clustering has an efficient function to predict the optimal parameters of TMDs. In this method, average of errors in estimating frequency and damping ratio is close to zero. Also, standard deviation of frequency errors and damping ratio errors decrease by 78% and 4.1% respectively in comparison with the look-up table method. While, this reductions compared to the grid partitioning method are 2.2% and 1.8% respectively. In this research, TMD parameters are estimated for a 15-degree of freedom structure based on designed fuzzy system and are compared to parameters obtained from the genetic algorithm and empirical relations. The progress up to 1.9% and 2% under far-field earthquakes and 0.4% and 2.2% under near-field earthquakes is obtained in decreasing respectively roof maximum displacement and its RMS ratio through fuzzy system method compared to those obtained by empirical relations.

Preoperative Staging in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer without Lymphadenopathy on Computed Tomogram (흉부 전산화 단층촬영상 임파절종대가 없는 비소세포암 환자에 있어서 술전 병기판정)

  • Cha, Seung-Ick;Kim, Chang-Ho;Park, Jae-Yong;Jung, Tae-Hoon;Chang, Bong-Hyun;Kang, Duk-Sik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.41 no.6
    • /
    • pp.616-623
    • /
    • 1994
  • Objectives: Careful evaluation about mediastinal involvement is important in the management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Invasive staging procedure such as mediastinoscopy is advocated because of the unreliability of noninvasive staging methods such as CT, MRI. We compared differences between pre- and postoperative staging in non-small cell lung cancer without lymphadenopathy on CT scan and investigated the methods for more accurate preoperative staging. Methods & Results: 1) Records of a total of 41 patients with preoperative $T_{1-3}N_0M_0$ non-small cell lung cancer were reviewed and the histologic types of tumors were squamous cell carcinoma in 32 cases, adenocarcinoma in 6 cases and large cell carcinoma in 3 cases. Twenty-four cases were central lesions and seventeen cases were peripheral lesions. 2) Among the 32 cases with preoperative $T_2$, 2 cases were identified postoperatively as $T_3$ with invasion of chest wall and among 6 cases with preoperative $T_3$, 1 case was identified postoperatively as $T_4$ with invasion of aorta and pulmonary arteries. 3) After the operation of 35 cases with $T_{1-2}$, 5 cases were $N_1$ and 3 cases were $N_2$ postoperatively. After the operation of 6 cases with $T_3$, 2 cases were $N_1$ and 3 cases were $N_2$ postoperatively. Preoperative $T_3$ showed more intrathoracic lymph node metastases and higher $N_2/N_1$ involvement ratio than preoperative $T_{1-2}$. 4) Complete surgical resections were done in 34 out of 41 cases. Incomplete resection were done in all postoperative $N_2$ tumors. Conclusion: Invasive staging procedures such as mediastinoscopy should be considered in the case of preoperative $T_3$ non-small cell lung cancer even though mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not recognized on the CT scan of the chest.

  • PDF