• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumour characteristics

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Presence of Tumour-infiltrating FOXP3+ Lymphocytes Correlates with Immature Tumour Angiogenesis in Renal Cell Carcinomas

  • Zhan, Hai-Lun;Gao, Xin;Zhou, Xiang-Fu;Pu, Xiao-Yong;Wang, De-Juan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.867-872
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    • 2012
  • Background: $FOXP3^+$ regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit effector T cell functions and are implicated in tumour progression. However, together with microvessel density (MVD) they remain controversial prognostic predictors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and potential associations have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of Tregs and MVD and their potential relationship in RCCs. Design: Paraffin-embedded tissues from 62 RCC patients were analysed using immunohistochemistry to detect $FOXP3^+$ lymphocytes, and double immunohistochemistry to detect different microvessel types in the tumour interior, rim and normal kidney tissue, and their correlation with clinicopathological characteristics. Survival analysis was also performed. Results: The presence of $FOXP3^+$ cells in the tumour interior or the rim showed no correlation with death from RCC and other pathological characteristics. Negative correlations were noted between the immature MVD in the tumour interior or the rim and tumour size, tumour stage and overall survival; however, there was no correlation with the nuclear grade or pathological type. A positive correlation between $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and immature MVD (r=0.363, P=0.014) and mature MVD (r=0.383, P=0.009) was confirmed in the tumour interior. However, there was no correlation between $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and mature MVD (r=0.281, P=0.076) or immature MVD (r=0.064, P=0.692) in the tumour rim. Conclusions: In this study, a positive correlation between the presence of $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and immature and mature MVD in RCC was confirmed, which suggests a link between suppression of immunity, tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis.

Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumour : From Tumours to Therapies

  • Richardson, Elizabeth Anne;Ho, Ben;Huang, Annie
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.302-311
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    • 2018
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRTs) are the most common malignant central nervous system tumours in children ${\leq}1year$ of age and represent approximately 1-2% of all pediatric brain tumours. ATRT is a primarily monogenic disease characterized by the bi-allelic loss of the SMARCB1 gene, which encodes the hSNF5 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Though conventional dose chemotherapy is not effective in most ATRT patients, high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant, radiotherapy and/or intrathecal chemotherapy all show significant potential to improve patient survival. Recent epigenetic and transcriptional studies highlight three subgroups of ATRT, each with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics with corresponding therapeutic sensitivities, including epigenetic targeting, and inhibition of tyrosine kinases or growth/lineage specific pathways.

Extent of Hyperostotic Bone Resection in Convexity Meningioma to Achieve Pathologically Free Margins

  • Fathalla, Hussein;Tawab, Mohamed Gaber Abdel;El-Fiki, Ahmed
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.63 no.6
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    • pp.821-826
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    • 2020
  • Objective : Hyperostosis in meningiomas can be present in 4.5% to 44% of cases. Radical resection should include aggressive removal of invaded bone. It is not clear however to what extent bone removal should be carried to achieve pathologically free margins, especially that in many cases, there is a T2 hyperintense signal that extends beyond the hyperostotic bone. In this study we try to investigate the perimeter of tumour cells outside the visible nidus of hyperostotic bone and to what extent they are present outside this nidus. This would serve as an initial step for setting guidelines on dealing with hyperostosis in meningioma surgery. Methods : This is a prospective case series that included 14 patients with convexity meningiomas and hyperostosis during the period from March 2017 to August 2018 in two university hospitals. Patients demographics, clinical, imaging characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative data were collected and analysed. In all cases, all visible abnormal bone was excised bearing in mind to also include the hyperintense diploe in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 weighted images after careful preoperative assessment. To examine bony tumour invasion, five marked bone biopsies were taken from the craniotomy flap for histopathological examinations. These include one from the centre of hyperostotic nidus and the other four from the corners at a 2-cm distance from the margin of the nidus. Results : Our study included five males (35.7%) and nine females (64.3%) with a mean age of 43.75 years (33-55). Tumor site was parietal in seven cases (50%), fronto-parietal in three cases (21.4%), parieto-occipital in two cases (14.2%), frontal region in one case and bicoronal (midline) in one case. Tumour pathology revealed a World Health Organization (WHO) grade I in seven cases (50%), atypical meningioma (WHO II) in five cases (35.7%) and anaplastic meningioma (WHO III) in two cases (14.2%). In all grade I and II meningiomas, bone biopsies harvested from the nidus revealed infiltration with tumour cells while all other bone biopsies from the four corners (2 cm from nidus) were free. In cases of anaplastic meningiomas, all five biopsies were positive for tumour cells. Conclusion : Removal of the gross epicentre of hyperostotic bone with the surrounding 2 cm is adequate to ensure radical excision and free bone margins in grade I and II meningiomas. Hyperintense signal change in MRI T2 weighted images, even beyond visible hypersototic areas, doesn't necessarily represent tumour invasion.

Histomorphology and Immunohistochemistry of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in a Malaysian Population

  • Kkrishnappa, Purushotham;Loh, Eu Jhin;Mohamad, Ibtisam Binti;Tata, Mahadevan Deva;Akhilesh, Meenakshi;Palayan, Kandasami
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2795-2799
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To study histomorphological and immunohistochemical patterns of gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 GIST cases from Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar, Seremban, were studied retrospectively over a period of 10 years from January 2002 to December 2011. Patient demographic data like age, sex and etnicity were collected. Tumour characteristics like site, maximum dimension and specimen type were analysed. Evaluation was according to established criteria into very low, low, intermediate and high-risk categories. Immunohistochemical characteristics were also analysed. Results: The mean age of patients was 59.7 years. Males (59%) were found to be more commonly affected than females (41%). The Chinese (45%) were commonly affected than Malays (41%), and Indians (10%). The most common symptom was pain in the abdomen (13.8%). More than half of the cases were seen in stomach (53%). The tumour size ranged from 1.5 cm to 17 cm with a mean of 6.94cm. Microscopic findings revealed that the spindle cell type was the most common (76%). It was observed that the majority of the cases (48%) were categorised in the intermediate risk group. Immunohistochemical staining showed positivity for CD117 (78.6%), CD34 (71.4%), vimentin (86.2%), S-100 (27.6%), SMA (35.7%), PKC THETA (46.4%) and PDGRFA (67.9%).

Intrinsic Tumour Factors Affecting Recurrence in Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: a Hospital Based Study from India

  • Mehta, Nisarg;Rathore, Ranjeet Singh;Pillai, Biju S;Sam, Mohan P;Moorthy, Krishna
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2675-2677
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    • 2015
  • Background: Depending on various pathological factors, non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) shows varying degrees of recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of recurrence of NMIBS in our centre, study the influence of intrinsic tumour characteristics like grade, stage, size and number, and compare our results with data in the published literature. Materials and Methods: A hospital based retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent treatment for NMIBC from 2011 to 2014. The factors studied were number, size, grade, stage and site for correlation with recurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using Medcalc version 12, using Pearson's Chi square test to ascertain associations between variables. Results: A total of 73 patients with NMIBC were studied of which 48 (65.8%) had low grade and 25 (34.2%) had high grade tumours. Some 38 patients (52.1%) had Ta tumours, 34 (46.6%) had T1 and one had CIS. Mean follow up was 34.3 months. Recurrence rates were found to be 33.3% in low grade and 52.0% in high grade tumours. The overall recurrence rate in our centre was 39.7%. Significant correlations were seen between stage and recurrence, with a rate of 15% for Ta and 63.3% for T1 tumours. Fourteen out of 21 bladder cancers (66.6%) with multiple tumours demonstrated recurrence (p=0.006). Grade, size and site had no influence. Conclusions: In our study, recurrence of NMIBC was found to be directly proportional to stage and number of primary tumours, but not grade, size and site. The incidence of recurrence of NMIBC both stage wise and grade wise in our centre was also low compared to the data in the published literature.

XRCC1 Gene Polymorphism, Clinicopathological Characteristics and Stomach Cancer Survival in Thailand

  • Putthanachote, Nuntiput;Promthet, Supannee;Suwanrungruan, Krittika;Chopjitt, Peechanika;Wiangnon, Surapon;Chen, Li-Sheng;Yen, Ming-Fang;Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.6111-6116
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    • 2015
  • Background: Stomach cancer is one of leading causes of death worldwide. In Thailand, the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer are in the top ten for cancers. Effects of DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross complementary protein 1 (XRCC1) polymorphisms and clinicopathological characteristics on survival of stomach cancer in Thailand have not been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of XRCC1 gene and clinicopathological characteristics on survival of stomach cancer patients in Thailand. Materials and Methods: Data and blood samples were collected from 101 newly diagnosed stomach cancer cases pathologically confirmed and recruited during 2002 to 2006 and followed-up for vital status until 31 October 2012. Genotype analysis was performed using real-time PCR-HRM. The data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method to yield cumulative survival curve, log-rank test to assess statistical difference of survival and Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratio. Results: The total followed-up times were 2,070 person-months, and the mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 person-months. The median survival time after diagnosis was 8.07 months. The cumulative 1-, 3-, 5-years survival rates were 40.4%, 15.2 % and 10.1 % respectively. After adjustment, tumour stage were associated with an increased risk of death (p= 0.036). The XRCC1 Gln339Arg, Arg/Arg homozygote was also associated with increased risk but statistically this was non-significant. Conclusions: In addition to tumour stage, which is an important prognostic factor affecting to the survival of stomach cancer patients, the genetic variant Gln339Arg in XRCC1 may non-significantly contribute to risk of stomach cancer death among Thai people. Larger studies with different populations are need to verify ours findings.

Extraskeletal Ewing Sarcomas in Late Adolescence and Adults: A Study of 37 Patients

  • Tao, Hai-Tao;Hu, Yi;Wang, Jin-Liang;Cheng, Yao;Zhang, Xin;Wang, Huan;Zhang, Su-Jie
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2967-2971
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    • 2013
  • Background: Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES)/primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are rare soft tissue sarcomas. Prognostic factors and optimal therapy are still unconfirmed. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis on patients to explore the clinic characteristics and prognostic factors of this rare disease. A total of 37 patients older than 15 years referred to our institute from Jan., 2002 to Jan., 2012 were reviewed. The characteristics, treatment and outcome were collected and analyzed. Results: The median age was 28 years (range 15-65); the median size of primary tumours was 8.2 cm (range 2-19). Sixteen patients (43%) had metastatic disease at the initial presentation. Wide surgical margins were achieved in 14 cases (38%). Anthracycline or platinum-based chemotherapy was performed on 29 patients (74%). Radiotherapy was delivered in 13 (35%). At a median follow-up visit of 24 months (range 2-81), the media event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 15.8 and 30.2 months, respectively. The 3-year EFS and OS rates were 24% and 43%, respectively. Metastases at presentation and wide surgical margins were significantly associated with OS and EFS. Tumour size was significantly associated with OS but not EFS. There were no significant differences between anthracycline and platinum based chemotherapy regarding EFS and OS. Conclusions: EES/PNET is a malignant tumour with high recurrence and frequent distant metastasis. Multimodality therapy featuring wide surgical margins, aggressive chemotherapy and adjuvant local radiotherapy is necessary for this rare disease. Platinum-based chemotherapy can be used as an adjuvant therapy.

Determinants of Choice of Surgery in Asian Patients with Early Breast Cancer in A Middle Income Country

  • Teh, Yew-Ching;Shaari, Nor Elina Noor;Taib, Nur Aishah;Ng, Char-Hong;See, Mee-Hoong;Tan, Gie-Hooi;Jamaris, Suniza;Yip, Cheng-Har
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3163-3167
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiotherapy is equivalent to modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in terms of outcome. However there is wide variation in mastectomy rates dependent both on tumour and patient characteristics. Objective: This study aimed to assess the determinants of surgery choice in Asian patients with early breast cancer in a middle-income country. Materials and Methods: 184 patients with early breast cancer treated between Jan 2008 and Dec 2010 were recruited to complete a questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association between surgery choice and demographic and tumour factors, surgeon recommendation, family member and partner opinions, fear of recurrence, avoidance of second surgery, fear of disfigurement, interference with sex life, fear of radiation and loss of femininity. Results: 85 (46%) had BCS while 99 (54%) had mastectomy. Age >60, Chinese ethnicity, lower education level, and larger tumour size were significantly associated with mastectomy. Surgeon recommendation was important in surgery choice. Although both groups did not place much importance on interference with sex life, 14.1% of the BCS group felt it was very important compared to 5.1% in the mastectomy group and this was statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the other factors. When analyzed by ethnicity, significantly more Malay and Indian women considered partner and family member opinions very important and were more concerned about loss of femininity compared to Chinese women. There were no statistical differences between the three ethnic groups in terms of the other factors. Conclusions: When counseling on surgical options, the surgeon has to take into account the ethnicity, social background and education level, age and reliance on partner and family members. Decision-making is usually a collective effort rather than just between the patient and surgeon, and involving the whole family into the process early is important.

Survival Analysis and Prognostic Factors for Colorectal Cancer Patients in Malaysia

  • Hassan, Muhammad Radzi Abu;Suan, Mohd Azri Mohd;Soelar, Shahrul Aiman;Mohammed, Noor Syahireen;Ismail, Ibtisam;Ahmad, Faizah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3575-3581
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for effective early detection and improvements in cancer treatment. This study was undertaken to document colorectal cancer survival and associated prognostic factors in Malaysians. Materials and Methods: All data were retrieved from the National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer. Only cases with confirmed diagnosis through histology between the year 2008 and 2009 were included. Retrieved data include socio-demographic information, pathological features and treatment received. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analysis of all variables was then made using the Log-rank test. All significant factors that influenced survival of patients were further analysed in a multivariate analysis using Cox' regression. Results: Total of 1,214 patients were included in the study. The overall 3- and 5-year survival rates were 59.1% and 48.7%, respectively. Patients with localized tumours had better prognosis compared to those with advanced stage cancer. In univariate analysis, staging at diagnosis (p<0.001), primary tumour size (p<0.001), involvement of lymph nodes (p<0.001) and treatment modalities (p=0.001) were found to be predictors of survival. None of the socio-demographic characteristics were found to exert any influence. In Cox regression analysis, staging at diagnosis (p<0.001), primary tumour size (p<0.001), involvement of lymph nodes (p<0.001) and treatment modalities (p<0.001) were determined as independent prognostic factors of survival after adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity. Conclusions: The overall survival rate for colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia is similar to those in other Asian countries, with staging at diagnosis, primary tumor size, involvement of lymph node and treatment modalities having significant effects. More efforts are needed to improve national survival rates in future.

Adult Urological Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Multicenter Study of the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO)

  • Unal, Olcun Umit;Oztop, Ilhan;Menekse, Serkan;Urakci, Zuhat;Bozkurt, Oktay;Ozcelik, Melike;Gunaydin, Yusuf;Yasar, Nurgul;Yazilitas, Dogan;Kodaz, Hilmi;Taskoylu, Burcu Yapar;Aksoy, Asude;Demirci, Umut;Araz, Murat;Tonyali, Onder;Sevinc, Alper;Yilmaz, Ahmet Ugur;Benekli, Mustafa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4777-4780
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    • 2015
  • Objective: To analyze clinicopathological characteristics, prognostic factors and survival rates of the patients with urological soft tissue sarcomas treated and followed up in Turkey. Materials and Methods: For overall survival analyses the Kaplan-Meier method was used. From medical records, nine prognostic factors on overall survival were analysed. Results: For the 53 patients (34 males, 19 females) whose charts were reviewed, the median age was 53 (range 22 to 83) years. Most frequently renal location (n=30; 56.6%) was evident and leiomyosarcoma (n=20, 37.7%) was the most frequently encountered histological type. Median survival time of all patients was 40.3 (95% CI, 14.2-66.3) months. In univariate analysis, male gender, advanced age (${\geq}50years$), metastatic stage, unresectability, grade 3, renal location were determined as worse prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, metastatic stage, unresectability and grade 3 were determined as indicators of worse prognosis. Conclusions: Urological soft tissue sarcomas are rarely seen tumours in adults. The most important factors in survival are surgical resection, stage of the tumour at onset, grade and location of the tumour, gender and age of the patients.