• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumour characteristics

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Presence of Tumour-infiltrating FOXP3+ Lymphocytes Correlates with Immature Tumour Angiogenesis in Renal Cell Carcinomas

  • Zhan, Hai-Lun;Gao, Xin;Zhou, Xiang-Fu;Pu, Xiao-Yong;Wang, De-Juan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.867-872
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    • 2012
  • Background: $FOXP3^+$ regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit effector T cell functions and are implicated in tumour progression. However, together with microvessel density (MVD) they remain controversial prognostic predictors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and potential associations have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of Tregs and MVD and their potential relationship in RCCs. Design: Paraffin-embedded tissues from 62 RCC patients were analysed using immunohistochemistry to detect $FOXP3^+$ lymphocytes, and double immunohistochemistry to detect different microvessel types in the tumour interior, rim and normal kidney tissue, and their correlation with clinicopathological characteristics. Survival analysis was also performed. Results: The presence of $FOXP3^+$ cells in the tumour interior or the rim showed no correlation with death from RCC and other pathological characteristics. Negative correlations were noted between the immature MVD in the tumour interior or the rim and tumour size, tumour stage and overall survival; however, there was no correlation with the nuclear grade or pathological type. A positive correlation between $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and immature MVD (r=0.363, P=0.014) and mature MVD (r=0.383, P=0.009) was confirmed in the tumour interior. However, there was no correlation between $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and mature MVD (r=0.281, P=0.076) or immature MVD (r=0.064, P=0.692) in the tumour rim. Conclusions: In this study, a positive correlation between the presence of $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and immature and mature MVD in RCC was confirmed, which suggests a link between suppression of immunity, tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis.

Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumour : From Tumours to Therapies

  • Richardson, Elizabeth Anne;Ho, Ben;Huang, Annie
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.302-311
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    • 2018
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRTs) are the most common malignant central nervous system tumours in children ${\leq}1year$ of age and represent approximately 1-2% of all pediatric brain tumours. ATRT is a primarily monogenic disease characterized by the bi-allelic loss of the SMARCB1 gene, which encodes the hSNF5 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Though conventional dose chemotherapy is not effective in most ATRT patients, high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant, radiotherapy and/or intrathecal chemotherapy all show significant potential to improve patient survival. Recent epigenetic and transcriptional studies highlight three subgroups of ATRT, each with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics with corresponding therapeutic sensitivities, including epigenetic targeting, and inhibition of tyrosine kinases or growth/lineage specific pathways.

Histomorphology and Immunohistochemistry of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in a Malaysian Population

  • Kkrishnappa, Purushotham;Loh, Eu Jhin;Mohamad, Ibtisam Binti;Tata, Mahadevan Deva;Akhilesh, Meenakshi;Palayan, Kandasami
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2795-2799
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To study histomorphological and immunohistochemical patterns of gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 GIST cases from Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar, Seremban, were studied retrospectively over a period of 10 years from January 2002 to December 2011. Patient demographic data like age, sex and etnicity were collected. Tumour characteristics like site, maximum dimension and specimen type were analysed. Evaluation was according to established criteria into very low, low, intermediate and high-risk categories. Immunohistochemical characteristics were also analysed. Results: The mean age of patients was 59.7 years. Males (59%) were found to be more commonly affected than females (41%). The Chinese (45%) were commonly affected than Malays (41%), and Indians (10%). The most common symptom was pain in the abdomen (13.8%). More than half of the cases were seen in stomach (53%). The tumour size ranged from 1.5 cm to 17 cm with a mean of 6.94cm. Microscopic findings revealed that the spindle cell type was the most common (76%). It was observed that the majority of the cases (48%) were categorised in the intermediate risk group. Immunohistochemical staining showed positivity for CD117 (78.6%), CD34 (71.4%), vimentin (86.2%), S-100 (27.6%), SMA (35.7%), PKC THETA (46.4%) and PDGRFA (67.9%).

Intrinsic Tumour Factors Affecting Recurrence in Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: a Hospital Based Study from India

  • Mehta, Nisarg;Rathore, Ranjeet Singh;Pillai, Biju S;Sam, Mohan P;Moorthy, Krishna
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2675-2677
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    • 2015
  • Background: Depending on various pathological factors, non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) shows varying degrees of recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of recurrence of NMIBS in our centre, study the influence of intrinsic tumour characteristics like grade, stage, size and number, and compare our results with data in the published literature. Materials and Methods: A hospital based retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent treatment for NMIBC from 2011 to 2014. The factors studied were number, size, grade, stage and site for correlation with recurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using Medcalc version 12, using Pearson's Chi square test to ascertain associations between variables. Results: A total of 73 patients with NMIBC were studied of which 48 (65.8%) had low grade and 25 (34.2%) had high grade tumours. Some 38 patients (52.1%) had Ta tumours, 34 (46.6%) had T1 and one had CIS. Mean follow up was 34.3 months. Recurrence rates were found to be 33.3% in low grade and 52.0% in high grade tumours. The overall recurrence rate in our centre was 39.7%. Significant correlations were seen between stage and recurrence, with a rate of 15% for Ta and 63.3% for T1 tumours. Fourteen out of 21 bladder cancers (66.6%) with multiple tumours demonstrated recurrence (p=0.006). Grade, size and site had no influence. Conclusions: In our study, recurrence of NMIBC was found to be directly proportional to stage and number of primary tumours, but not grade, size and site. The incidence of recurrence of NMIBC both stage wise and grade wise in our centre was also low compared to the data in the published literature.

XRCC1 Gene Polymorphism, Clinicopathological Characteristics and Stomach Cancer Survival in Thailand

  • Putthanachote, Nuntiput;Promthet, Supannee;Suwanrungruan, Krittika;Chopjitt, Peechanika;Wiangnon, Surapon;Chen, Li-Sheng;Yen, Ming-Fang;Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.6111-6116
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    • 2015
  • Background: Stomach cancer is one of leading causes of death worldwide. In Thailand, the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer are in the top ten for cancers. Effects of DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross complementary protein 1 (XRCC1) polymorphisms and clinicopathological characteristics on survival of stomach cancer in Thailand have not been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of XRCC1 gene and clinicopathological characteristics on survival of stomach cancer patients in Thailand. Materials and Methods: Data and blood samples were collected from 101 newly diagnosed stomach cancer cases pathologically confirmed and recruited during 2002 to 2006 and followed-up for vital status until 31 October 2012. Genotype analysis was performed using real-time PCR-HRM. The data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method to yield cumulative survival curve, log-rank test to assess statistical difference of survival and Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratio. Results: The total followed-up times were 2,070 person-months, and the mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 person-months. The median survival time after diagnosis was 8.07 months. The cumulative 1-, 3-, 5-years survival rates were 40.4%, 15.2 % and 10.1 % respectively. After adjustment, tumour stage were associated with an increased risk of death (p= 0.036). The XRCC1 Gln339Arg, Arg/Arg homozygote was also associated with increased risk but statistically this was non-significant. Conclusions: In addition to tumour stage, which is an important prognostic factor affecting to the survival of stomach cancer patients, the genetic variant Gln339Arg in XRCC1 may non-significantly contribute to risk of stomach cancer death among Thai people. Larger studies with different populations are need to verify ours findings.

Extraskeletal Ewing Sarcomas in Late Adolescence and Adults: A Study of 37 Patients

  • Tao, Hai-Tao;Hu, Yi;Wang, Jin-Liang;Cheng, Yao;Zhang, Xin;Wang, Huan;Zhang, Su-Jie
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2967-2971
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    • 2013
  • Background: Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES)/primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are rare soft tissue sarcomas. Prognostic factors and optimal therapy are still unconfirmed. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis on patients to explore the clinic characteristics and prognostic factors of this rare disease. A total of 37 patients older than 15 years referred to our institute from Jan., 2002 to Jan., 2012 were reviewed. The characteristics, treatment and outcome were collected and analyzed. Results: The median age was 28 years (range 15-65); the median size of primary tumours was 8.2 cm (range 2-19). Sixteen patients (43%) had metastatic disease at the initial presentation. Wide surgical margins were achieved in 14 cases (38%). Anthracycline or platinum-based chemotherapy was performed on 29 patients (74%). Radiotherapy was delivered in 13 (35%). At a median follow-up visit of 24 months (range 2-81), the media event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 15.8 and 30.2 months, respectively. The 3-year EFS and OS rates were 24% and 43%, respectively. Metastases at presentation and wide surgical margins were significantly associated with OS and EFS. Tumour size was significantly associated with OS but not EFS. There were no significant differences between anthracycline and platinum based chemotherapy regarding EFS and OS. Conclusions: EES/PNET is a malignant tumour with high recurrence and frequent distant metastasis. Multimodality therapy featuring wide surgical margins, aggressive chemotherapy and adjuvant local radiotherapy is necessary for this rare disease. Platinum-based chemotherapy can be used as an adjuvant therapy.

Determinants of Choice of Surgery in Asian Patients with Early Breast Cancer in A Middle Income Country

  • Teh, Yew-Ching;Shaari, Nor Elina Noor;Taib, Nur Aishah;Ng, Char-Hong;See, Mee-Hoong;Tan, Gie-Hooi;Jamaris, Suniza;Yip, Cheng-Har
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3163-3167
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiotherapy is equivalent to modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in terms of outcome. However there is wide variation in mastectomy rates dependent both on tumour and patient characteristics. Objective: This study aimed to assess the determinants of surgery choice in Asian patients with early breast cancer in a middle-income country. Materials and Methods: 184 patients with early breast cancer treated between Jan 2008 and Dec 2010 were recruited to complete a questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association between surgery choice and demographic and tumour factors, surgeon recommendation, family member and partner opinions, fear of recurrence, avoidance of second surgery, fear of disfigurement, interference with sex life, fear of radiation and loss of femininity. Results: 85 (46%) had BCS while 99 (54%) had mastectomy. Age >60, Chinese ethnicity, lower education level, and larger tumour size were significantly associated with mastectomy. Surgeon recommendation was important in surgery choice. Although both groups did not place much importance on interference with sex life, 14.1% of the BCS group felt it was very important compared to 5.1% in the mastectomy group and this was statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the other factors. When analyzed by ethnicity, significantly more Malay and Indian women considered partner and family member opinions very important and were more concerned about loss of femininity compared to Chinese women. There were no statistical differences between the three ethnic groups in terms of the other factors. Conclusions: When counseling on surgical options, the surgeon has to take into account the ethnicity, social background and education level, age and reliance on partner and family members. Decision-making is usually a collective effort rather than just between the patient and surgeon, and involving the whole family into the process early is important.

Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Comparison of Japanese and Indian Cases

  • Chowdhury, Chitta Ranjan;Kirita, Tadaaki;Jose, Maji;Abdullah, Riaz
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3219-3222
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    • 2012
  • A comparative study between 17 Japanese and 19 Indian patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) revealed that the tumour prognostic indicator mean vessel density (MVD) count for angiogenesis was relatively high at 57.1 in Indian as compared to 39.3 in Japanese (P=0.001) cases, whereas the lymph-vessel density (LVD) count for lymphangiogenesis was lower (12.8 vs 48.0, P=0.002). Both male and female Indians had higher MVD counts, but LVD counts were only slightly lower in females. MVD count was relatively high among the cases below 65 years old in both the countries (P=0.4). Japanese cases with Tongue cancer had higher MVD count, but the Indian cases had lower LVD counts. Size-wise, T2 and T3 had higher counts of MVD both in Indian and Japanese cases. MVD and LVD count was higher in grades II and III both in Japanese and Indian cases. There was insignificant difference of the MVD counts among smokers, but the tobacco chewers in Indian cases had higher counts of MVD and LVD (P value by Bartlett test 0.35, 0.57 respectively). The hot-spots of tumour sites had variable rates of lymphocyte infiltration showed higher MVD counts in all the cases. Although the clinical characteristics and demographic variables usually relate to MVD and LVD counts, the tendency of higher values, especially among tobacco chewers, identified as the highest risk group for occurrence of oral cancer needs to be investigated further.

Expression and Significance of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Lysyl Oxidase in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Ping, Wei;Jiang, Wen-Yang;Chen, Wen-Shu;Sun, Wei;Fu, Xiang-Ning
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3613-3618
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    • 2013
  • Object: To detect expression of hypoxia inducible factor-$1{\alpha}$ (HIF-$1{\alpha}$) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore their roles in prognosis. Methods: The mRNA levels of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX were investigated by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 40 cases of tumour and paired normal tissues. In addition, protein expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX was examined by immunohistochemistry in 82 cases of tumour and 45 paired normal tissues. The relationship between HIF-$1{\alpha}$ or LOX and clinicopathologic characteristics, as well as the correlation between HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX, were also examined. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank test were used to analyze progression-free survival. Results: HIF-$1{\alpha}$ or LOX mRNA levels in tumor tissues was significantly higher than those in paired normal tissues (p<0.01). Positive HIF-$1{\alpha}$ or LOX protein expression in tumor tissues was noted in 46/82 (56.1%) and 49/82 (59.8%) of the cases, respectively, being significantly higher than those in paired normal tissues (p<0.05). There was significant correlation between the expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ or LOX and tumor size, lymph node metastasis and pathological stage (p<0.05). The expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX had a significant inverse impact on survival of patients with NSCLC. Conclusion: HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and LOX may play a pivotal role in the development of NSCLC, and may act in synergy to promote the progression of NSCLC.

Treatment Outcomes and Survival Study of Gastric Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Analysis in an Endemic Region

  • Basaran, Hamit;Koca, Timur;Cerkesli, Arda Kaymak;Arslan, Deniz;Karaca, Sibel
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.2055-2060
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To present information about prognostic factors of gastric cancer patients treated in our Erzurum center including age, gender, tumour location, pathological grade, stage and the effect of treatment on survival. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on patients who applied to our clinic and diagnosed as gastric cancer. Age and gender of the patients, primary location, histopathological characteristics, TNM stage of the gastric cancers (GCs), treatment applied, oncological treatment modalities and survival outcomes were studied. A univariate analysis of potential prognostic factors was performed with the log-rank test for categorical factors and parameters with a p value < 0.05 at the univariate step were included in the multivariate regression. Results: A total of 228 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of gastric cancer were included in the study with a male/female ratio of 1.47. Median follow-up period was estimated as 22.3 (range, 3 to 96) months. When diagnosis of the patients at admission was analysed, stage III patients were most frequently encountered (n=147; 64.5%). One hundred and twenty-six (55.3%) underwent surgical treatment, while 117 (51.3%) were given adjuvant chemotherapy. Median overall survival time was 18.0 (${\pm}1.19$) months. Mean overall survival rates for 1, 2, 3 and 5 years were $68{\pm}0.031%$, $36{\pm}0.033%$, $24{\pm}0.031%$and $15.5{\pm}0.036%$, respectively. Univariate variables found to be significant for median OS in the multivariate analysis were evaluated with Cox regression analysis. A significant difference was found among TNM stage groups, location of the tumour and postoperative adjuvant treatment receivers (p values were 0.011, 0.025 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study revealed that it is possible to achieve long-term survival of gastric cancer with early diagnosis. Besides, in locally advanced GC patients, curative resection followed by adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy based on the McDonald regimen was an independent prognostic factor for survival.