Purpose - Leadership style is an important factor in determining the attitude and behavior of employees and their satisfaction with an organization. Contributing the efficiency of an organization, Especially, servant leadership focusing on meeting employees' hopes and desires positively affect success of the organization and performance of employees. In the airline service industry it is necessary to conduct studies for an internal marketing on servant leadership that emphasizes the trust in the dignity of humans and spirit of service to subordinates as a factor affecting the job satisfaction. Research design, data, and methodology -Therefore, in this research, it is empirically analyzed that employees' perception of a supervisor's support plays mediating role in the relationship between employees' perception of servant leadership and perception of an organization's support using multiple and hierarchal regression analysis targeting 243 employees working in D Airline. Result - As a result, Employees' employees' perceived supervisor's support mediates the relationship between employees' perceived servant leadership of a supervisor and employees' perceived organizational support. Conclusions - This study suggests that the servant leadership of a supervisor perceived by employees constitutes an important preceding variable in enhancing the employees' perception on organizational support.
The purpose of this study was to reduce safety accidents among food employees in contracted foodservice management companies, and to help provide high-quality foodservice and assistance. For this, a survey on the different opinions of workplace safety and education by employment type and employee perceptions of environment and safety at foodservice operations was carried out. The analysis showed that among the workers many women were irregular employees. For average age, between 40 and 49 was the most frequent, and for work duration, under one year was highest. Both regular employees and irregular employees deemed "enough staff" as the most major factor for good foodservice. The regular employees and irregular employees thought "high indoor temperatures and poor ventilation in the kitchen area" and "bad work cooperation between employees" as the main problems of foodservice operations, respectively. For satisfaction with the efficiency of foodservice production system, irregular employees had higher satisfaction than regular employees. Both regular employees and irregular employees thought "the number of foodservice employees" as the foremost improvement for safety-accident prevention and work-stress improvements. Regular employees, more than irregular employees, thought improvements in foodservice production systems would have a large affect on safety-accident prevention and work-stress improvements of food workers. Both regular employees and irregular employees thought "foodservice employees' safety consciousness" was an important part of safety-accident prevention. Likewise, they responded that "lectures by the person in charge of safety education" was a good methods of safety education, and "once a month" was the best period for safety education. For the difference in perceptions of environment and safety in foodservice systems, regular employees had a higher perception of safety than irregular employees.
Purpose - The present study examines the effect of service employees' experienced customer incivility through their emotional exhaustion. We identified service employees' emotion regulation ability as a boundary condition (i.e., moderating variable) that decreased the positive relationship between service employees' experienced customer incivility and their emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, we also investigated the negative relationship between service employees' experienced customer incivility and their service performance via emotional exhaustion. Research design, data, and methodology - Drawing on AET (affective event theory) and COR (conservation of resources) theory, we developed three research hypotheses (i.e., mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation). Online panel survey data from 552 frontline employees at several service organizations (e.g., department stores, retail stores, hotels, restaurants, airlines, banking, insurance company, and etc) in South Korea were examined. To assess two types of validity (i.e., convergent and discriminant validity) and reliability of measurement model, we employed the CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) using M-plus 8.2 software. Internal consistency also was tested by Cronbach' α. In addition, we employed the SPSS PROCESS MACRO 2.16, which was recommended by Hayes (2013, 2015), to estimate mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation effects. Results - As predicted, the negative relationship between service employees' experienced customer incivility and their service performance was mediated by emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, service employees' emotion regulation ability also played a significant moderating role of the relationship between service employees' experienced customer incivility and emotional exhaustion, such that this relationship was less pronounced when service employees had a high level of their emotion regulation ability than when thir emotion regulation ability was low. Service employees' emotion regulation ability further moderated this mediation effect of service employees' experienced customer incivility on service performance through emotional exhaustion. These findings have theoretical implications for employees' experienced customer incivility and emotion regulation ability research and provide managerial implications for practitioners. Conclusions - This study empirically elaborated the previous model of service employees' experienced customer incivility and personal resource (e.g., emotion regulation ability) literature by presenting the findings that service employees' experienced customer incivility influences their service performance via emotional exhaustion and that emotion regulation ability effectively reduces this negative effect.
This study was conducted to evaluate food sanitary practices of employees of university and industry foodservices in Seoul and Pusan areas. The subjects consist of 126 and 157 employees in university and industry foodservices, respectively. The questionnaire was used in this study as a survey method. The results are as follows: The majority of employees (88.0％) have once at least received food sanitation education and 68.8％ of them have been monthly educated; The employees of industry foodservices were more frequently educated in sanitation than those of universities. Also, the former had a significantly higher mean rating score on the employees＇food sanitary practice than that of the latter; The mean ratings of the knowledge and practice for the total employees＇food sanitary were 9.28/15.00 and 131.97/150.00, respectively; The higher mean rating group (over 9.0) for the food sanitary knowledge showed a significantly higher rate in the food sanitary practice than that of the lower group (below 9.0); The employees, who were educated in the food sanitation. received significantly higher rates of the food sanitary knowledge than those of the uneducated employees; The frequency of the sanitation education for the employees was positively correlated (P＜0.01) with the rating of the food sanitary practice.
This study evaluated the effects of sanitary education administered to elementary and middle school foodservice employees with work experience. The subjects of this study were 360 school foodservice employees in Gyeonggi-do during August, 2010. Sanitary education and awareness were assessed using three major dimensions: food sanitation (six items), personal hygiene (five items), and environmental sanitation (three items). Each dimension was categorized according to several items in the form of a self-evaluated Likert 5 point scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS WIN Version 12.0 package. The results showed that employees who worked for 5~10 years in the foodservice industry scored better in three dimensions before sanitary education compared to other groups. After sanitary education, all employees scored better in food sanitation than before, and employees who worked less than 5 years scored better at personal hygiene dimension than other groups. For environmental sanitation, employees who worked for 5~10 years scored better than other groups. Employees who worked for more than 10 years scored worse before and after sanitary education but scored highest for sanitary awareness. Employees between the ages of 31 and 40 showed significantly different scores before and after sanitary education.
To compare the differences in the recognition on hospital utilization and satisfaction, 368 hospital employees and 485 patients were selected in four hospitals in Seoul and Kyung-gi do. The survey was done using a constructed form of checklist from Apr. 30 to May 10, 1999. And the results are as follows: l. Gaining knowledge of hospitals available among hospital employees differed from that of patients. When finding out about sources of information concerning hospitals, direct visit to the hospital was recognized to be the main factor for the hospital employees in contrast to the patients' recognition which were mass media, personal involvement of job related workplace and recommendations from other hospitals. There was no difference between university and general hospitals. 2. The factors that concern which hospital to choose there was a difference between hospital employees and patients. Hospital employees recommended their own hospital solely based on the reason that it was their work place. On the other hand, the patients made a choice based on the type of medical staff, transportation available and whether it was a university hospital or not. There was no difference between university and general hospitals. 3. The recognition of employees concerning hospital image of a hospital between hospital employees and patients was different. In university hospitals, the employees recognized the name value of university hospital and cooperation as most important, whereas the patients thought convenience, kindness were the main factors. Patients considered general hospitals to be more convenient. There was some difference between university and general hospitals. For university hospitals employees' recognition was higher and for the general hospital patients' recognition is higher on hospital image. 4. The recognition of employees was different from that of patients' on hospital satisfaction. The patients' satisfaction was higher than that of employees'. There was no difference between university and general hospitals. Based on the above findings, the employees' recognition on hospital utilization and satisfaction was different from that of the patients, but there was no difference between university and general hospitals. In both groups choice of hospital was associated with satisfaction. Results showing difference between employees' and patients' recognition can be applied to implement customer-oriented attitude and be used as a baseline data for internal-external marketing planning of hospital management. The study may be limited in that the results cannot be generalized due to its small sample size and not being able to reflect demographic variables and life style. Further studies to investigate the difference of hospital utilization and hospital satisfaction will be necessary to define demographic characteristics and recognition of employees which influences patients' hospital satisfaction.
This study examines the effect of abusive supervision on employees' engagement and commitment in the deluxe hotel. Based on total 272 hotel employees obtained from the empirical research, this study verified total 3 hypotheses. The hypothesized relationships in the model were tested simultaneously by using structural equation modelling. Abusive supervision perceived by employees had negative effect on engagement and employees' engagement had positive effect on organizational commitment. Also, abusive supervision perceived by employees did not have a significant effect on organizational commitment, full mediation effect through engagement existed. The study results are expected to be used as data for searching for effective responding ways at an organizational level and find practical ways to further increase employees' positive organizational behavior.
The purpose of this study was to provide a more comprehensive model which integrates a social exchange construct (i.e., organizational commitment) as a mediator to test the relationship between organizational justice and employees' bebaviors such as intent to leaving and custormer-oriented behavior. Based on the data collected from ten Chinese full-service restaurants, this study analyzed the proposed hypotheses through model comparison by using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique with AMOS 7.0. The results indicated that (1)distributive justice had negative influence on employees' turnover intention and positive influence on employees' customer oriented behavior and these influences were fully mediated by employees' affective commitment to their organizations; (2)procedural justice had negative influence on employees' turnover intention and positive influence on customer oriented behavior and these influences were only partially mediated by employees' affective commitment to their organizations. Managerial implications and future research directions were proposed at the last part of this study.
This study purports to investigate the readiness of the university hospital employees in the knowledge-based management. Data were collected from 550 employees including administrative, nursing, and technical staff of 9 university hospitals located in Seoul and Kyunggi Province through the self-administered questionnaires. The response rate was 79% and 425 questionnaires were used as final data and analyzed using 2 test, t-test, and ANOVA. The main findings of the study are as follows. 1) It seems that most employees of the study hospitals have basic knowledge on the concept of knowledge-based management. This finding implies that the implementation of the knowledge-based management in Korean university hospitals will not likely to face strong resistance from their employees. 2) The results show that Korean hospital employees are still not so accustomed to using e-mail as the main communication tool. This finding suggests that it is necessary to use various communication tools which include electronic data interchange, teleconference, and cyber chatting for facilitating the knowledge-based management in Korean university hospitals. 3) It is desirable to appoint a chief knowledge officer(CKO) for operating knowledge-based management system effectively. 4) A reward system for employees who show a distinguished performance in the creation and sharing of new knowledge should be established. Knowledge mileage system, selection of the best knowledge employee and team will be a good example of the effective reward system. 5) The participation and support from the chief executive officers (CEO) of the hospitals is an important factor for successful knowledge-based management. Furthermore, to make physicians actively participate in the knowledge-based management is another important factor for obtaining valuable outputs from the system. 6) It is found that the knowledge and skills of the hospitals employees on the information technology (IT) are not sufficient for making knowledge-based management more popular. This implies that it is very important to select IT-oriented employees and educate them continuously on the knowledge-based management.
The study was conducted to analyze employees' and employers' awareness of occupational health programs for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of the program employed in small-scale enterprises (SSE). The 400 SSE that have under 50 employees and have been supported by the Government were selected for mail survey, and 120 employers and 318 employees of 183 factories returned the questionnaires. The results are as follows; 1) 33.8% of employees were not aware of the fact that their factories have been supported by Government, and 69.1% of employees did not know who was the monitor of that program. Only 147% of employees and 35.5% of employers agreed that the supported program reflected their opinions well. 2) 45.1% of employees participated in health education classes more than once. But only 15.6% of them considered the classes as very helpful. 21.1% of employers were much aware of health education schedule, and 44.2% reported that it was helpful for the prevention of occupational diseases. 3) 68.8% of employers were aware of the possibility of occupational diseases that could occur in their factories. And 36.5% of employers reported that some criteria were used for job reallocation to their employees. But only 9.7% of employees were assigned new job based on the result of health status examination. 4) 65.6% of employees were aware of the periodic evaluation for work environment, and 43.3% knew the evaluation results. Among participated SSE, 5.9% have a planning department for improving work environment, and 46.2% actually carried out the program for improving work environment. The findings showed that the employers and employees of SSE had insufficient knowledge of the occupational health program that have been employed in their workplace. It is essential to lead more active participation of employers and employees in their occupational health programs so as that the programs are to improve their health status as well as work environment more effectively.
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