• Title, Summary, Keyword: universal coverage

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Comparing Survival of Oral Cancer Patients Before and After Launching of the Universal Coverage Scheme in Thailand

  • Sungwalee, Waraporn;Vatanasapt, Patravoot;Suwanrungruang, Krittika;Promthet, Supannee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3541-3544
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    • 2016
  • Background: As the treatment modalities for oral cancer have been relatively consistent during the last two-decades, this study was conducted to compare survivals of oral cancer patients in Khon Kaen Province before and after the universal coverage scheme (UC) was launched in Thailand. Materials and Methods: The data were retrieved from the population-based cancer registry of Khon Kaen for oral cancer patients diagnosed during 1992-2001 (pre-UC), and 2004-2012 (post-UC). To compare survival of the two cohorts, Kaplan Meier and log rank tests were employed. Results: Of 1,196 patients, 65% were females and the median age was 65 years. The most common primary sites were lip (31.0%), tongue (29.9%), and buccal mucosa (14.6%). The proportion of early stage cancer increased from 20.4 % in pre-UC to 41.3% in post-UC. The overall 5-year survival rate was 36.5% (95% CI =32.6-40.9) for pre-UC and 32.4% (95% CI = 28.8-36.4) for post-UC. The declining survival was mainly due to an increasing proportion of tongue cancer. However, no survival improvement was demonstrated on subgroup analysis of the tongue cancer patients. Conclusions: After the universal coverage scheme had been launched, early diagnosis increased, but no significant gain in survival for oral cancer patients was achieved.

Percolation Theory-Based Exposure-Path Prevention for 3D-Wireless Sensor Networks Coverage

  • Liu, Xiaoshuang;Kang, Guixia;Zhang, Ningbo
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.126-148
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    • 2015
  • Different from the existing works on coverage problems in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), this paper considers the exposure-path prevention problem by using the percolation theory in three dimensional (3D) WSNs, which can be implemented in intruder detecting applications. In this paper, to avoid the loose bounds of critical density, a bond percolation-based scheme is proposed to put the exposure-path problem into a 3D uniform lattice. Within this scheme, the tighter bonds of critical density for omnidirectional and directional sensor networks under random sensor deployment-a 3D Poisson process are derived. Extensive simulation results show that our scheme generates tighter bounds of critical density with no exposure path in 3D WSNs.

Two-Stage Base Station Sleeping Scheme for Green Cellular Networks

  • Yang, Juwo;Zhang, Xing;Wang, Wenbo
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.600-609
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we propose a two-stage base station (BS) sleeping scheme to save energy consumption in cellular networks. The BS sleeping mode is divided into a light sleeping stage and a deep sleeping stage according to whether there is a user in the BS's coverage. In the light sleeping stage, a BS will retain its coverage and frequently switch between the on state and the doze state according to the service characteristics. While in the deep sleeping stage analysis, the BS will shut down its coverage, and neighbor BSs will patch the coverage hole. Several closed-form formulas are derived to demonstrate the power consumption in each sleeping stage and the stage switching conditions are discussed to minimize the average power consumption. The average traffic delay caused by BS sleeping and the average deep sleeping rate under a given traffic load have also been studied. In addition, it is shown that BS sleeping is not always possible because of the limited quality of service (QoS) requirements. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively reduce the average BS power consumption, at the cost of some extra traffic delay. In summary, our proposed framework provides an essential understanding of the design of future green networks that aim to take full advantage of different stages of BS sleeping to obtain the best energy efficiency.

Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Control of Hypertension in the Context of a Universal Health Insurance System

  • Lee, Hoo-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.561-567
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    • 2017
  • A lower use of preventive intervention in low socioeconomic populations has been described in countries with universal coverage health care systems, but little is known about the possible socioeconomic inequalities in secondary prevention in a universal health insurance system. Data from the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationwide survey, were analyzed. A total of 20,044 subjects older than 30 years of age were included after excluding subjects with missing data. Prevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance to explore factors associated with the prevalence, unawareness, and inappropriate control of hypertension. Hypertension prevalence decreased with increasing education and income level. We observed an inverse association between education level and undiagnosed hypertension among women, but not men. Socioeconomic level was not associated with inadequate control of hypertension among men or women. Future interventions should include primary prevention efforts targeted at lower socioeconomic populations to reduce disparities. There is substantial room for improvement in secondary prevention efforts. Monitoring strategies may highlight gaps in the preventive and care services offered to the most vulnerable individuals and encourage governments and practitioners to address these gaps.

Development of a Novel Long-Range 16S rRNA Universal Primer Set for Metagenomic Analysis of Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Newborn Infants

  • Ku, Hye-Jin;Lee, Ju-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.812-822
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    • 2014
  • Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiota has extended our understanding of the role of these bacteria in improving human intestinal health; however, a number of reports have shown that current total fecal DNA extraction methods and 16S rRNA universal primer sets could affect the species coverage and resolution of these analyses. Here, we improved the extraction method for total DNA from human fecal samples by optimization of the lysis buffer, boiling time (10 min), and bead-beating time (0 min). In addition, we developed a new long-range 16S rRNA universal PCR primer set targeting the V6 to V9 regions with a 580 bp DNA product length. This new 16S rRNA primer set was evaluated by comparison with two previously developed 16S rRNA universal primer sets and showed high species coverage and resolution. The optimized total fecal DNA extraction method and newly designed long-range 16S rRNA universal primer set will be useful for the highly accurate metagenomic analysis of adult and infant intestinal microbiota with minimization of any bias.

Comparison of the Universal Health Coverage Index among Africa Countries (아프리카 국가 간 보편적 의료보장(UHC) 지표 비교)

  • Oh, Chang Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : To compare the degree of achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) among 39 developing countries in Africa and to investigate the correlation between health care financing and the UHC index. Methods : For data, 14 UHC indexes were used in 2015 supplied by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, this study used a 10% of threshold point corresponding to the catastrophic health expenditures and a 25% of threshold points as a health care financing index. Results : It was found that there were significant difference among Least Low Developed Countries (LLDCs), Other Low Income Countries (Other LICs), Lower Middle Income Countiies (LMICs), Upper Middle Income Countires (UMICs) to compare the average value by nation on the UHC index. This study showed that the UHC index of LLDCs was lowest, but the average value was higher as it moved towards LMICs and UMICs. In addition, it was found that there was an average value difference among the groups like LLDCs, Other LICs, LMICs and UMICs. As a result of comparison, it was found that the spending of household health expenditure increased as LLDCs moved towards UMICs when the burden of household health expenditure was 25%. Conclusions : This study aimed to compare the UHC indexes of African nations and to investigate the correlation between the degree of spending of total expenditure on health and burden of household health expenditure and UHC, and its effect.

An Analysis on the Universal Services Policy of Major Developed countries and Improvement Direction in Korea (주요선진국의 보편적 서비스 정책분석과 우리나라의 개선방향)

  • 권오성
    • Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.18-35
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    • 2000
  • Universal service policy is the core of telecommunications policy and, therefore, in many countries, governments have been accomplished universal service as the critical goal of telecommunications policy. In the past when the market was under monopoly, the monopolist had the responsibility of supplying for universal service, whereas supply cost complemented through internal assistance. From 1998 when WTO basic telecommunications negotiation took effect, however, telecommunications markets fully opened, it was impossible to supply of universal service under the past system. Therefore, governments of major countries are trying to renew laws and institutions for policies compatible with competition environments. In this paper, I analyse and compare major countries' policies for the universal services and try to find out policy implication for Korea.

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Main Indicators of National Health Insurance during 40 Years (건강보험 40년의 주요 지표)

  • Lee, Sang Ah;Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.267-271
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    • 2017
  • This year marks the 40th anniversary of the introduction of National Health Insurance (NHI) which has contributed to improving public health and accessibility. This article aims to show the trends of main indicators during the last 40 years. NHI has achieved rapid expansion of target population (1977-1989). The percentage of population covered increased from 8.8% in 1977 to 94% in 1990. The average number of visit days per person was 0.75 in 1977 but significantly increased to 31.11 in 2015. In 2015, NHI revenues were 52.4 trillion won and expenditures were 48.2 trillion won which is 9.5 times and 9.6 times higher than in 1995. NHI achieved universal coverage in short period of time and has contributed to improving the healthcare status. However, there still remain problems including low-benefit coverage and high out of pocket money. Therefore, the effort to reform these problems is needed.

About the Location of Base Stations for a UMTS System: Analytical Study and Simulations

  • Zola Enrica;Barcelo Francisco
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2006
  • One of the first decisions that a radio network designer must take is the location of base stations and the distance between them in order to give the best coverage to a region and, possibly, to reduce deployment costs. In this paper, the authors give an insight to this matter by presenting a possible solution to a real problem: Planning the base stations layout for a universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) in the city of Barcelona. At the basis of this problem, there is the interdependence between coverage and capacity in a wideband-code division multiple access (W-CDMA) system, which is a new element in the planning of BS layout for mobile communications. This aspect has been first treated with an analytical study of the cell coverage range for a specific environment and service. The achieved results have been checked with the help of snapshot simulations together with a geographical information system (GIS) tool incorporated in the simulator that allows to perform analysis and to visualize results in a useful way. By using the simulator, it is also possible to study a more complex environment, that of a set of base stations providing multiple services to a large number of users.